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WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) ACT

Title : WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) ACT

Year : 1962



(1) No person shall hunt any wild animal specified in Schedule I.

(2) No person shall hunt any wild animal specified in Schedule II, Schedule III, Schedule IV, except under, and in accordance with, the conditions specified in a licence granted under sub-section (5).

(3) Any person desiring to obtain a licence referred to in sub-section (2) shall apply, in such form, and on payment of such fee, as may be prescribed, to the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf (hereinafter referred to as the authorised officer).

(4) An application under sub-section (3) may be made for all or any of the following kinds of licences, namely :-

(a) Special game hunting licence.

(b) Big game hunting licence.

(c) Small game hunting licence.

(d) Wild animal trapping licence :

Provided that any such licence may be restricted to the hunting or trapping of such animal as may be specified therein.

(5) On receipt of an application under sub-section (3), the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may, after making such inquiry as he may think fit with regard to the fitness or otherwise of the applicant to receive the licence, grant or refuse to grant such license after recording in writing his reasons for such grant or refusal;

and when the grant of a licence is refused, the fee paid therefor shall be refunded to the applicant.

(6) A licence granted under this section shall-

(a) Be in such form as may be prescribed;

(b) Be valid for such period as may be specified therein;

(c) Be subject to such terms, conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed;

(d) Not be transferable.



(1) The holder of every licence shall maintain a record, containing such particulars as may be prescribed, of the wild animals, other than vermin, killed or captured by him during the CURRENCY of the licence.

(2) When any animal specified in Schedule II or Schedule III is killed, wounded, or captured by the holder of a license, he shall, not later than fifteen days from the date of such killing, wounding or capture, or before leaving the area specified in the licence, which ever is earlier, intimate in writing to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer, the prescribed particulars of such animal killed, wounded or captured by him.

(3) The holder of every licence shall, not later than fifteen days from the date of expiry of such licence surrender the records maintained by him under sub-section (1) and the licence to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer, and shall sign a declaration, in the prescribed form certifying the accuracy of the records maintained by him under sub-section (1).



(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force and subject to the provisions of Chapter IV,-

(a) The Chief Wild Life Warden may, if he is satisfied that any wild animal specified in Schedule I has become dangerous to human life or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, by order in writing and stating the reasons therefor, permit any person to hunt such animal or cause such animal to be hunted;

(b) The Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may, if he is satisfied that any wild animal specified in Schedule II, Schedule III, or Schedule IV, has become dangerous to human life or to property (including standing crops on any land) or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, by order in writing and stating the reasons, therefor, permit any person to hunt such animal or cause such animal to be hunted.

(2) The killing or wounding in good faith of any wild animal in defence of oneself or of any other person shall not be an offence.

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall exonerate any person who, when such defence becomes necessary, was committing any act in contravention of any provision of this Act or any rule or order made there under.

(3) Any wild animal killed or wounded in defence of any person shall be Government property.



Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, it shall be lawful for the Chief Wild Life Warden, to grant, with the previous permission of the State Government, a permit by an order in writing stating the reasons therefor, to any person, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, which shall entitle the holder of such permit to hunt, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any wild animal specified in such permit, for the purpose of,-

(a) Education;

(b) Scientific research; or

(c) Collection of specimens for zoological gardens, museums and similar institutions.



The Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may, subject to any general or special orders of the State Government, for good and sufficient reason, to be recorded in writing, suspend or cancel any licence granted under this Chapter :

Provided that no such suspension or cancellation shall be made except after giving the holder of the licence a reasonable opportunity of being heard.



(1) An appeal from an order refusing to grant a licence under section 9, or an order suspending or cancelling a licence under section 13, shall, lie,-

(a) If the order is made by the authorised officer, to the Chief Wild Life Warden, or

(b) If the order is made by the Chief Wild Life Warden, to the State Government.

(2) In the case of an order passed in appeal by the Chief Wild Life Warden under sub-section (1), a second appeal shall lie to the State Government.

