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THE INDO-TIBETAN BORDER POLICE FORCE ACT, 1992

Title : THE INDO-TIBETAN BORDER POLICE FORCE ACT, 1992

Year : 1992



At every General Force Court or Petty Force Court, the senior member shall be the presiding officer.



Every General Force Court shall and every petty Force Court may, be attended by a Judge Attorney or a Deputy Judge Attorney-General or an Additional Judge Attorney-General, or, if no such officer is available, an officer approved by the Judge Attorney-General or by any officer authorised in this behalf by the Judge Attorney-General.



(1) At all trials by a General Force Court or by a Petty Force Court, as soon as the Court is assembled, the names of the presiding officer and members shall be read over to the accused, who shall thereupon be asked whether he objects to being tried by any officer sitting on the Court.

(2) If the accused objects to such officer, his objection and also the reply thereto of the officer objected to shall be heard and recorded, and the remaining officers of the Court shall, in the absence of the challenged officer decide on the objection.

(3) If the objection is allowed by one-half or more of the votes of the officers entitled to vote, the objection shall be allowed, and the member objected to shall retire, and his vacancy may be filled in the prescribed manner, by another officer subject to the same right of the accused to object.

(4) When no challenge is made, or when a challenge has been made and disallowed, or the place of every officer successfully challenged has been filled by another officer to whom no objection is made or allowed, the Court shall proceed with the trial.



(1) An oath or affirmation in the prescribed manner shall be administered to every member of the Force Court and to the Judge Attorney, or, as the case may be, the Deputy Judge Attorney-General or the Additional Judge Attorney-General or the officer approved under section 95, before the commencement of the trial.

(2) Every person giving evidence before a Force Court shall be examined after being duly sworn or affirmed in the prescribed form.

(3) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall not apply where the witness is a child under twelve years of age and the Force Court is of opinion that though the witness understands the duty of speaking the truth, he does not understand the nature of an oath or affirmation.



(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3), every decision of a Force Court shall be passed by an absolute majority of votes; and where there is an equality of votes on either the finding or the sentence, the decision shall be in favour of the accused.

(2) No sentence of death shall be passed by a General Force Court without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of the members of the
Court.

(3) In matters other than a challenge or the finding or sentence, the presiding officer shall have a casting vote.



The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1.of 1872) shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, apply to all proceedings before a Force Court.



A Force Court may take judicial notice of any matter within the general knowledge of the members as officers of the Force.



(1) The convening officer, the presiding officer of a Force Court, the Judge Attorney or, as the case may be, the Deputy Judge Attorney-General or the Additional Judge Attorney-General or the officer approved under section 95 or the commanding officer of the accused person may, by summons under his hand, require the attendance, at a time and place to be mentioned in the summons, of any person either to give evidence or to produce any document or other thing.

(2) In the case of a witness who is subject to this Act or any other Act relating to the armed forces of the Union, the summons shall be sent to his commanding officer and such officer shall serve it upon him accordingly.

(3) In the case of any other witness, the summons shall be sent to the magistrate within whose jurisdiction he may be, or resides, and such magistrate shall give effect to the summons as if the witness were required in the court of such a magistrate.

(4) When a witness is required to produce any particular document or other thing in his possession or power, the summons shall describe it with reasonable precision.



(1) Nothing in section 101 shall be deemed to affect the operation of sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) or to apply to any letter, postcard, telegram or other document in the custody of the postal or telegraph authorities.

(2) If any document in such custody is, in the opinion of any
District Magistrate, Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial
Magistrate, Court of Sessions or High Court wanted for the purpose of any Force Court, such Magistrate or Court may require the postal or telegraph authorities, as the case may be, to deliver such document to such person as such Magistrate or Court may direct.

(3) If any such document is, in the opinion of any other magistrate or of any Commissioner of Police or District Superintendent of Police, wanted for any such purpose, he may require the postal or telegraph authorities, as the case may be, to cause such search to be made for, and to detain such document pending the orders of any such District Magistrate, Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate, Court of Sessions or High Court.



(1) Whenever, in the course of a trial by a Force Court, it appears to the Court that the examination of a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, and that the attendance of such witness cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, in the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable, such Court may address the Judge Attorney-General in order that a commission to take the evidence of such witness may be issued.

(2) The Judge Attorney-General may then, if he thinks necessary, issue a commission to any Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial
Magistrate of the first class, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such witness resides, to take the evidence of such witness.

