Judiciary Of Russia Russia

JUDICIARY OF RUSSIA
 
The Russian judiciary is divided into three types of court systems:
  1. the courts of general jurisdiction (including military courts); subordinated to the Supreme Court;
  2. the arbitration (commercial ) court system under the High Court of Arbitration; and
  3. the Constitutional Court (as well as constitutional courts in a number of administrative entities of the Russian Federation).
COURTS OF GENERAL JURISDICTION
 
Civil and criminal cases are tried in courts of general jurisdiction, courts of appeals, and higher courts. At the highest level is the Supreme Court. The general court system's lowest level is the municipal court, which serves each city or rural district and hears almost all civil and criminal cases. The next level of courts of general jurisdiction is the regional courts. Decisions of the lower trial courts can be appealed only to the immediately superior court unless a constitutional issue is involved.
 
Supreme Court Of The Russian Federation
 
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the highest judicial organ for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases within the competence of the courts of general jurisdiction.
 
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation carries out supervision over activities of the courts of general jurisdiction, including military and specialized federal courts in the procedural forms prescribed by federal law.
 
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation within its competence exercises cassational review as a court of second instance, exercises supervisory powers and acts upon newly discovered evidence, and also, in the cases prescribed by federal law - handles cases as a trial court.
 
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is a direct higher judicial instance for supreme courts of the republics, regional (kraj and oblast) courts, city courts of federal importance, autonomous region and autonomous circuits courts, military courts of military circuits, flotillas and formations of troops.
 
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation makes interpretation of judicial practice. The authorities, order of establishment and activities of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
Regional (Kraj And Oblast) Court
 
The Regional (kraj and oblast) Court, city court of federal importance, autonomous region and autonomous circuit court within their competence handle cases as trial courts, exercise cassational review as courts of second instance, exercise supervisory powers and act upon newly discovered evidence.
 
Courts named in the first part of this Section are direct higher instance for district courts functioning on the territory of the appropriate subject of the Russian federation.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of the courts named in the first part of this Section are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
District Court
 
District court within its competence handles cases as trial court, exercises cassational review as a court of second instance and exercises other powers provided by federal constitutional law.
 
District court is a direct higher judicial instance for the Justices of the Peace, functioning within the territory of the appropriate judicial district.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of district court are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
Military Courts
 
Military courts are established according to the territorial principle in the places where military troops and fleets are situated, and perform judicial power in the troops, bodies and formations where federal law provides for military service.
 
Military courts within their competence handle cases as trial courts, exercise cassational review as courts of second instance, exercise supervisory powers and act upon newly discovered evidence.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of military courts are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
ARBITRATION (COMMERCIAL) COURT
 
The arbitration court system consists of city or regional courts as well as appellate circuit courts subordinated to the High Court of Arbitration. Arbitration courts hear cases involving business disputes between legal entities and between legal entities and the state.
 
High Court Of Arbitration
 
The High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation is the highest judicial organ solving economic disputes and other cases considered by the courts of arbitration.
 
The High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation is a direct higher Judicial instance for the federal circuit courts of arbitration and courts of arbitration of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
 
The High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation carries out judicial supervision over activities of the courts of arbitration in procedural forms prescribed by federal law.
 
The High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation within its competence handles cases as trial court, exercises cassational review as a court of second instance, exercises supervisory powers and acts upon newly discovered evidence.
 
The High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation makes interpretation of judicial practice.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of the High Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
FEDERAL CIRCUIT COURT OF ARBITRATION
 
Federal circuit court of arbitration within its competence handles cases as a court of cassational instance and also upon newly discovered evidence.
 
Federal circuit court of arbitration is a direct higher judicial instance for the courts of arbitration of the subjects of the Russian Federation, functioning within the territory of the appropriate judicial district.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of federal circuit court of arbitration are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
Court of arbitration of the subject of the Russian Federation within its competence handles cases as trial court and a court of appeal and aIso upon newly discovered evidence.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of the court of arbitration of the subject of the Russian Federation are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
 
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is the judicial organ of constitutional control, performing judicial power self-dependently and independently by means of the constitutional court proceedings.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
Specialized Federal Courts
 
Specialized federal courts considering civil and administrative cases can be established by amending this Federal Constitutional Law.
 
The authorities, order of establishment and activities of specialized federal courts are set forth by federal constitutional law.
 
Constitutional (By-Laws) Court
 
Constitutional (by-laws) court of the subject of the Russian Federation may be established by the subject of the Russian Federation for consideration of questions of correspondence of the laws of the subject of the Russian Federation, normative acts of the bodies of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation, bodies of local self-government of the subject of the Russian Federation with the constitution (by-laws) of the subject of the Russian Federation, and also for interpretation of the constitution (by-laws of the subject of the Russian Federation.
 
Constitutional (by-laws) court of the subject of the Russian Federation is financed by means of local budget of the appropriate subject of the Russian Federation.
 
Constitutional (by-laws) court of the subject of the Russian Federation consider questions within its competence in the order prescribed by law of the subject of the Russian Federation.
 
Decision of constitutional (by-laws) court of the Russian Federation reached within its competence can not be revised by any other court.