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THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, 1947

Title : THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, 1947

Year : 1947



(1) 1*[Where the appropriate Government is of opinion that any industrial dispute exists or is apprehended, it may at any time], by order in writing-

(a) Refer the dispute to a Board for promoting a settlement thereof; or

(b) Refer any matter appearing to be connected with or relevant to the dispute to a court for inquiry; or

2*[(c) Refer the dispute or any matter appearing to be connected with, or relevant to, the dispute, if it relates to any matter specified in the Second Schedule, to a Labour court for adjudication; or

(d) Refer the dispute or any matter appearing to be connected with, or relevant to, the dispute, whether it relates to any matter specified in the Second Schedule or the Third Schedule, to a Tribunal for adjudication:

Provided that where the dispute relates to any matter specified in the Third Schedule and is not likely to affect more than one hundred workmen, the appropriate Government may, if it so thinks fit, make the reference to a Labour Court under clause (c):]

3*[Provided further that] where the dispute relates to a public utility service and a notice under section 22 has been given, the appropriate Government shall, unless it considers that the notice has been frivolously or veraciously given or that it would be inexpedient so to do, make a reference under this sub-section notwithstanding that any other proceedings under this Act in respect of the dispute may have commenced:

4*[Provided also that where the dispute in the relation to which the Central Government is the appropriate Government, it shall be competent for the Government to refer the dispute to a Labour Court or an Industrial Tribunal, as the case may be, constituted by the State Government.]

5*[(1A) Where the Central Government is of opinion that any industrial dispute exists or is apprehended and the dispute involves any question of national importance or is of such a nature that industrial establishments situated in more than one State are likely to be interested in, or affected by, such dispute and that the dispute should be adjudicated by a National Tribunal, then, the Central Government may, whether or not it is the appropriate Government in relation to that dispute, at any time, by order in writing, refer the dispute or any matter appearing to be connected with, or relevant to, the dispute, whether it relates to any matter specified in the Second Schedule or the Third Schedule, to a National Tribunal for adjudication.]

(2) Where the parties to an industrial dispute apply in the prescribed manner, whether jointly or separately, for a reference of the dispute to a Board, Court, 6*[Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal], the appropriate Government, if satisfied that the persons applying represent the majority of each party, shall make the reference accordingly.

7*[(2A) An order referring an industrial dispute to a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal under this section shall specify the period within which such Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal shall submit its award on such dispute to the appropriate Government:

Provided that where such industrial dispute is connected with an individual workman, no such period shall exceed three months:

Provided further that where the parties to an industrial dispute apply in the prescribed manner, whether jointly or separately, to the Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal for extension of such period or for any other reason, and the presiding officer of such Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal considers it necessary or expedient to extend such period, he may for reasons to be recorded in writing, extend such period by such further period as he may think fit:

Provided also that in computing any period specified in this sub-section, the period, if any, for which the proceedings before the Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal had been stayed by any injunction or order of a Civil Court shall be excluded:

Provided also that no proceedings before a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal shall lapse merely on the ground that any period specified under this sub-section had expired without such proceedings being completed.]

(3) Where an industrial dispute has been referred to a Board, 6 [Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal] under this section, the appropriate Government may by order prohibit the continuance of any strike or lock-out in connection with such dispute which may be in existence on the date of the reference.

8*[(4) Where in an order referring an industrial dispute to 9*[a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal] under this section or in a subsequent order, the appropriate Government has specified the points of dispute for adjudication, 10*[the Labour Court or the Tribunal or the National Tribunal, as the case may be,] shall confine its adjudication to those points and matters incidental thereto.

(5) Where a dispute concerning any establishment or establishments has been, or is to be, referred to a 11*[Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal] under this section and the appropriate Government is of opinion, whether on an application made to it in this behalf or otherwise, that the dispute is of such a nature that any other establishment, group or class of establishments of a similar nature is likely to be interested in, or affected by, such dispute, the appropriate Government may, at the time of making the reference or at any time thereafter but before the submission of the award, include in that reference such establishment, group or class of establishments, whether or not at the time of such inclusion any dispute exists or is apprehended in that establishment, group or class of establishments.]

