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THE ADVOCATES ACT, 1961

Title : THE ADVOCATES ACT, 1961

Year : 1961



Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the elected members of a State Bar Council, constituted for the first time under this Act, shall be elected by and from amongst advocates, vakils, pleaders and attorneys who, on the date of the election, are entitled as of right to practise in the High Court and are ordinarily practising within the territory for which the Bar Council is to be constituted.

Explanation.- Where the territory for which the Bar Council is to be constituted includes a Union territory, the expression "High Court" shall include the Court of the Judicial Commissioner of the Union territory.



1 [***] State Bar Council.-
 
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the term of office of the 2 [***] elected members of 3 [***] the Bar Council of India and a state Bar Council constituted for the first time, shall be two years from the date of the first meeting of the Council:

4*[Provided that such members shall continue to hold office until the State Bar Council is reconstituted in accordance with the provisions of this Act.]

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1. The words "the Bar Council of India and" deleted by Act 21 of1964, section 22 and shall be deemed deleted.

2. The words "nominated and" omitted by Act 14 of 1962, section3.

3. The words "the Bar Council of India and " deleted by Act 21of 1964, section 22 and shall be deemed always have been deleted.

4. Inserted by Act 21 of 1964, section 22(ii) and shall be deemed to have always been inserted.

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Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,-

(a) Every pleader or vakil practising as such immediately before the date on which Chapter IV comes into force (herein-after in this section referred to as the said date) by virtue of the provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, (18 of 1879) the Bombay Pleaders Act, 1920, (Bombay Act 17 of 1920) or any other law who does not elect to be, or is not qualified to be, enrolled as an advocate under this Act;

1 [***]

2*[(c) Every mukhtar practising as such immediately before the said date by virtue of the provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, (18 of 1879)or any other law who does not elect to be, or is not qualified to be, enrolled as an advocate under this Act;

(d) Every revenue agent practising as such immediately before the said date by virtue of the provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, (18 of 1879) or any other law];shall, notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the relevant provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, (18 of 1879), the Bombay Pleaders Act, 1920, (Bombay Act 17 of 1920) or other law, continue to enjoy the same rights as respects practice in any court or revenue officer before any authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority which he enjoyed or, as the case may be, to which he was subject immediately before the said date and accordingly the relevant provisions of the Acts or law aforesaid shall have effect in relation to such persons as if they had not been repealed.

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1. Clause(b) omitted by Act 107 of 1976, section 10.

2. Substituted by Act 21 of 1964, section 23.

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(1) On the constitution under this Act of a State Bar Council, other than the Bar Council of Delhi (hereinafter referred to as the new Bar Council)-

(a) All properties and assets vesting in the corresponding Bar Council shall vest in the new Bar Council;

(b) All rights, liabilities, and obligations of the corresponding Bar Council, whether arising out of any contract or otherwise, shall be the rights, liabilities and obligations respectively of the new Bar Council;

(c) All proceedings pending before the corresponding Bar Council in respect of any disciplinary matter or otherwise shall stand transferred to the new Bar Council.

(2) In this section, "corresponding Bar Council" in relation to a State Bar Council, other than the Bar Council of Delhi, means the Bar Council for the High Court in the territory for which the State Bar Council is constituted under this Act.



Until a Bar Council is constituted under this Act, the power of that Bar Council to make rules under this Act shall be exercised-

(a) In the case of the Bar Council of India, by the Supreme Court;

(b) In the case of a State Bar Council, by the High Court.



(1) Where a State Bar Council has not been constituted under this Act or where a State Bar Council so constituted is unable to perform its functions by reason of any order of a court or otherwise, the functions of the Bar Council or any Committee thereof, in so far as they relate to the admission and enrollment of advocates, shall be performed by the High Court in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

(2) Until Chapter IV comes into force, a State Bar Council or a High Court performing the functions of a State Bar Council may enroll any person to be an advocate on a State roll, if he is qualified to be so enrolled under this Act, not with-standing that no rules have been made under section28 or that the rules so made have not been approved by the Bar Council of India, and every person so enrolled shall, until that Chapter comes into force, be entitled to all the rights of practice conferred on an advocate under section 14 of the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926.

(3)Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person who immediately before the 1st day of December, 1961, was an advocate on the roll of any High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 or who has been enrolled as an advocate under this Act shall, until Chapter IV comes into force, be entitled as of right to practise in the Supreme Court, subject to the rule, made by the Supreme Court in this behalf.