(3) Subject as aforesaid, every order passed in appeal under this section shall be final.

(4) No appeal shall be entertained unless it is preferred within fifteen days from the date of the communication to the applicant of the order appealed against :

Provided that the appellate authority may admit any appeal after the expiry of the period aforesaid, if it is satisfied that the appellant had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal in time.



No person shall, unless specially authorised by a licence, hunt the young of any wild animal, other than vermin, or any female of such animal, or any deer with antlers in velvet.



(1) The State Government may, by notification, declare the whole year or any part thereof, to be a closed time throughout the State, or any part thereof, for such wild animal as may be specified in the notification and no hunting of such animal shall be permitted, during the said period, in the area specified in the notification.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply to vermin unless otherwise specified by the State Government in this behalf.



(1) No person shall-

(a) Hunt any wild animal, from or by means of, a wheeled or a mechanically propelled vehicle on water or land, or by aircraft;

(b) Use an aircraft, motor vehicle or launch for the purpose of driving or stampeding any wild animal;

(c) Hunt any wild animal with chemicals, explosives, nets, pit falls, poisons, poisoned-weapons, snares or traps, except in so far as they relate to the capture of wild animals under a Wild Animal Trapping Licence;

(d) Hunt any special game or big game other than with a rifle unless specially authorised by the licence to hunt with a shot-gun using single-slug bullets;

(e) For the purpose of hunting, set fire to any vegetation;

(f) Use any artificial light for the purpose of hunting except when specially authorised to do so under a licence in the case of carnivora over a kill;

(g) Hunt any wild animal during the hours of night, that is to say,between sun-set and sun-rise, except when specially authorised to do so under a licence in the case of carnivora over a kill;

(h) Hunt any wild animal on a salt-lick or water hold or other drinking place or on path or approach to the same, except sand-grouse and water-birds;

(i) Hunt any wild animal on any land not owned by Government, without the consent of the owner or his agent or the lawful occupier of such land;

(j) Notwithstanding that he holds a licence for the purpose, hunt any wild animal during the closed time referred to in section 16;

(k) Hunt, with the help of dogs, any wild animal except water-bird, chakor, partridge or quail.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply to vermin.



(1) The State Government may, by notification declare any area to be a sanctuary if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting propagation or developing wild life or its environment.

(2) The notification referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify, as nearly as possible, the situation and limits of such area.

Explanation.- For the purpose of this section, it shall be sufficient to describe the area by roads, rivers, ridges or other well-known or readily intelligible boundaries.



Whenever any area is declared to be a sanctuary, the Collector shall inquire into, and determine, the existence, nature and extend of the rights of any person in or over the land comprised within the limits of the sanctuary.



After the issue of a notification under section 18, no right shall be acquired in, on or over the land comprised within the limits of the area specified in such notification, except by succession, testamentary or intestate.



When a notification has been issued under section 18, the Collector shall publish in the regional language in every town and village in or in the neighbourhood of the area comprised therein, a proclamation-

(a) Specifying, as nearly as possible, the situation and the limits of the sanctuary; and

(b) Requiring any person, claiming any right mentioned in section 19, to prefer before the Collector, within two months from the date of such proclamation, a written claim in the prescribed form, specifying the nature and extent of such right with necessary details and the amount and particulars of compensation, if any, claimed in respect thereof.



The Collector shall, after service of the prescribed notice upon the claimant, expeditiously inquire into-

(a) The claim preferred before him under clause (b) of section 21, and

(b) The existence of any right mentioned in section 19 and not claimed under clause (b) of section 21, so far as the same may be ascertainable from the re cords of the State Government and the evidence of any person acquainted with the same.



For the purposes of such inquiry, the Collector may exercise the following powers, namely :-

(a) The power to enter in on upon any land and to survey, demarcate and make a map of the same or to authorise any other officer to do so;

(b) The same powers as are vested in a civil court for the trial of suits.



(1) In the case of a claim to a right in or over any land referred to in section 19, the Collector shall pass an order admitting or rejecting the same in whole or in part.