5*[(6) Where any reference has been made under sub-section (IA) to a National Tribunal then notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, no Labour Court or Tribunal shall have jurisdiction to adjudicate upon any matter which is under adjudication before the National Tribunal, and accordingly,-

(a) If the matter under adjudication before the National Tribunal is pending in a proceeding before a Labour Court or Tribunal, the proceeding before the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, in so far as it relates to such matter, shall be deemed to have been quashed on such reference to the National Tribunal; and

(b) It shall not be lawful for the appropriate Government to refer the matter under adjudication before the National Tribunal to any Labour Court or Tribunal for adjudication during the pendency of the proceeding in relation to such matter before the National Tribunal.

12*[Explanation.- In this sub-section, "Labour Court" or "Tribunal" includes any Court or Tribunal or other authority constituted under any law relating to investigation and settlement of industrial disputes in force in any State.]

(7) Where any industrial dispute, in relation to which the Central Government is not the appropriate Government, is referred to a National Tribunal, then, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any reference in section 15, section 17, section 19, section 33A, section 33B and section 36A to the appropriate Government in relation to such dispute shall be construed as a reference to the Central Government but, save as aforesaid and as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, any reference in any other provision of this Act to the appropriate Government in relation to that dispute shall mean a reference to the State Government.]

7*[(8) No proceedings pending before a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal in relation to an industrial dispute shall lapse merely by reason of the death of any of the parties to the dispute being a workman, and such Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal shall complete such proceedings and submit its award to the appropriate Government.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

13*Delhi
In section 10, after sub-section (4), insert the following sub-section, namely:--

"(4A) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 9C and in this section, in the case of a dispute falling within the scope of section 2A, the individual workman concerned may, within twelve months from the date of communication to him of the order of discharge, dismissal, retrenchment or termination or the date of commencement of the Industrial Disputes (Delhi Amendment) Act, 2003, whichever, is later, apply in the prescribed manner, to the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, for adjudication of the dispute and the Labour Court or Tribunal, as the case may be, shall dispose of such application in the same manner as a dispute referred under sub-section (1)."

14*Karnataka

In section 10, after sub-section (4), insert the following sub-section, namely:-

"(4A) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 9C and in this section, in the case of a dispute falling within the scope of section 2A, the individual workman concerned may, within six months from the date of communication to him of the order of discharge, dismissal, retrenchment or termination or the date of commencement of the Industrial Disputes (Karnataka Amendment) Act, 1987, whichever is later, apply, in the prescribed manner, to the Labour Court for adjudication of the dispute and the Labour Court shall dispose of such application in the same manner as a dispute referred under sub-section (1).

Note.-An application under sub-section (4A), may be made even in respect of a dispute pending consideration of the Government for reference, on the date of commencement of the Industrial Disputes (Karnataka Amendment) Act, 1987."

15* Maharashtra

In section 10, in sub-section (2), after the words "appropriate Government", insert the words "on such application being made by a Union recognised for any undertaking under any law for the time being in force, and in any other case".

16* Mysore

In its application to the Madras area in the State of Mysore, omit sub-section (2A) as inserted by Madras Act 12 of 1949.

17* Tamil Nadu
In section 10, after sub-section (2) insert the following sub-section, namely:-

"(2A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) where a Tribunal has been constituted under this Act for the adjudication of disputes in any specified industry or industries and a dispute exists or is apprehended in any such industry, the employer or a majority of the workmen concerned may refer the dispute to that Tribunal."

18* West Bengal

In section 10, after sub-section (1A), insert the following sub-section, namely:-

"(1B) (a) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, where in a conciliation proceeding of an industrial dispute relating to an individual workman, no settlement is arrived at within a period of sixty days from the date of raising of the dispute, the party raising the dispute may apply to the Conciliation Officer in such manner and in such form as may be prescribed, for a certificate about the pendency of the conciliation proceedings.