(3) The Magistrate to whom the commission is issued, or, if he is the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, or Chief Judicial Magistrate, or such Metropolitan Magistrate, or Judicial Magistrate, as he appoints in this behalf, shall summon the witness before him or proceed to the place where the witness is, and shall take down his evidence in the same manner, and may for this purpose exercise the same powers, as in the trials of warrant-cases under the Code of Criminal Procedure,1973 (2 of 1974).

(4) When the witness resides in a tribal area or in any place outside India, the commission may be issued in the manner specified in
Chapter XXIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).



(1) The prosecutor and the accused person in any case in which a commission is issued under section 103 may respectively forward any interrogatories in writing which the court may think relevant to the issue, and the Magistrate executing the commission shall examine the witness upon such interrogatories.

(2) The prosecutor and the accused person may appear before such
Magistrate by counsel, or, except in the case of an accused person in custody, in person, and may examine cross-examine, and re-examine, as the case may be, the said witness.

(3) After a commission issued under section 103 has been duly executed, it shall be returned together with the deposition of the witness examined there under to the Judge Attorney-General.

(4) On receipt of a commission and deposition returned under sub-
section (3), the Judge Attorney-General shall forward the same to the Court at whose instance the commission was issued or, if such Court has been dissolved, to any other Court convened for the trial of the accused person; and the commission, the return thereto and the deposition shall be open to inspection by the prosecutor and the accused person, and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in the case by either the prosecutor or the accused, and shall form part of the proceedings of the Court.

(5) In every case in which a commission is issued under section
103, the trial may be adjourned for specified time reasonably sufficient for the execution and return of the commission.



A person charged before a Force Court-

(a) With desertion may be found guilty of attempting to desert or of being absent without leave;

(b) With attempting to desert may be found guilty of being absent without leave;

(c) With using criminal force may be found guilty of assault;

(d) With using threatening language may be found guilty of using insubordinate language;

(e) With any one of the offences specified in clauses (a),(b), (c) and (d) of section 33 may be found guilty of any other of these offences with which he might have been charged;

(f) With an offence punishable under section 49 may be found guilty of any other offence of which he might have been found guilty, if the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure,
1973 (2 of 1974), were applicable;

(g) With any offence under this Act may, on failure of proof of an offence having been committed in circumstances involving a more severe punishment, be found guilty of the same offence as having been committed in circumstances involving a less severe punishment;

(h) With any offence under this Act may be found guilty of having attempted or abetted the commission of that offence, although the attempt or abetment is not separately charged.



In any proceeding under this Act, any application, certificate, warrant, reply or other document purporting to be signed by an officer in the service of the Government shall, on production, be presumed to have been duly signed by the person by whom and in the character in which it purports to have been signed, until the contrary is shown.



(1) Any enrollment paper purporting to be signed by an enrolling officer shall, in proceedings under this Act, be evidence of the person enrolled having given the answers to questions which he is therein represented as having given.

(2) The enrollment of such person may be proved by the production of the original or a copy of his enrollment paper purporting to be certified to be a true copy by the officer having the custody of the enrollment paper or service record.



(1) A letter, return or other document respecting the service of any person in, or the dismissal, removal or discharge of any person from, any unit of the Force, or respecting the circumstances of any person not having served in, or belonged to, any unit of the Force, if purporting to be signed by or on behalf of the Central Government or the Director-General, or by any prescribed officer, shall be evidence of the facts stated in such letter, return or other document.

(2) A Force List or Gazette purporting to be published by authority shall be evidence of the status and rank of the officers, subordinate officers therein mentioned, and of any appointment held by them and of the battalion, unit, or branch of the Force to which they belong.

(3) Where a record is made in any battalion book in pursuance of this Act or of any rules made there under or otherwise in the discharge of official duties, and purports to be signed by the commanding officer or by the officer whose duty it is to make such record, such record shall be evidence of the facts therein stated.

(4) A copy of any record in any office of the Force purporting to be certified to be a true copy by the officer having custody of such book shall be evidence of such record.

(5) Where any person subject to this Act is being tried on a charge of desertion or of absence without leave and such person has surrendered himself into the custody of any officer or other person subject to this Act, or any unit of the Force, or has been apprehended by such officer or person, a certificate purporting to be signed by such officer, or by the commanding officer of the unit to which such person belongs or is attached, as the case may be, and stating the fact, date and place of such surrender or apprehension, and the manner in which he was dressed, shall be evidence of the matters so stated.