(4) Notwithstanding the repeal by sub-section (2) of section 50 of the provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, or of the Bombay Pleaders Act, 1920, 2*[or of any other law relating to the admission and enrollment of legal practitioners the provisions of the Acts, and law aforesaid and any rules made thereunder in so far as they relate to 3*[ the renewal or the issue by way of renewal] of a certificate to a legal practitioner authorizing him to practise shall have effect until Chapter IV comes into force and, accordingly, every certificate issued or renewed to legal practitioner (who is not enrolled as an advocate under this Act which is or purports to be issued or renewed under the provisions of either of the aforesaid Acts [or of the other law] during the period beginning with the 1st day of December, 1961 and ending with the date on which Chapter IV comes into force, shall be deemed to have been validly issued or renewed].

58A - 4*Special provisions with respect to certain Advocates

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all advocates who immediately before the 26thday of July, 1948, were entitled to practise in the High Court in Allahabad or the Chief Court in Oudh and who under the provisions of the United Provinces High Courts (Amalgamation) Order, 1948 were recognised as advocates entitled to practice in the new High Court of Judicature at Allahabad but whose names were not formally entered on the roll of advocates of that High Court merely by reason of the non-payment of the fee payable to the Bar Council of the said High Court, and all advocates were enrolled as such between the said date and the 26thday of May, 1952; shall, for the purposes of clause (a) (1) of section 17 be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of the said High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Acts, 1926 and every such person may, on an application being made in this behalf, be admitted as advocate on the State roll of Uttar Pradesh.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all advocates who immediately before the 10thday of October, 1952 were entitled to practise in the High Court of Hyderabad but whose names were not formally entered on the roll of advocates of that High Court merely by reason of the non-payment of the fee payable to the Bar Council of the said High Court shall, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 17 be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of the said High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 and every such person may, on an application being made in this behalf, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll of Andhra Pradesh or of Maharashtra.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all advocates, who, immediately before the 1stDay of May, 1960, were entitled to practise in the High Court of Bombay and who applied to get names entered on the roll of advocates of the High Court of Gujarat under the provisions of section 8 of the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 but whose names were not so entered by reason of the repeal of the said provision shall, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 17, be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of the High Court of Gujarat under the said Act and every such person may, on an application being made in this behalf, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll of Gujarat.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all persons who immediately before the 1stday of December, 1961, were advocates on the roll of the Court of Judicial Commissioner in any Union territory under any law in force in that territory shall, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 17, be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 and every such person may, on an application made in this behalf, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll maintained in respect of that Union territory. ]

58AA - 5*Special Provisions in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all persons who, immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter II are brought into force in the Union territory of Pondicherry, were entitled to practise the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both) under any law in force in the said Union territory or who would have been so entitled has they not been in public service on the said date, shall for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of Section 17, be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of a High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926, and every such person may, on an application made in this behalf within such time as may be specified by the Bar Council of Madras, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll maintained in the respect of the said Union territory.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person, who immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter Iv are brought into force in the Union territory of Pondicherry, was practicing the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both or in any other way) by virtue of the provisions of any law in force in the said Union territory, who does not elected to be or is not qualified to be, enrolled as an advocate under sub-section (1), shall, notwithstanding the repeal of the relevant provisions of such law by the Pondicheery (Extension of Laws) Act, 1968, continue to enjoy the same rights as respects in any court or revenue office or before any authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority which he enjoyed, or as the case may be, to which he was subject, immediately before the said date and accordingly the relevant provisions of the law aforesaid shall have effect in relation to such persons as if they had not been repealed. ]

58AB - 6*Special provisions with respect to certain persons enrolled by Mysore State Bar Council

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any judgment, decree or order of any court or any resolution passed or direction given by the Bar Council of India, every person who was admitted as an advocate on the State roll by the State Bar Council of Mysore during the period beginning with the 28thday of February, 1963, and ending on the 31stday of March, 1964, on the basis of his having obtained a certificate of pleadership from the High Court of Mysore, shall, save as otherwise provided, be deemed to have been validly admitted as an advocate on that State roll and accordingly entitled to practise the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both):

Provided that where any such person has been elected to be enrolled as an advocate on the roll of any other State Bar Council, his name shall be deemed to have been struck off the roll of the State Bar Council, of Mysore from the date he was enrolled by the other State Bar Council:

Provided further that the seniority of such person, whether his name is borne on the State roll of the State Bar Council of Mysore, or on the State roll of any other Bar Council, shall, for the purposes of clause (d) of sub-section (3) of section 17, be determined by reckoning the 16thday of May, 1964, as the date of admission. ]

58AC - 7*Special provisions with respect to certain persons enrolled by Uttar Pradesh State Bar Council

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any judgment, decree or order of any court, every person who was enrolled as an advocate by the High Court during the period beginning with the 2ndday of January, 1962 and ending on the 25thday of May, 1962 and was subsequently admitted as an advocate on the State roll by the State Bar Council of Uttar Pradesh shall be deemed to have been validly admitted as an advocate on that State roll from the date of his enrolment by the High Court and accordingly entitled to practise the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both).