(b) The Conciliation Officer shall, on receipt of the application under clause (a), issue a certificate within seven days from the date of receipt in such manner, in such form and containing such particulars as may be prescribed. A copy of the certificate shall also be sent to the appropriate Government for information.

(c) The party may, within a period of sixty days from the receipt of such certificate or, where such certificate has not been issued within a period of sixty days from the receipt of such certificate or, where such certificate has not been issued within seven days as aforesaid, within a period of sixty days commencing from the day immediately after the expiry of seven days as aforesaid, file an application in such form and in such manner and with such particulars of demands as may be prescribed, to such Labour Court or Tribunal as may be specified by the appropriate Government by notification. Different Labour Courts or Tribunals may be specified for different areas or different classes of industries.

(d) The Labour Court or Tribunal specified under clause (c) shall, within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of an application under clause (c), give a hearing to the parties and frame the specific issues in dispute, and shall thereafter proceed to adjudicate on the issues so framed as if it were an industrial dispute referred to in sub-section (1)."

10A - 19* Voluntary reference of disputes to arbitration

(1) Where any industrial dispute exists or is apprehended and the employer and the workmen agree to refer the dispute to arbitration, they may, at any time before the dispute has been referred under section 10 to a Labour Court or Tribunal or National Tribunal, by a written agreement, refer the dispute to arbitration and the reference shall be to such person or persons (including the presiding officer of a Labour Court or Tribunal or National Tribunal) as an arbitrator or arbitrators as may be specified in the arbitration agreement.

20*[(1A) Where an arbitration agreement provides for a reference of the dispute to an even number of arbitrators, the agreement shall provide for the appointment of another person as umpire who shall enter upon the reference, if the arbitrators are equally divided in their opinion, and the award of the umpire shall prevail and shall be deemed to be the arbitration award for the purpose of this Act.]

(2) An arbitration agreement referred to in sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall be signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed.

(3) A copy of the arbitration agreement shall be forwarded to the appropriate Government and the conciliation officer and the appropriate Government shall, within 21*[one month] from the date of the receipt of such copy, publish the same in the Official Gazette.

22*[(3A) Where an industrial dispute has been referred to arbitration and the appropriate Government is satisfied that the persons making the reference represent the majority of each party, the appropriate Government may, within the time referred to in sub-section (3), issue a notification in such manner as may be prescribed; and when any such notification is issued, the employers and workmen who are not parties to the arbitration agreement but are concerned in the dispute, shall be given an opportunity of presenting their case before the arbitrator or arbitrators.]

(4) The arbitrator or arbitrators shall investigate the dispute and submit to the appropriate Government the arbitration award signed by the arbitrator or all the arbitrators, as the case may be.

23*[(4A) Where an industrial dispute has been referred to arbitration and a notification has been issued under sub-section
(3A), the appropriate Government may, by order, prohibit the continuance of any strike or lock-out in connection with such dispute which may be in existence on the date of the reference.]

(5) Nothing in the Arbitration Act, 1940 (10 of 1940) shall apply to arbitrations under this section.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

24* Andhra Pradesh

After section 10A, insert the following section, namely:--
"10B. Power to issue order regarding terms and conditions of service, etc.-

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, if in the opinion of the State Government, it is necessary or expedient so to do, for securing the public safety or convenience or the maintenance of public order or supplies and services essential to the life of the community or for maintaining employment or maintaining industrial peace, it may by a general or special order, make provision,--

(a) For requiring employers, workmen or both to observe for such period as may be specified in the order, such terms and conditions of employment as may be determined in accordance with the order; and

(b) For prohibiting, subject to the provisions of the order, strikes or lockouts generally or a strike or lockout in connection with any industrial dispute.

(2) In case any industrial dispute is raised in respect of any provisions in the order of the State Government made under sub-section (1) within a period of three months of the order, it shall be referred by the State Government for adjudication to an Industrial Tribunal or Labour Court and the order shall lapse when the award of the Tribunal or Labour Court becomes enforceable:

Provided that the reference of the industrial dispute to adjudication shall not have the effect of staying the operation of the order."