(6) Where any person subject to this Act is being tried on a charge of desertion or of absence without leave and such person has surrendered himself into the custody of, or has been apprehended by, a police officer not below the rank of an officer in charge of a police station, a certificate purporting to be signed by such police officer and stating the fact, date and place of such surrender or apprehension and the manner in which he was dressed shall be evidence of the matters so stated.

(7) (a) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of a Government scientific expert to whom this sub-section applies, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination or analysis and report in the course of any proceeding under this Act, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Act.

(b) The Force Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such expert as to the subject matter of his report.

(c) Where any such expert is summoned by a Force Court and he is unable to attend personally, he may, unless the Court has expressly directed him to appear personally, depute an officer who is conversant with the facts of the case to depose in the Court on his behalf.

(d) This sub-section applies to the Government scientific experts for the time being specified in sub-section (4) of section 293 of the
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1973).



(1) If at any trial for desertion or absence without leave, over-staying leave or not rejoining when warned for service, the accused person states in his defence any sufficient or reasonable excuse for his unauthorised absence, and refers in support thereof to any officer in the service of the Government, or if it appears that any such officer is likely to prove or disprove the said statement in the defence, the Court shall address such officer and adjourn the proceedings until his reply is received.

(2) The written reply of any officer so referred to shall, if signed by him, be received in evidence and have the same effect as if made on oath before the Court.

(3) If the court is dissolved before the receipt of such reply or if the Court omits to comply with the provisions of this section, the convening officer may, at his discretion, annul the proceedings and order a fresh trial



(1) When any person subject to this Act has been convicted by a Force Court of any offence, such Force Court may inquire into, and receive, and record evidence of any previous convictions of such person, either by a Force Court or by a criminal court, or any previous award of punishment under section 56 or section 58, and may further inquire into and record the general character of such person and such other matters as may be prescribed.

(2) Evidence received under this section may be either oral, or in the shape of entries in, or certified extracts from, books of Force
Courts or other official records; and it shall not be necessary to give notice before trial to the person tried that evidence as to his previous convictions or character will be received.

(3) At a summary Force Court, the officer holding the trial may, if he thinks fit, record any previous convictions against the offender, his general character, and such other matters as may be prescribed, as of his own knowledge, instead of requiring them to be proved under the foregoing provisions of this section.



(1) Whenever, in the course of a trial by a Force Court, it appears to the Court that the person charged is by reason of unsoundness of mind incapable of making his defence, or that he committed the act alleged but was by reason of unsoundness of mind incapable of knowing the nature of the act or knowing that it was wrong or contrary to law, the Court shall record a finding accordingly.

(2) The presiding officer of the Court or, in the case of a
Summary Force Court, the officer holding the trial, shall forthwith report the case to the confirming officer, or to the authority empowered to deal with its finding under section 129, as the case may be.

(3) The confirming officer to whom the case is reported under sub-section (2) may, if he does not confirm the finding, take steps to have the accused person tried by the same or another Force Court for the offence with which he was charged.

(4) The authority to whom the finding of a Summary Force Court is reported under sub-section (2) and a confirming officer confirming the finding in any case so reported to him shall order the accused person to be kept in custody in the prescribed manner and shall report the case for the orders of the Central Government.

(5) On receipt of a report under sub-section (4), the Central
Government may order the accused person to be detained in a lunatic asylum or other suitable place of safe custody.



Where any accused person, having been found by reason of unsoundness of mind to be incapable of making his defence, is in custody or under detention under section 111, any officer prescribed in this behalf, may-

(a) If such person is in custody under sub-section (4) of section 111, on the report of a medical officer that he is capable of making his defence, or

(b) If such person is detained in a jail under sub-section
(5) of section 111, on a certificate of the Inspector General of prisons, and if such person is detained in a lunatic asylum under the said sub-section, on a certificate of any two or more of the visitors of such asylum and if he is detained in any other place under that sub-section, on a certificate of the prescribed authority, that he is capable of making his defence, take steps to have such person tried by the same or another Force Court for the offence with which he was originally charged or, if the offence is a civil offence, by a criminal court.



A copy of every order made by an officer under section 112 for the trial of the accused shall forthwith be sent to the Central Government.



Where any person is in custody under sub-section (4) of section 111 or under detention under sub-section (5) of that section,-

(a) If such person is in custody under the said sub-section (4), on the report of a medical officer, or

(b) If such person is detained under the said sub-section(5), on a certificate from any of the authorities mentioned in clause (b) section 112 that in the judgment of such officer or authority such person may be released without danger of his doing injury to himself or to any other person,the Central Government may order that such person be released or detained in custody or transferred to a public lunatic asylum if he has not already been sent to such an asylum.



