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THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT, 1894

Title : THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT, 1894

Year : 1894



(1) Whenever it appears to the appropriate Government that land in any locality {Ins.by Act.38 of 1923, s.2.} [ is needed or ] is likely to be needed for any public purpose, a notification to that effect shall be published in the Official Gazette, and the Collector shall cause public notice of the substance of such notification to be given at convenient places in the said locality.

(2) Thereupon it shall be lawful for any officer, either generally or specially authorised by such Government in this behalf, and for his servants and workmen.-

To enter upon and survey and take levels of any land in such locality ;

To dig or bore into the subsoil ;

To do all other acts necessary to ascerttain whether the land is adapted for such purpose ;

To set out the boundaries of the land proposed to be taken and the intended line of the work (if any) proposed to be made thereon;

To mark such levels, boundaries and line by placing marks and cutting trenches$ and.

Where otherwise the survey cannot be completed and the levels taken and the boundaries and line marked, to cut down and clear away any part of any standing crop, fence or jungle :

Provided that no person shall enter into any building or upon any enclosed court or garden attached to a dwelling-house (unless with the consent of the occupier thereof ) without previously giving such occupier at least seven days$ notice in writing of his intention to do so.



The officer so authorised shall at the time of such entry pay or tender payment for all necessary damage to be done as aforesaid, and, in case of dispute as to the sufficiency of the amount so paid or tendered, he shall at once refer the dispute to the decision of the Collector or other chief revenue- offecer of the district, and such decision shall be final.
[Objections {Ins.by s.3, ibid.}

5A Hearing of objections:-

(1) Any person interested in any land which has been notified under section 4, Sub-section (1) as being needed or likely to be needed for a public purpose or for a Company may, within thirty days after the issue of the notification, object to the acquisition of the land or of any land in the locality, as the case may be.

(2) Every objection under sub-section (1) shall be made to the Collector in writing, and the Collector shall give the objector an opportunity of being heard either in person or by pleader and shall, after hearing all such objections and after making such further inquiry, if any, as he thinks necessary, submit the case for the decision of the appropriate Government, together with the record of the proceedings held by him and a report containing his recommendations on the objections,The decision of the appropriate Government on the objections shall be final.

(3) For the purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to be interested in land who would be entitled to claim an interest in compensation if the land were acquired under this Act.]



(1) Subject to the provisions of Part VII of this Act , {Subs.by Act 38 of 1923, s.4.for whenever it appears to the L.G.}[when the appropriate Government is satisfied, after considering the report, if any, made under section 5 A, sub-Section (2),] that any particular land is needed for public purpose or for a Company, a declaration shall be made to that effect under the signature of a Secretary to such Government or of some officer duly authorised to certify its orders :

Provided
that no scuh declaration shall be made unless the compensation to be awarded for such property is to be paid by a Company, or wholly or partly out of public revenues or some fund controlled or managed by a local authority.

(2 ) The declaration shall be published in the Official Gazette, and shall state the district or other territorial division in which the land is situate, the purpose for which it is needed, its approximate area, and , where a plan shall have been of the land, the place where such plan may be inspected.

(3) The said declaration shall be conclusive evidence that the land is needed for a public purpose or for a Company, as the case may be; and, after making such declaration , the appropriate Government may acquire the land in manner hereinafter appearing.



Whenever any shall have been so declared to be needed for a public purpose or for a Company the appropriate Government, or some officer authorised by the appropriate Government in this behalf, shall direct the Collector to take order for the acquisition of the land.



The Collector shall thereupon cause the land (unless it has been already marked out under section 4 ) to be marked out.He shall also cause it to be measured, and if no plan has been made thereof , a plan to be made of the same.



(1) The Collector shall then cause public notice to be given at convenient places on or near the land to be taken, stating that the Government intends to take possession of the land, and that claims to compensation for all interest in such land may be made to him.

(2) Such notice shall state the particulars of the land so needed, and shall require all persons interested in the land to appear personally or by agenty before the Collector at a time and place therein mentioned (such time not being earlier that fifteen days after the date of publication of the notice), and to state the nature of their respective interest in the land and the amount and particulars of their claims to compensation for such interests, and their objections (if any) to the measurements made under section 8.The Collector may in any case require such statement to be made in writing and signed by the party or his agent.

(3) The Collector shall also serve notice to the same effect on the occupier (If any) of such land and on all such persons known or believed to be entitled to act for persons so interesed a s reside or have agents authorised to receive service on their behalf, within the revenue-district in which the land is situate.

