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The Companies Act, 1956

Title : The Companies Act, 1956

Year : 1956



Where a resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting of-

(a) A company;

(b) The holders of any class of shares in a company; or

(c) The Board of directors of a company;The resolution shall, for all purposes be treated as having been passed on the date on which it was in fact passed, and shall not be deemed to have been passed on any earlier date.



(1) A copy of every resolution 1*[(together with a copy of the statement of material facts annexed under section 173 to the notice of the meeting in which such resolution has been passed)] or agreement to which this section applies shall, within 2*[thirty] days after the passing or making thereof, be printed or typewritten and duly certified under the signature of an officer of the company and filed with the Registrar who shall record the same.

(2) Where articles have been registered 3*[a copy of every resolution referred to in sub-section (1) which has the effect of altering the articles and a copy of every agreement referred to in that sub-section] for the time being in force shall be embodied in or annexed to every copy of the articles issued after the passing of the resolution or the making of the agreement.

(3) Where articles have not been registered, a printed copy of every 4*[resolution or agreement referred to in sub-section (1)] shall be forwarded to any member at his request, on payment of one rupee.

(4) This section shall apply to-

(a) Special resolutions;

(b) Resolutions which have been agreed to by all the members of a company, but which, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for their purpose unless they had been passed as special resolutions;

(c) Any resolution of the Board of directors of a company or agreement executed by a company, relating to the appointment, re-appointment or renewal of the appointment, or variation of the terms of appointment, of a managing director;

5 [***]

(e) Resolutions or agreements which have been agreed to by all the members of any class of shareholders but which, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for their purposes unless they had been passed by some particular majority or otherwise in some particular manner; and all resolutions or agreements which effectively bind all the members of any class of a shareholders though not agreed to by all those members; 6[***]

1*[(ee) Resolution passed by a company-

(i) According consent to the exercise by its Board of directors of any of the powers under clause (a), clause (d) and clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 293;

(ii) Approving the appointment of sole selling agents under 7 [section 294 or section 294AA];]

(f) Resolutions requiring a company to be wound up voluntarily passed in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 484; and

8*[(g) Copies of the terms and conditions of appointment of a sole selling agent appointed under section 294 or of a sole selling agent or other person appointed under section 294AA.]

(5) If default is made in complying with sub-section (1), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 9*[two hundred rupees] for every day during which the default continues.

(6) If default is made in complying with sub-section (2) or (3), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 10*[one hundred rupees] for each copy in respect of which default is made.

(7) For the purposes of sub-sections (5) and (6), the liquidator of a company shall be deemed to be an officer of the company.

192A -11* Passing of resolutions by postal ballot

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this Act, a listed public company may, and in the case of resolutions relating to such business as the Central Government may, by notification, declare to be conducted only by postal ballot, shall, get any resolution passed by means of a postal ballot, instead of transacting the business in general meting of the company.

(2) Where a company decides to pass any resolution by resorting to postal ballot, it shall send a notice to all the shareholders, along with a draft resolution explaining the reasons therefore, and requesting them to send their assent or dissent in writing on a postal ballot within a period of thirty days from the date of posting of the letter.

(3) The notice shall be sent by registered post acknowledgment due, or by any other method as may be prescribed by the Central Government in this behalf, and shall include with the notice, a postage prepaid envelope for facilitating the communication of the assent or dissent of the shareholder to the resolution within the said period.

(4) If a resolution is assented to by a requisite majority of the shareholders by means of postal ballot, it shall be deemed to have been duly passed at a general meeting convened in that behalf.

(5) If a shareholder sends under sub-section (2) his assent or dissent in writing on a postal ballot and thereafter any person fraudulently defaces or destroys the ballot paper or declaration of identity of the shareholder, such person shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine or with both.

(6) If a default is made in complying with sub-sections (1) to (4), the company and every officer of the company, who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees in respect of each such default.

Explanation. -For the purposes of this section, "postal ballot includes voting by electronic mode.]

