COURT SYSTEM OF COLORADO
Colorado's state court system is made up of different courts that handle various types of cases. Municipal (city) courts are not part of the state court system; however, municipal court decisions may be appealed to a state court. The courts of Colorado may be classified as
The law relating to the issues of jurisdiction of the courts on Colorado is governed by Title 13 'Courts and Court Procedure' of the Colorado Statute and the Constitution of Colorado.
The trial courts of Colorado has original jurisdiction over civil as well as criminal matters depending upon the subject specified by Colorado Statute.
County Courts handle civil cases under $15,000, misdemeanors, traffic infractions, felony complaints (which may be sent to district court), restraining orders, and small claims. County court decisions may be appealed to the district court.
As per the Constitution of the State the district courts are the trial courts of record with general jurisdiction, and has the original jurisdiction in all civil, probate, and criminal cases and shall also have such appellate jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law.
In the city and county of Denver, exclusive original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlements of estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians, conservators and administrators, and settlement of their accounts, the adjudication of the mentally ill, and such other jurisdiction vested in a probate court.
District courts handle felony criminal matters, civil claims in any amount, juvenile matters (including adoption, dependency and neglect matters, juvenile delinquency, and paternity actions), probate, mental health, divorce proceedings, and water cases. Denver is the only district in Colorado that has separate probate and juvenile courts. District court decisions may be appealed to the Colorado Court of Appeals (in some cases directly to the Colorado Supreme Court).
Water Courts have exclusive jurisdiction over cases relating to the determination of water rights, use and administration of water, and all other water matters. There are seven water courts, one in each of the major river basins in Colorado.
Denver's Court System
Denver's Court System differs from those in the rest of the state, in part because Denver is both a city and a county. The Denver County Court functions as a municipal and a county court and is paid for entirely by Denver taxes, rather than by state taxes. The Denver County Court is not part of the state court system. The Denver District Court is part of the state court system. Denver has the only separate Juvenile Court and Probate Court in the state (in other parts of Colorado, district courts handle juvenile and probate matters). These courts are also part of the state court system.
Colorado Court of Appeals
The Colorado Court of Appeals is usually the first court of appeals for decisions from the district courts, Denver Probate Court, and Denver Juvenile Court. The Court of Appeals also reviews decisions of several state administrative agencies. Its determination of an appeal is final unless the Colorado Supreme Court agrees to review the matter.
Colorado Supreme Court
The Colorado Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Colorado's state court system. The court generally hears appeals from the Court of Appeals, although in some instances individuals can petition the Supreme Court directly regarding a lower court's decision.
The Supreme Court shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, certiorari, injunction, and such other original and remedial writs as may be provided by rule of court with authority to hear and determine the same; and each judge of the supreme court shall have like power and authority as to writs of habeas corpus.
The supreme court shall also give its opinion upon important questions upon solemn occasions when required by the governor, the senate, or the house of representatives; and all such opinions shall be published in connection with the reported decision of said court.