Nationality & Citizenship Law Spain

NATIONALITY/ CITIZENSHIP
 
The Spanish Nationality may be acquired in the following ways
  1. By Birth
  2. By adoption
  3. By Residency
  4. By registration
BY BIRTH
  1. The persons are considered to be the national of Spain by reason of birth or by origin if the person:
    1. Born to a parent one of whom is a Spanish national at the time of his/her birth.
    2. Born in Spain, whose parents are foreigners and the father or mother is born in Spain.
    3. Born in Spain whose parents are stateless persons at the time of his/her birth
    4. Born in Spain and the identity of the parents' are not known.
BY ADOPTION
  1. Any foreign child under 18 years old who is adopted by Spanish nationals, acquire the Spanish nationality since he or she is adopted.
  2. If the adopted is older than 18 years old, he or she may apply for the Spanish nationality within 2 years from being adopted.
BY RESIDENCY
  1. A continuous stay in Spain for a period of 10 years makes aperson eligible to apply for Spanish nationality.
  2. However, to whom asylum has been granted a 5year of residence will be required.
  3. The period of residence may be 1 year those persons:
    1. who born in Spain, whose parents are foreigners legally residents in Spain.
    2. Whose spouse is a Spaniard.
    3. who did not apply for their Spanish nationality within the legal period established to acquire the Spanish nationality by option.
    4. Who are widowed of a Spanish national, provided that the spouses were not separated at the time of the spouse's death.
    5. Who are the foreigner, whose father, mother, grandfather or grandmother were Spanish nationals by birth or residence.
REGISTRATION
  1. Those persons registered at the Spanish Civil Registry for at least, 10 years, on good faith, will be considered as Spanish nationals.
Derivative way
  1. There may be another way to acquire a spainish citizenship
    1. By option: Those persons who have been subject to the "patria potestas" of a Spanish national, provided that they apply for the Spanish nationality before reaching the age of 20 years or within a term of 2 years since their emancipation.
    2. The Spanish Government may grant the Spanish nationality under some special circumstances.
  2. Dual nationality is recognized to South Americans, who are not obliged to renounce their original nationality to apply for the Spanish nationality.
APPLYING FOR SPANISH NATIOANLITY
  1. Any persons may apply having the eligibility for the nationality of Spain and who is:
    1. 18 years of age or emancipated.
    2. 14 years must be assisted by the legal representative.
    3. The legal representative of the minor under 14 years of age or incapable, previous authorization of the authority in charge of the Spanish Civil Registry and previous statement of the Public Prosecutor.
shall apply for Spanish nationality must file the application to the Civil Registry corresponding to the town where the applicant lives.
 
DOCUMENTS REQUIRED
 
The following documents may be required:
  1. Date of birth certificate of the applicant along with the spouse's birth certificate, if married with a Spanish national as well as the marriage certificate will be also required.
  2. Consular certificate, certifying the following:
    1. former nationality
    2. criminal records
    3. military situation with your home country.
  3. A certificate of Spanish criminal records.
  4. Registration at the Spanish town Council.
  5. A police certificate stating the time of legal residence in Spain.
All the foreign documentation required to be officially translated into Spanish and authenticated by the consulate of the country of origin of applicant.
 
The Spanish authorities will decide upon granting the Spanish nationality within a term of 18 to 24 months from the date of application.