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1. Inserted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 51 (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

2. Substituted by Act 31 of 1965, Section 62 and Schedule, for "fifteen" (w.e.f. 15-10-1965).

3. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 51, for "a copy of every such resolution or agreement" (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

4. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 51, for "such resolution or agreement" (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

5. Clause (d) omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 79 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

6. The word "and" omitted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 51 (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

7. Substituted by Act 41 of 1974, Section 16, for "section 294" ( w.e.f. 1-2-1975).

8. Inserted by Act 41 of 1974, Section 16 ( w.e.f. 1-2-1975).

9. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 79, for "twenty rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

10. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 79, for "ten rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

11. Inserted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 80 (w.e.f. 15-6-2000).

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1*[(1) Every company shall cause minutes of all proceedings of every general meeting and of all proceedings of every meeting of its Board of directors or of every committee of the Board, to be kept by making within2[thirty] days of the conclusion of every such meeting concerned, entries thereof in books kept for that purpose with their pages consecutively numbered.

(1A) Each page of every such book shall be initiated or signed and the last page of the record of proceedings of each meeting in such books shall be dated and signed -

(a) In the case of minutes of proceedings of a meeting of the Board or of a committee thereof, by the chairman of the said meeting or the chairman of the next succeeding meeting;

(b) In the case of minutes of proceedings of a general meeting, by the chairman of the same meeting within the aforesaid period of2*[thirty] days or in the event of the death or inability of that chairman within that period, by a director duly authorised by the Board for the purpose.

(1B) In no case the minutes of proceedings of a meeting shall be attached to any such book as aforesaid by pasting or otherwise.]

(2) The minutes of each meeting shall contain a fair and correct summary of the proceedings thereat.

(3) All appointments of officers made at any of the meetings aforesaid shall be included in the minutes of the meeting.

(4) In the case of a meeting of the Board of directors or of a committee of the Board, the minutes shall also contain -

(a) The names of the directors present at the meeting; and

(b) In the case of each resolution passed at the meeting, the names of the directors, if any, dissenting from, or not concurring in the resolution.

(5) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) to (4) shall be deemed to require the inclusion in any such minutes of any matter which, in the opinion of the chairman of the meeting-

(a) Is, or could reasonable be regarded as, defamatory of any person;

(b) Is irrelevant or immaterial to the proceedings; or

(c) Is detrimental to the interests of the company.

Explanation. -The chairman shall exercise an absolute discretion in regard to the inclusion or non-inclusion of any matter in the minutes on the grounds specified in this sub-section.

(6) If default is made in complying with the foregoing provisions of this section in respect of any meeting, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to3*[five hundred rupees].

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1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 52, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

2. Substituted by Act 31 of 1965, Section 62 and Schedule, for "fourteen" (w.e.f. 15-10-1965).

3. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 81, for "fifty rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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Minutes of meetings kept in accordance with the provisions of section 193 shall be evidence of the proceedings recorded therein.

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1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 53, for section 194 (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

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Where minutes of the proceedings of any general meeting of the company or of any meeting of its Board of directors or of a committee of the Board1*[have been kept in accordance with the provisions of section 193], then, until the contrary is proved, the meeting shall be deemed to have been duly called and held, and all proceedings thereat to have duly taken place, and in particular, all appointments of directors or liquidators made at the meeting shall be deemed to be valid.

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1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 54, for certain words (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

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(1) The books containing the minutes of the proceedings of any general meeting of a company held on or after the 15th day of January, 1937, shall -

(a) Be kept at the registered office of the company, and

(b) Be open, during business hours, to the inspection of any member without charge, subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may, by its articles or in general meeting impose, so however that not less than two hours in each day are allowed for inspection.

(2) Any member shall be entitled to be furnished, within seven days after he has made a request in that behalf to the company, with a copy of any minutes referred to in sub-section (1), on payment of1*[such sum as may be prescribed] for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.

(3) If any inspection required under sub-section (1) is refused, or if any copy required under sub-section (2) is not furnished within the time specified therein, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to2*[five thousand rupees] in respect of each offence.

(4) In the case of any such refusal or default, the3*[Central Government] may, by order, compel an immediate inspection of the minute books or direct that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it.

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1. Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 67, for "six annas" ( w.e.f. 15-7-1988).

2. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 82, for "five hundred rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

3. Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 67, for "Court" ( w.e.f. 31-5-1991) and again substituted by the Companies (Second Amendment) Act, 2002 (11 of 2003),w.e.f. 12.08.2012 section 25, for "Company Law Board".
 
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(1) No document purporting to be a report of the proceedings of any general meeting of a company shall be circulated or advertised at the expense of the company, unless it includes the matters required by section 193 to be contained in the minutes of the proceedings of such meeting.