58AD - Special provisions with respect to certain persons migrating to India

Notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879, or of any other law relating to the admission and enrollment of legal practitioners (hereafter in this Section referred to as such Act or law), every person who migrates to the territory of India from any area which, before the 15thday of August, 1947, was comprised within India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935, and who has, before such migration, been a pleader, mukhtar or revenue agent in any such area under any law in force therein, may be admitted and enrolled under the relevant provisions of such Act or law as a pleader, mukhtar or, as the case may be, revenue agent, if he-

(a) Makes an application for the purpose to the appropriate authority under such Act or law; and

(b) Is a citizen of India and fulfills other conditions, if any, specified in this behalf by the appropriate authority aforesaid,and notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the relevant provisions of such Act or law, every pleader, mukhtar or revenue agent so enrolled shall have the same right as respects practise in any court or revenue office or before any other authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority to which he would be subject under the relevant provisions of such Act or law as if they had been repealed and accordingly, those provisions shall have effect in relation to such persons.

58A - Special provisions in relation to the Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all persons who, immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter III are brought into force in the Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu, were entitled to practice the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both) under any law in force in the said Union territory or who would have been so entitled had they not been in public service on the said date, shall, for the purpose of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 17, be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of a High Court under the Indian Bar Councils, Act, 1926, and every such person may on an application made in his behalf within such time as may be specified by the Bar Council of Maharashtra, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll, maintained in respect of the said Union territory:

Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply to any person who, on the date of the application aforesaid, was not a citizen of India.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person who immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter IV are brought into force in the Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu, was practicing the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both or in any other way) by virtue of the provisions of any law in force in the said Union territory, or who does not elect to be or is not qualified to be enrolled as an advocate under sub-section (1) shall, notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the relevant provisions of such law, continues to enjoy the same rights as respects practice in any court or revenue office or before any other authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority which he enjoyed, or, as the case may, to which he was subject, immediately before the said date and accordingly the relevant provisions of the law aforesaid shall have effect in relation to such persons as if they had not been repealed.

(3) On the date on which this Act or any part thereof comes into force in the Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu, the law in force in that Union territory which corresponds to this Act or such part and which does not stand repealed by virtue of the provisions of section 50 of this Act, shall also stand repealed.

58AF - Special Provisions in relation to Jammu and Kashmir

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all advocates who, immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter III are brought into force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, were entitled to practise in the High Court of that State, or who would have been so entitled had they not been in public service on the said date, shall for the purpose of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 17, be deemed to be persons who were entered as advocates on the roll of a High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926, and every such person may, on an application made in this behalf within such time as may be specified by the Bar Council of India, be admitted as an advocate on the State roll maintained in respect of the said State.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person who, immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter III are brought into force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, was entitled otherwise than an advocate to practise the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both) by virtue of the provisions of any law in force in the said State, or who would have been so entitled had he not been in public service on the said date, may be admitted as an advocate on the State roll maintained in respect of the said State, if he-

(i) Makes an application for such enrolment in accordance with the provisions of this Act; and

(ii) Fulfills the conditions specified in clauses (a), (b), (c) and (f) of sub-section (1) of Section 24.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person who, immediately before the date on which the provisions of Chapter IV are brought into force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, was practicing the profession of law (whether by way of pleading or acting or both or in any other way) by virtue of the provisions of any law in force therein, or who does not elect to be or is not qualified to be enrolled as an advocate under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), shall, notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the relevant provisions of such law, or before any other authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority or person and be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the same authority which he enjoyed, or, as the case may be, to which he was subject, immediately before the said date and accordingly the relevant provisions of the law aforesaid shall have effect in relation to such persons as if they had not been repealed.

(4) On the date on which this Act or any part thereof comes into force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the law in force in that State which corresponds to this Act or such part thereof which does not stand repealed by virtue of the provisions of section 50 of this Act shall also stand repealed.]

58AG  8*Special provisions in relation to articled clerks

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, every person who immediately before the 31stday of December, 1976 has commenced his article ship and passed the Preliminary examination, for the purpose of enrollment as an attorney of the High Court at Calcutta in accordance with the rules made under sub-section (2) of Section 34 before the omission of that sub-section by the Advocates (Amendment) Act 1976, (107 of 1976), may be admitted as an advocate on the State roll if he-

(i) Passes, on or before the 31stday of December, 1980-

(a) The Final examination in a case where such person has before the 31stday of December, 1976, passed the Intermediate examination.