Where any relative or friend of any person who is in custody under sub-section (4) of section 111 or under detention under sub-section (5) of that section desires that he should be delivered to his care and custody, the Central Government may, upon application by such relative or friend and, on his giving security to the satisfaction of that Government that the person delivered shall be properly taken care of, and, prevented from doing injury to himself or to any other person, and be produced for the inspection of such officer, and at such times and places, as the Central Government may direct, order such person to be delivered to such relative or friend.



When any property regarding which any offence appears to have been committed, or which appears to have been used for the commission of any offence, is produced before a Force Court during a trial, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the proper custody of such property pending the conclusion of the trial, and if the property is subject to speedy or natural decay may, after recording such evidence as it thinks necessary, order it to be sold or otherwise disposed of.



(1) After the conclusion of a trial before any Force Court, the Court or the officer confirming the finding or sentence of such
Force Court, or any authority superior to such officer, or, in the case of a Summary Force Court whose finding or sentence does not require confirmation, an officer not below the rank of Additional
Deputy Inspector General within whose command the trial was held, may make such order as it or he thinks fit for the disposal by destruction, confiscation, delivery to any person claiming to be entitled to possession thereof, or otherwise, of any property or document produced before the Court or in its custody, or regarding which any offence appears to have been committed or which has been used for the commission of any offence.

(2) Where any order has been made under sub-section (1) in respect of property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed, a copy of such order signed and certified by the authority making the same may, whether the trial was held within India or not, be sent to a magistrate within whose jurisdiction such property for the time being is situated, and such magistrate shall thereupon cause the order to be carried into effect as if it were an order passed by him under the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

(3) In this section, the term "property" includes, in the case of property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed, not only such property as has been originally in the possession or under the control of any person, but also any property into or for which the same may have been converted or exchanged, and anything acquired by such conversion or exchange whether immediately or otherwise.



Any trial by a Force Court under the provisions of this Act shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections
193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) and the Force Court shall be deemed to be a court within the meaning of sections 345 and 346 of the code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).



(1) With a view to obtaining the evidence of any person supposed to have been directly or indirectly concerned in or privy to an offence triable by a Force Court other than a Summary Force Court under this Act, the commanding officer, the convening officer or the Force Court, at any stage of the investigation or inquiry into or the trial of, the offence, may tender a pardon to such person on condition of his making a full and true disclosure of the whole of the circumstances within his knowledge relating to the offence and to every other person concerned, whether as principal or abettor, in the commission thereof.

(2) The commanding officer or the convening officer who tenders a pardon under sub-section (1) shall record-

(a) His reasons for so doing;

(b) Whether the tender was or was not accepted by the person to whom it was made, and shall, on application made by the accused, furnish him with a copy of such record free of cost.

(3) Every person accepting a tender of pardon made under sub-
section (1)-

(a) Shall be examined as a witness by the commanding officer of the accused and in the subsequent trial, if any;

(b) May be detained in Force custody until the termination of the trial.



(1) Where, in regard to a person who has accepted a tender of pardon made under section 119, the Judge Attorney, or as the case may be, the Deputy Judge Attorney General or the Additional Judge Attorney General or the officer approved under section 95, certifies that in his opinion such person has, either by willfully concealing anything essential or by giving false evidence, not complied with the conditions on which the tender was made, such person may be tried for the offence in respect of which the pardon was so tendered or for any other offence in respect of which the pardon was so tendered or for any other offence of which he appears to have been guilty in connection with the same matter, and also for the offence of giving false evidence:

Provided that such person shall not be tried jointly with any of the other accused.

(2) Any statement made by such person accepting the tender of pardon and recorded by his commanding officer of Force Court may be given in evidence against him at such trial.

(3) At such trial, the accused shall be entitled to plead that he has complied with the condition upon which such tender was made; in which case it shall be for the prosecution to prove that the condition has not been complied with.

(4) At such trial, the Force Court shall, before arraignment, ask the accused whether he pleads that he has complied with the conditions on which the tender of pardon was made.

(5) If the accused does so plead, the Court shall record the plea and proceed with the trial and it shall, before giving its finding on the charge, find whether or not the accused has complied with the conditions of the pardon, and, if it finds that he has so complied, it shall give a verdict of not guilty.

Last updated on June, 2016

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