(4) In case any person so interested resides elsewhere, and has no such agent, the notice shall be sent to him by post in a letter addressed to him at his last known residence, address or place of business and registered under Part III of the {See now the Indian Post Office Act, 1898 (6 of 1898).}



(1) The Collector may also require any such person to make or deliver to him, at a time and place mentioned (such time not being earlier than fifteen days after the date of the requisition), a statement containing so far as may be practicable, the name of every other person possessing any interest in the land or any part therof as co-proprietor, sub-proprietor, mortagagee, tenant or otherwise, and of the nature of such interest, and of the rents and profits (if any) received or receivable on account thereof for three years next preceding the date of the statement.

(2) Every person required to make or deliver a statment under this section or section 9 shall be deemed to be legally bound to do so within the meaning of sections 175 and 176 of the Indian Penal Code Enquiry into measuremnts, value and claims, and award by the Collector



On the day so fixed, or any other day to which the enquiry has been adjourned, the Collector shall proceed to enquire into the objections (if any) which any person interested has stated pursuant to a notice given under section 9 to the measurements made under sectiuon 8 , and into the value of the land {Ins.by Act 38 of 1923, s.5}[ at the date of the publication of the notification under section 4, sub-section (1)], and into the respective interests of the persons claiming the compensation and shall make an award under his hand of--

(i) The true area of the land ;

(ii) The compensation which in his opinion should be allowed for the land ; and

(iii) The apportionment of the said compensation among all the persons known or believed to be interested in the land, of whom, or of whose claims, he has information, whether or not they have respectively appeared before him,



(1) Such award shall be filed in the Collector$s office and shall, except as hereinafter provided, be final and conclusive evidence evidence, as between the Collector and the persons interested, whether they have respectively appeared before the Collector or not, of the true area and value of the land, and the apportionment of the compensation among the persons interested.

(2) The Collector shall give immediate notice of his award to such of the persons interested as are not present personally or by their representatives when the award is made.



The Collector may, for any cause he thinks fit from time to time adjourn the enquiry to a day to be fixed by him.



For the purpose of enquiries under this Act the Collector shall have power to summon and enforce the attendance of witnesses, including the parties interested or any of them ,and to compel the production of documents by the same means, and (so far as may be ) in the same manner, as is provided in the case of a Civil Court under the {See now the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).} Code of Civil Procedure.



In determining the amount of compensation, the Collector shall be guided by the provisions contained in sections 23 and 24.




When the Collector has made an award under section 11, he may take possession of the land, which shall thereupon vest absolutely in the Government, free from all encumbrances.



(1) In cases of urgency, whenever the appropriate Government so directs, the Collector, though no such award has been made, may, on the expiration of fifteen days from the publication of the notice mentioned in section 9, sub-section (1), take possession of any waste or arable land needed for public purposes or for a Company.Such land shall thereupon vest absolutely in the Government, free from all encumbrances.

(2) Whenever, owing to any sudden change in the channel of any navigable river or other unforeseen emergency, it becomes necessary for any Railway administration to acquire the immediate possession of any land for the maintenance of their traffic or for the purpose of making thereon a river-side or ghat station, or of providing convenient connection with or access to any such station, the Collector may, immediately after the publication of the notice mentioned in sub-section (1) and with the previous sanction of the appropriate Government enter upon and take possession of such land, which shall thereupon vest absolutely in the Government free from all encumbrances.

Provided
that the Collector shall not take possession of any building or part of a building under this sub-section without giving to the occupier thereof at least forty-eight hour$s notice of his intention so to do, or such longer notice as may be reasonably sufficient to enable such occupier to remobe his movable property from such building without unecessary inconvenience.

(3) In every case under either of the preceding sub-sections the Collector shall at the time of taking possession offer to the persons interested compensation for the standing crops and trees (if any) on such land and for any other damage sustained by them caused by such sudden dispossession and not excepted in section 24; and, in cases, such offer is not accepted, the value of such crops and trees and the amount of such other damage shall be allowed for in awarding compensation for the land under the provisions herein contained.

{Ins.by Act 38 of 1923, s.6}[(4) In the case of any land to which, in the opinion of the appropriate Government, the provisions of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) are applicable, the appropriate Government may direct that the provisions of section 5A shall not apply, and, if it does not so direct, a declaration may be made under section 6 in respect of the land at any time after the publication of the notification under section 4, sub-section (1).]


Last updated on June, 2016

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