(2) If any report is circulated or advertised in contravention of sub-section (1), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable, in respect of each offence, with fine which may extend to1*[five thousand rupees].

2*[Prohibition of simultaneous appointment of different categories of managerial personnel

197A. Company not to appoint or employ certain different categories of managerial personnel at the same time
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any other law or any agreement or instrument, no company shall, after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1960 (65 of 1960), appoint or employ at the same time, or after the expiry of six months from such commencement, continue the appointment or employment at the same time, of more than one of the following categories of managerial personnel, namely: -

(a) Managing director.

3 [***]

(d) Manager.

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1. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 83, for "five hundred rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

2. Inserted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 55 (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

3. Clauses (b) and (c) omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 84 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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(1) The total managerial remuneration payable by a public company or a private company which is a subsidiary of a public company, to its directors and its2[***] manager in respect of any financial year shall not exceed eleven per cent of the net profits of that company for that financial year computed in the manner laid down in sections 349 3*[and 350], except that the remuneration of the directors shall not be deducted from the gross profits.

4[***]

(2) The percentage aforesaid shall be exclusive of any fees payable to directors under sub-section (2) of section 309.

(3) Within the limits of the maximum remuneration specified in sub-section (1), a company may pay a monthly remuneration to its managing or whole-time director in accordance with the provisions of section 309 or to its manager in accordance with the provisions of section 387.

5*[(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) to (3), but subject to the provisions of section 269, read with Schedule XIII, if, in any financial year, a company has no profits or its profits are inadequate, the company shall not pay to its directors, including any managing or whole-time director or manager, by way of remuneration any sum exclusive of any fees payable to directors under sub¬section (2) of section 309, except with the previous approval of the Central Government.]

Explanation.- For the purposes of this section and sections 309, 310, 311,6[***] 381 and 387, "remuneration" shall include, -

(a) Any expenditure incurred by the company in providing any rent-free accommodation, or any other benefit or amenity in respect of accommodation free of charge, to any of the persons specified in sub-section (1);

(b) Any expenditure incurred by the company in providing any other benefit or amenity free of charge or at a concessional rate to any of the persons aforesaid;

(c) Any expenditure incurred by the company in respect of any obligation or service which, but for such expenditure by the company, would have been incurred by any of the persons aforesaid; and

(d) Any expenditure incurred by the company to effect any insurance on the life of, or to provide any pension, annuity or gratuity for, any of the persons aforesaid or his spouse or child.]

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1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 56, for section 198 (w.e.f. 28-12-1960).

2. The words "managing agent, secretaries and treasurers or" omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 85 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

3. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 85, for "350 and 351" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

4. Proviso omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 85 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

5. Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 25, for sub-section (4) (w.e.f. 15-6-1988).

6. The figures "348, 352" omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 85 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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(1) Where any commission or other remuneration payable to any officer or employee of a company (not being a director1[***]or a manager) is fixed at a percentage of, or is otherwise based on, the net profits of the company, such profits shall be calculated in the manner set out in sections 349 2*[and 350].

(2) Any provision in force at the commencement of this Act for the payment of any commission or other remuneration in any manner based on the net profits of a company, shall continue to be in force for a period of one year from such commencement; and thereafter shall become subject to the provisions of sub-section (1).

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1. The words ",the managing agent, secretaries and treasurers" omitted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 86 (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

2. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 86, for ",350 and 351" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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(1) No company shall pay to any officer or employee thereof, whether in his capacity as such or otherwise, remuneration free of any tax, or otherwise calculated by reference to, or varying with, any tax payable by him, or the rate of standard rate of any such tax, or the amount thereof.

Explanation.-(1) In this sub-section, the expression "tax" comprises any kind of income-tax including super-tax.

(2) Where by virtue of any provision in force immediately before the commencement of this Act, whether contained in the company's articles, or in any contract made with the company, or in any resolution passed by the company in general meeting or by the company's Board of directors, any officer or employee of the company holding any office at the commencement of this Act is entitled to remuneration in any of the modes prohibited by sub-section (1), such provision shall have effect during the residue of the term for which he is entitled to hold such office at such commencement, as if it provided instead for the payment of a gross sum subject to the tax in question, which, after deducting such tax, would yield the net sum actually specified in such provision.

(3) This section shall not apply to any remuneration-

(a) Which fell due before the commencement of this Act, or

(b) Which may fall due after the commencement of this Act, in respect of any period before such commencement.
Last updated on August, 2016

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