(2) If such claim is admitted in whole or in part, the Collector may either-

(a) Exclude such land from the limits of the proposed sanctuary, or

(b) Proceed to acquire such land or rights, except where by an agreement between the owner of such land or holder of rights and the Government, the owner or holder of such rights has agreed to surrender his rights to the Government, in or over such land, and on payment of such compensation, as is provided in the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894).



(1) For the purpose of acquiring such land, or rights in or over such land,-

(a) The Collector shall be deemed to be a Collector, proceeding under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894)

(b) The claimant shall be deemed to be a person interested and appearing before him in pursuance of a notice given under section 9 of that Act;

(c) The provisions of the sections, preceding section 9 of that Act, shall be deemed to have been complied with;

(d) Where the claimant does not accept the award made in his favour in the matter of compensation, he shall be deemed, within the meaning of section 18 of that Act, to be a person interested who has not accepted the award, and shall be entitled to proceed to claim relief against the award under the provisions of Part III of that Act;

(e) The Collector, with the consent of the claimant, or the court, with the consent of both the parties, may award compensation in land or MONEY or partly in land and partly in money; and

(f) In the case of the stoppage of a public way or a common pasture, the Collector may, with the previous sanction of the State Government, provide for an alternative public way or common pasture, as far as may be practicable or convenient.

(2) The acquisition under this Act of any land or interest therein shall be deemed to be acquisition for a public purpose.



The State Government may, by general or special order, direct that the powers exercisable or the functions to be performed by the Collector under sections 19 to 25 (both inclusive) may be exercised and performed by such other officer as may be specified in the order.



(1) No person other than,-

(a) A public servant on duty.

(b) A person who has been permitted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer to reside within the limits of the sanctuary,

(c) A person who has any right over immovable property within the limits of the sanctuary,

(d) A person passing through the sanctuary along a public highway, and

(e) The dependants of the person referred to in clause (a), clause (b) or clause (c), shall enter or reside in the sanctuary, except under and in accordance with the conditions of a permit granted under section 28.

(2) Every person shall, so long as he resides in the sanctuary, be bound-

(a) To prevent the commission, in the sanctuary, of an offence against this Act;

(b) Where there is reason to believe that any such offence against this Act has been committed in such sanctuary, to help in discovering and arresting the offender;

(c) To report the death of any wild animal and to safeguard its remains until the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer takes charge thereof;

(d) To extinguish any fire in such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information and to prevent from spreading, by any lawful means in his powers, any fire within the vicinity of such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information; and

(e) To assist any forest officer, Chief Wild Life Warden.Wild Life Warden or police officer demanding his aid for preventing the commission of any offence against this Act or in the investigation of any such offence.



(1) The Chief Wild Life Warden may, on application, grant to any person a permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary for all or any of the following purposes, namely :-

(a) Investigation or study of wild life and purposes ancillary or incidental thereto;

(b) Photography;

(c) Scientific research;

(d) Tourism;

(e) Transaction of lawful business with any person residing in the sanctuary.

(2) A permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary shall be issued subject to such conditions and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.



(1) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, no person shall hunt any wild animal in a sanctuary or remove therefrom any wild animal, whether alive or dead, or any trophy, uncured trophy, or meat derived from such animal :

Provided that if the Chief Wild Life Warden is satisfied that it is necessary that any wild animal in a sanctuary should be hunted or removed,-

(a) For the better protection of wild life, or

(b) For any other good and sufficient reason, he may, with the previous approval of the State Government, grant a permit authorising any person to hunt or remove such wild animal under the direction of an officer authorised by him or cause it to be hunted or removed.

(2) A permit granted under sub-section (1) shall specify the kind and number of wild animals that may be hunted or removed by the holder of such permit.

