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The Companies Act, 1956

Title : The Companies Act, 1956

Year : 1956



A contract with a company to take up and pay for any debentures of the company may be enforced by a decree for specific performance.



(1) Where either-

(a) A receiver is appointed on behalf of the holders of any debentures of a company secured by a floating charge, or

(b) Possession is taken by or on behalf of those debenture-holders of any property comprised in or subject to the charge; then, if the company is not at the time in course of being wound up, the debts which in every winding up are, under the provisions of Part VII relating to preferential payments, to be paid in priority to all other debts, shall be paid forthwith out of any assets coming to the hands of the receiver or other person taking possession as aforesaid in priority to any claim for principal or interest in respect of the debentures.

(2) In the application of the provisions aforesaid, section 530 shall be construed as if the provision for payment of accrued holiday remuneration becoming payable on the termination of employment before or by the effect of the winding up order or resolution were a provision for payment of such remuneration becoming payable on the termination of employment before or by the effect of the appointment of the receiver or possession being taken as aforesaid.

(3) The periods of time mentioned in the said provisions of Part VII shall be reckoned from the date of appointment of the receiver or of possession being taken as aforesaid, as the case may be.

(4) Where the date referred to in sub-section (3) occurred before the commencement of this Act, sub-sections (1) and (3) shall have effect with the substitution, for reference to the said provisions of Part VII, of references to the provisions which, by virtue of sub-section (9) of section 530, are deemed to remain in force in the case there in mentioned, and sub-section (2) shall not apply.

(5) Any payments made under this section shall be recouped, as far as may be, out of the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors.



In this Part, the expression "charge" includes a mortgage.



(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, every charge created on or after the 1st day of April, 1914, by a company and being a charge to which this section applies shall, so far as any security on the company's properly or undertaking is conferred thereby, be void against the liquidator and any creditor of the company, unless the prescribed particulars of the charge, together with the instrument, if any, by which the charge is created or evidenced, or a copy thereof verified in the prescribed manner, are filed with the registrar for registration in the manner required by this Act within1*[thirty] days after the date of its creation:

2*[Provided that the Registrar may allow the particulars and instrument or copy as aforesaid to be filed within thirty days next following the expiry of the said period of thirty days on payment of such additional fee not exceeding ten times the amount of fee specified in Schedule X as the Registrar may determine, if the company satisfies the Registrar that it had sufficient cause for not filing the particulars, and instrument or copy within that period.]

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall prejudice any contract or obligation for the repayment of the money secured by the charge.

(3) When a charge becomes void under this section, the money secured thereby shall immediately become payable.

(4) This section applies to the following charges:-

(a) A charge for the purpose of securing any issue of debentures;

(b) A charge on uncalled share capital of the company;

(c) A charge on any immovable property, wherever situate, or any interest therein;

(d) A charge on any book debts of the company;

(e) A charge, not being a pledge, on any movable property of the company;

(f) A floating charge on the undertaking or any property of the company including stock-in-trade;

(g) A charge on calls made but not paid;

(h) A charge on a ship or any share in a ship;

(i) A charge on goodwill, on a patent or a licence under a patent, on a trade mark, or on a copyright or a licence under a copyright.

(5) In the case of a charge created out of India and comprising solely property situate outside India,1*[thirty] days after the date on which the instrument creating or evidencing the charge of a copy thereof could, in due course of post and if dispatched with due diligence, have been received in India, shall be substituted for1*[thirty] days after the date of the creation of the charge, as the time within which the particulars and instrument or copy are to be filed with the Registrar.

(6) Where a charge is created in India but comprises property outside India, the instrument creating or purporting to create the charge under this section or a copy thereof verified in the prescribed manner, may be filed for registration, notwithstanding that further proceedings may be necessary to make the charge valid or effectual according to the law of the country in which the property is situate.

(7) Where a negotiable instrument has been given to secure the payment of any book debts of a company, the deposit of the instrument for the purpose of securing an advance to the company shall not, for the purposes of this section, be treated as a charge on those book debts.

(8) The holding of debentures entitling the holder to a charge on immovable property shall not, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be an interest in immovable property.

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1. Substituted by Act 31 of 1965, Section 62 and Schedule, for "twenty-one" (w.e.f. 15-10-1965).

2. Proviso Inserted by Act 65 of 1960, Section 29 and Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 18 (w.e.f. 15-6-1988).

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Where any charge on any property of a company required to be registered under section 125 has been so registered, any person acquiring such property or any part thereof, or any share or interest therein, shall be deemed to have notice of the charge as from the date of such registration.



(1) Where a company acquires any property which is subject to a charge of any such kind as would, if it had been created by the company after the acquisition of the property, have been required to be registered under this Part, the company shall cause the prescribed particulars of the charge, together with a copy (certified in the prescribed manner to be a correct copy) of the instrument, if any, by which the charge was created or is evidenced, to be delivered to the Registrar for registration in the manner required by this Act within1*[thirty] days after the date on which the acquisition is completed:-

Provided that, if the property is situate, and the charge was created, outside India,1*[thirty] days after the date on which a copy of the instrument could, in due course of post and if dispatched with due diligence, have been received in India shall be substituted for1*[thirty] days after the completion of the acquisition as the time within which the particulars and the copy of the instrument arc to be delivered to the Registrar.