25* Karnataka

After section 10A, insert the following section, namely:-

10B. Power to issue order regarding terms and conditions of service pending settlement of dispute.-

(1) Where an industrial dispute has been referred by the State Government to a Labour Court or a Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 10 and if in the opinion of the State Government it is necessary or expedient so to do for securing the public safety or convenience or the maintenance of public order or supplies and services essential to the life of the community or for maintaining employment or industrial peace in the establishment concerning which such reference has been made, it may, by general or special order, make provision,-

(a) For requiring the employer or workman or both to observe such terms and conditions of employment as may be specified in the order or as may be determined in accordance with the order, including payment of money by the employer to any person who is or has been a workman;

(b) For requiring any public utility service not to close or remain closed and to work or continue to work on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the order; and

(c) For any incidental or supplementary matter which appears to it to be necessary or expedient for the purpose of the order:

Provided that no order made under this sub-section shall require any employer to observe terms and conditions of employment less favourable to the workman than those which were applicable to them at any time within three months immediately preceding the date of the order.

Explanation.-For the purpose of this sub-section, "public utility service" means-

(i) Any section of an industrial establishment on the working of which the safety of the establishment or the workman employed therein depends;

(ii) Any industry which supplies power, light or water to the public;
(iii) any industry which has been declared by the State Government to be a public utility service for the purpose of this Act.

(2) An order made under sub-section (1) shall cease to operate on the expiry of a period of six months from the date of the order or on the date of the award of the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, whichever is earlier.

(3) Any money paid by an employer to any person in pursuance of an order under sub-section (1), may be deducted by that employer from out of any monetary benefit to which such person becomes entitled under the provisions of any award passed by the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be."

26* Kerala

After section 10A, insert the following section, namely:-

"10B. Power to issue orders regarding terms and conditions of service pending settlement of disputes.-

(1) Where an industrial dispute has been referred by the State Government to a Labour Court or Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 10 and if, in the opinion of that Government, it is necessary or expedient so to do for securing the public safety or convenience or the maintenance of public order or supplies and services essential to the life of the community or for maintaining employment or industrial peace in the establishment concerning which such reference has been made, it may, by general or special order, make provision-

(a) For requiring the employers or workmen or both to observe such terms and conditions of employment as may be specified in the order or as may be determined in accordance with the order, including payment of money by the employer to any person who is or has been a workman;

(b) For requiring any public utility service not to close or remain closed and to work or continue to work on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the order; and

(c) For any incidental or supplementary matters which appear to it to be necessary or expedient for the purposes of the order:

Provided that no order made under this sub-section shall require any employer to observe terms and conditions of employment less favourable to the workmen than those which were applicable to them at any time within three months immediately preceding the date of the order.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section "public utility service" means-

(i) Any section of an industrial establishment on the working of which the safety of the establishment or the workmen employed therein depends;

(ii) Any industry which supplies power, light or water to the public;

(iii) Any industry which has been declared by the State Government to be a public utility service for the purposes of this Act.

(2) An order made under sub-section (1) shall cease to operate on the expiry of a period of six months from the date of order or on the date of the award of the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, whichever is earlier.

(3) Any money paid by an employer to any person in pursuance of any order under sub-section (1) may be deducted by that employer from out of any monetary benefit to which such person becomes entitled under the provisions of any award passed by the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be."

27* Maharashtra

In section 10A,-

(a) In sub-section (1), after the words "workmen" insert the words "and where under any law for the time being in force, there is a recognised union in respect of any undertaking, the employer and such recognised union";

(b) In sub-section (3A), insert the following proviso, namely:-

"Provided that, nothing in this sub-section shall apply, where a dispute has been referred to arbitration in pursuance of an agreement between the employer and the recognised union under sub-section (1) of this section.";

(c) In sub-section (4A), after the words, brackets figure and letter "sub-section (3A)" insert the words "or where there is a recognised union for any undertaking under any law for the time being in force and an industrial dispute has been referred to arbitration".