(b) The Intermediate and the Final examinations in any other case.

Explanation.- For the purpose of this clause, the High Court at Calcutta may prescribe such rules as may be necessary under sub-section (2) of Section 34, specifying the nature of the examination and any other matter relating thereto:

(ii) Makes an application for such enrolment in accordance with the provisions of this Act; and

(iii) Fulfills the conditions specified in clauses (a), (b), (e) and (f) of sub-section (1) of Section 24 ].

58B - Special provisions relating to certain disciplinary proceedings

(1) As from the 1stday of September, 1963 every proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter in relation to an existing advocate of a High Court shall, save as provided in the first section (2), be disposed of by the State Bar Council in relation to that High Court, as if the existing advocate had been enrolled as an advocate on its roll.

(2) If immediately before the said date, there is any proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter in relation to an existing advocate pending before any High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926, such proceeding shall stand transferred to the Bar Council in relation to that High Court, as if it were a proceeding pending before the corresponding Bar Council under clause (c ) of sub-section (1) of section 56:

Provided that where in respect of any such proceeding the Court has received the finding of a Tribunal constituted under Section 11 of the Indian Bar Council Act, 1926, the High Court shall dispose of the case and it shall be lawful for the High Court to exercise for the purpose all powers all powers conferred on it under section 12 of the said Act as if that section has not been repealed:

Provided further that where the High Court has referred back any case for further inquiry under sub-section (4) if Section 12 of the said Act, the proceeding shall stand transferred to the State Bar Council in relation to the High Court as if it were proceeding before a corresponding Bar Council under clause (c ) of sub-section (1) of section 56.

(3) If immediately before the said date there is any proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter pending in relation to any pleader, vakil, mukhtar or attorney, who has been enrolled as an advocate on any State roll under the Act, such proceeding shall stand transferred to the State Bar Council on the roll of which he has been enrolled and be dealt with under this Act as if it were a proceeding arising against him thereunder.

(4) In this section "existing advocate" means a person who was enrolled as an advocate on the roll of any High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 and who, at the time when any proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter initiated against him, is not enrolled as an advocate on a State roll under this Act.

(5) The provisions of this section shall have effect, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act ].

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1. Inserted by Act 14 of 1962, section 4 and shall be deemed to have always been inserted.

2. Substituted by Act 32 of 1962, section 3 and shall be deemed always to have been so substituted.

3. Substituted by Act 21 of 1964, section 25, for the words "the issue and renewal".

4. Inserted by Act 21 of 1964, section 25.

5. Inserted by Act 26 of 1968, section 3 and Schedule, Part I.

6. Inserted by Act 33 of 1968, section 3.

7. Sections 58AC, 58AD, 58Ae and 58AF inserted by Act 60 of 1973, section 40.

8. Section 58AG inserted by Act 38 of 1977, section 7.

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(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, particularly in relation to the transition from the enactments repealed by this Act to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provision not inconsistent with the purposes of this Act, as appear to it to be necessary or expedient or removing the difficulty.

(2) An order under sub-section (1) may be made so as to have retrospective effect from the date not earlier than the 1stday of December, 1961 ].

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1. Inserted by Act 14 of 1962, section 4 and shall be deemed to have always been inserted.

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(1) Until rules in respect of any matter under this Act are made by a State Bar Council and approved by the Bar Council of India, the power to make rules in respect of that matter shall be exercisable by the Central Government.

(2) The Central Government after consultation with the Bar Council of India may, be notification in the official gazette, make rules under sub-section (1) either for any State Bar Council or generally for all State Bar Councils and the rules so made shall have effect, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act.

(3) Where in respect of any matter any rules are made by the Central Government under this section for any State Bar Council, and in respect of the same matter, rules are made by the State Bar Council and approved by the Bar Council of India, the Central government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the rules made it in respect of such matter shall cease to be in force in relation to that Bar Council with effect from such date as may be specified in the notification and on the issue of such notification the rules made by the Central Government shall, accordingly, cease to be in force except as respects thing done or omitted to be done before the said date].

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1. Inserted by Act 32 of 1962, section 4.

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Schedule 1

THE SCHEDULE

REPEAL OF CERTAIN ENACTMENTS

Short title    Extent of repeal

1.The Legal Practitioners (Women) Act,     The whole. 1923 (23 of 1923).

2.The Legal Practitioners (Fees) Act, 1926     The whole. (21 of 1926).

3.The State Reorganization Act, 1956    Section 53. (37 of 1956).

4.The Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960    Section 31. (11 of 1960).

Last updated on June, 2016

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