(2) If default is made in complying with sub-section (I), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to2*[five thousand rupees].

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1. Substituted by Act 31 of 1965, Section 62 and Schedule, for "twenty-one" ( w.e.f. 15-10-1965).

2. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 50, for "five hundred rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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Where a series of debentures containing, or giving by reference to any other instrument, any charge to the benefit of which the debenture-holders of that series are entitled pari pass is created by a company, it shall, for the purposes of section 125, be sufficient, if they are filed with the Registrar, within1*[thirty] days after the execution of the deed containing the charge or, if there is no such deed, after the execution of any debentures of the series, the following particulars:-

(a) The total amount secured by the whole series;

(b) The dates of the resolutions authorising the issue of the series and the date of the covering deed, if any, by which the security is created or defined;

(c) A general description of the property charged; and

(d) The names of the trustees, if any, for the debenture-holders;
together with the deed containing the charge, or a copy of the deed verified in the prescribed manner, or if there is no such deed, one of the debentures of the series:-

Provided that, where more than one issue is made of debentures in the series, there shall be filed with the Registrar, for entry in the register, particulars of the date and amount of each issue; but an omission to do this shall not affect the validity of the debentures issued.

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1. Substituted by Act 31 of 1965, Section 62 and Schedule, for "twenty-one" (w.e.f. 15-10-1965).

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Where any commission allowance or discount has been paid or made either directly or indirectly by a company to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any debentures of the company, or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any such debentures, the particulars required to the filed for registration under sections 125 and 128 shall include particulars as to the amount or rate per cent of the commission, discount or allowance so paid or made; but an omission to do this shall not affect the validity of the debentures issued:

Provided that the deposit of any debentures as security for any debt of the company shall not, for the purposes of this section, be treated as the issue of the debentures at a discount.



1*[(1) The Registrar shall, in respect of each company, cause to be kept a register containing the particulars of all the charges requiring registration under this Part.

(1A) Every company shall forward to the Registrar for being entered in the register kept under sub-section (1) the particulars of all the charges requiring registration under this Part in such form and manner, and after payment of such fees as may be prescribed.

(1B) The particulars of the charges referred to in sub-section (1) shall relate to,-

(a) In the case of a charge to the benefit of which the holders of a series of debentures are entitled, such particulars as are specified in sections 128 and 129;

(b) In the case of any other charge, -

(i) If the charge is a charge created by the company, the date of its creation, and if the charge was a charge existing on property acquired by the company, the date of the acquisition of the property;

(ii) The amount secured by the charge;

(iii) Short particulars of the property charged; and (iv) the persons entitled to the charge.

(1C) The pages of the register shall be consecutively numbered and the Registrar shall -

(a) Cause to be kept in such register in the prescribed form, the documents of charges filed in such form and manner as may be prescribed; and

(b) sign or initial every page of such register.

(2) After entering the particulars of all the charges required under sub-section (1), the Registrar shall return the instrument, if any, or the verified copy thereof, as the case may be, filed in accordance with the provisions of this Part to the person filing it.]

(3) The register kept in pursuance of this section shall be open to inspection by any person on payment of2*[such fee as may be prescribed] for each inspection.

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1. Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 19, for sub-sections (1) and (2) (w.e.f. 17-4-1989).

2. Substituted by Act 31 of 1988, Section 19, for "a fee of one rupee" (w.e.f. 17-4-1989).

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The Registrar shall keep a chronological index, in the prescribed form and with the prescribed particulars, of the charges registered with him in pursuance of this Part.



The Registrar shall give a certificate under his hand of the registration of any charge registered in pursuance of this Part, stating the amount thereby secured; and the certificate shall be conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Part as to registration have been complied with.



(1) The company shall cause a copy of every certificate of registration given under section 132, to be endorsed on every debenture or certificate of debenture stock which is issued by the company and the payment of which is secured by the charge so registered:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be construed as requiring a company to cause a certificate of registration of any charge so given to be endorsed on any debenture or certificate of debenture stock issued by the company before the charge was created.

(2) If any person knowingly delivers, or willfully authorises or permits the delivery of, any debenture or certificate of debenture stock which, under-the provisions of sub¬section (1), is required to have endorsed on it a copy of a certificate of registration without the copy being so endorsed upon it, he shall, without prejudice to any other liability, be punishable with fine which may extend to1*[ten thousand rupees].

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1. Substituted by Act 53 of 2000, Section 51, for "one thousand rupees" (w.e.f. 13-12-2000).

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(1) It shall be the duty of a company to file with the Registrar for registration the particulars of every charge created by the company, and of every issue of debentures of a series, requiring registration under this Part; but registration of any such charge may also be effected on the application of any person interested therein.

(2) Where registration is effected on the application of some person other than the company, that person shall be entitled to recover from the company the amount of any fees properly paid by him to the Registrar on the registration.



Whenever the terms or conditions, or the extent or operation, of any charge registered under this Part are or is modified, it shall be the duty of the company to send to the Registrar the particulars of such modification, and the provisions of this Part as to registration of a charge shall apply to such modification of the charge.
Last updated on August, 2016

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