28* Rajasthan

After section 10A, insert the following Chapter, namely:--
"CHAPTER IIIA
ARBITRATION

10B. Submission.-

(1) Any employer and a Representative Union or, in the absence of any registered Representative Union, any other Union which is representative of employees may, by a written agreement, agree to submit any present or future industrial dispute or class of such disputes to the arbitration of any person whether such arbitrator is named in such agreement or not. Such agreement shall be called a submission.

(2) A copy of every such submission shall be sent to the Registrar who shall register it in the register to be maintained for the purpose and shall publish it in such manner as may be prescribed.

10C. Submission when revocable.-

Every submission shall, in the absence of any provision to the contrary contained therein be irrevocable:

Provided
that a submission to refer future disputes to arbitration may at any time be revoked by any of the parties to such submission by giving the other party three months' notice in writing:

Provided further that, before the expiry of the said period of three months the parties may agree to continue the submission for such further period as may be agreed upon between them.

10D. Proceedings in arbitration.-

The proceedings in arbitration under this Chapter shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Arbitration Act, 1940 (Central Act X of 1940) in so far as they are applicable and the powers which are exercisable by a Civil Court under the said provisions shall be exercisable by the Industrial Tribunal.

10E. Special case may be stated to Industrial Tribunal.-

The arbitrator may refer any question of law arising before him in any proceeding under this Act to the Industrial Tribunal for its decision. Any award made by the arbitrator shall be in accordance with such decision.

10F. Award by arbitrator.-

The arbitrator shall, after hearing the parties concerned, make an award which shall be signed by him.

10G. Dispute to be referred to Industrial Tribunal if no arbitrator appointed.-

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, if no provision has been made in any submission for the appointment of an arbitrator or where by reason of any circumstances no arbitrator is appointed, such dispute may be referred by the State Government for adjudication by the Industrial Tribunal.

10H. State Government may refer industrial dispute to Industrial Tribunal for adjudication.-

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter the State Government may, at any time, refer an industrial dispute for adjudication by the Industrial Tribunal, if on a report made by the Conciliation Officer or otherwise it is satisfied that-

(A) By reason of the continuance of the dispute-
(a) a serious outbreak of disorder or a breach of the public peace is likely to occur; or

(b) Serious or prolonged hardship to a large section of the community is likely to be caused; or

(c) The industry concerned is likely to be seriously affected or the prospects and scope for employment therein curtailed; or

(B) The dispute is not likely to be settled by other means; or

(C) It is necessary in the public interest to do so.

(2) When the State Government makes a reference to the Industrial Tribunal for adjudication of any industrial dispute, any submission or any award of an arbitrator with regard to that industrial dispute shall stand as cancelled.

10-I. Notice of award to parties.-

(1) The arbitrator or the Industrial Tribunal as an arbitrator, as the case may be, shall forward copies of the award made by him or it to the parties, the Commissioner of Labour, the Registrar and the State Government.

(2) On receipt of such award, the Registrar shall enter it in the register kept for the purpose.

10-J. Completion of proceedings.-

The arbitration proceeding shall be deemed to have completed when the award is published under section 17." 10After section 10J, insert as under:

"10-K. State Government may lay down terms and conditions of employment and prohibit strikes, etc.-

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Act, if in the opinion of the State Government, it is necessary or expedient so to do, for securing the public safety or convenience or the maintenance of public order or supplies and services essential to the life of the community or for maintaining employment or maintaining industrial peace, it may by a general or special order, make provision-

(a) For requiring employers, workmen or both to observe for such period as may be specified in the order, such terms and conditions of employment as may be determined in accordance with the order; and

(b) For prohibiting, subject to the provision of the order, strikes or lock-outs generally or a strike or lock-out in connection with any industrial dispute.

(2) In case any industrial dispute is raised in respect of any provisions in the order of the State Government made under sub-section (1) within a period of three months of the order, it shall be referred by the State Government for adjudication to an Industrial Tribunal and the order shall lapse when the award of the Tribunal becomes enforceable:

Provided, however, that the reference of the industrial dispute to adjudication shall not have the effect of staying the operation of the order."

29* Tamil Nadu.-

After section 10A, insert the following section, namely:-

"10B. Power to issue order regarding terms and conditions of service pending settlement of disputes.-

(1) Where an industrial dispute has been referred by the State Government to a Labour Court or a Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 10 and if, in the opinion of the State Government, it is necessary or expedient so to do for securing the public safety or convenience or the maintenance of public order or supplies and services essential to the life of the community or for maintaining employment or industrial peace in the establishment concerning which such reference has been made, they may, by general or special order, make provision--

(a) For requiring employer or workmen or both to observe such terms and conditions of employment as may be specified in the order or as may be determined in accordance with the order, including payment of money by the employer to any person who is or has been a workman;

(b) For requiring any public utility service not to close or remain closed and to work or continue to work on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the order; and

(c) For any incidental or supplementary matters which appears to them to be necessary or expedient for the purpose of the order:

Provided that no order made under this sub-section shall require any employer to observe terms and conditions of employment less favourable to the workmen than those which were applicable to them at any time within three months immediately preceding the date of the order.

Explanation.-For the purpose of this sub-section "public utility service" means-

(i) Any section of an industrial establishment on the working of which the safety of the establishment or the workmen employed therein depends;

(ii) Any industry which supplies power, light or water to the public;

(iii) Any industry which has been declared by the State Government to be a public utility service for the purpose of this Act.

(2) An order made under sub-section (1) shall cease to operate on the expiry of a period of six months from the date of the order or on the date of the award of the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, whichever is earlier.

(3) Any money paid by an employer to any person in pursuance of an order under sub-section (1) may be deducted by that employer from out of any monetary benefit to which such person becomes entitled under the provisions of any award passed by the Labour Court or the Tribunal, as the case may be."

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1. Substituted by Act 18 of 1952, section 3, for "If any industrial dispute exists or is apprehended, the appropriate Government may".

2. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for clause (c) (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

3. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for "Provided that" (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

4. Inserted by Act 46 of 1982, section 8 (w.e.f. 21-8-1984).

5. Inserted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7 (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

6. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for "or Tribunal" (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

7. Inserted by Act 46 of 1982, section 8, (w.e.f. 21-8-1984).

8. Inserted by Act 18 of 1952, section 3.

9. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for "a Tribunal" (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

10. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for "the Tribunal" (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

11. Substituted by Act 36 of 1956, section 7, for "Tribunal" (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

12. Inserted by Act 36 of 1964, section 5 (w.e.f. 19-12-1964).

13. Vide Delhi Act 9 of 2003, section 2 (w.e.f. 22-8-2003).

14. Vide Karnataka Act 3 of 1988, section2 (w.e.f. 7-4-1988).

15. Vide Maharashtra Act 1 of 1972, Schedule I, item 2.

16. Vide Mysore Act 1 of 1960, section 2 (w.e.f. 21-1-1960).

17. Vide Tamil Nadu Act 12 of 1949, section 3 (w.e.f. 14-6-1949).

18. Vide West Bengal Act 33 of 1989, Section 4 (w.e.f. 8-12-1989).

19. Inserted by Act 36 of 1956, section 8 (w.e.f. 10-3-1957).

20. Inserted by Act 36 of 1964, section 6 (w.e.f. 19-12-1964).

21. Substituted by Act 36 of 1964, section 6, for "fourteen days" (w.e.f. 19-12-1964).

22. Inserted by Act 36 of 1964, section 6 (w.e.f. 19-12-1964).

23. Vide Andhra Pradesh Act 32 of 1987, section 4 (w.e.f. 27-7-1987).

24. Vide Karnataka Act 5 of 1988, section 3 (w.e.f. 7-4-1988).

25. Vide Kerala Act 30 of 1979, section 2.

26. Vide Maharashtra Act 1 of 1972, Schedule I, item 3.

27. Vide Rajasthan Act 34 of 1958, section 6 (w.e.f. 1-7-1960).

28. Vide Rajasthan Act 14 of 1970, section 6 (w.r.e.f. 26-2-1970).

29. Vide Tamil Nadu Act 36 of 1982, section 2 (w.e.f. 15-8-1982).

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Last updated on May, 2016

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