(3) The Chief Wild Life Warden may, for good and sufficient reason, to be recorded in writing, cancel any permit granted under section 28 or under this section :

Provided that no such cancellation shall be made except after giving the holder of the permit a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(4) Any person aggrieved by the cancellation of a permit under sub-section (3) may, within fifteen days from the date of such cancellation, appeal to the State Government, whose decision shall be final :

Provided that the State Government may admit any appeal preferred after the expiry of the period aforesaid if it is satisfied that the appellant had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal in time.



No person shall set fire to a sanctuary, or kindle any fire, or leave any fire burning, in a sanctuary, in such manner as to endanger such sanctuary.



No person shall enter a sanctuary with any weapon except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer.



No person shall use, in a sanctuary, chemicals, explosives or any other substances which may cause injury to, or endanger, any wild life in such sanctuary.



The Chief Wild Life Warden shall be the authority who shall control, manage and maintain all sanctuaries and for that purpose, within the limits of any sanctuary,-

(a) May construct such roads, bridges, buildings, fences or barrier gates, and carry out such other works as he may consider necessary for the purposes of such sanctuary;

(b) Shall take such steps as will ensure the security of wild animals in the sanctuary and the preservation of the sanctuary and wild animals therein;

(c) May take such measures in the interests of wild life, as he may consider necessary for the improvement of any habitat;

(d) May regulate control or prohibit, in keeping with the interest of wild life, the grazing or movement of cattle;

(e) May regulate, control or prohibit, any fishing.



(1) Within three months from the declaration of any area as a sanctuary, every person residing in or within ten kilo metres of any such sanctuary and holding a licence granted under the Arms Act, 1959, (54 of 1959) for the possession of arms or exempted from the provisions of that Act and possession arms, shall apply in such form, on payment of such fee and within such time as may be prescribed, to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer, for the registration of his name.

(2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer shall register the name of the applicant in such manner as may be prescribed.

National Parks



(1) Whenever it appears to the State Government that an area whether within a sanctuary or not, is, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance, needed to be constituted as a National Park for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wild life therein or its environment, it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute such area as a National Park.

(2) The notification referred to in sub-section (1) shall define the limits of the area which is intended to be declared as a National Park.

(3) Where any area is intended to be declared as a National Park, the provisions of sections 19 to 26 (both inclusive) shall, as far as may, be, apply to the investigation and determination of claims,and extinguishment of rights, in relation to any land in such area as they apply to the said matters in relation to any land in a sanctuary.

(4) When the following events have occurred, namely,-

(a) The period for preferring claims has elapsed, and all claims, if any, made in relation to any land in an area intended to be declared as a National Park, have been disposed of by the State Government, and

(b) All rights in respect of lands proposed to be included in the National Park have become vested in the State Government, the State Government shall publish a notification specifying the limits of the area which shall be comprised within the National Park and declare that the said area shall be a National Park on and from such date as may be specified in the notification.

(5) No alteration of the boundaries of a National Park shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of the State.

(6) No person shall destroy, exploit or remove any wild life from a National Park or destroy or damage the habitat of any wild animal or deprive any wild animal of its habitat within such National Park except under and in accordance with a permit granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden and no such permit shall be granted unless the State Government, being satisfied that such destruction, exploitation or removal of wild life from the National Park is necessary for the improvement and better management of wild life therein, authorises the issue of such permit.

(7) No grazing of any cattle shall be permitted in a National Park and no cattle shall be allowed to enter therein except where such cattle is used as a vehicle by a person authorised to enter such National Park.

(8) The provisions of sections 27 and 28, sections 30 to 32(both inclusive), and clauses (a), (b) and (c) of section 33, and section 34 shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to a National Park as they apply in relation to a sanctuary.



(1) The State Government may, by notification, declare any area to be a game reserve.

(2) No hunting of any wild animal shall be permitted in such reserve except under and in accordance with a licence issued under this section by the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer.



(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the Director or any other officer authorised by him in this behalf or the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer or any forest officer or any police officer not below the rank of a sub-inspector, may, if he has reasonable grounds for believing that any person has committed an offence against this Act,-

(a) Require any such person to produce for inspection any captive animal, wild animal, animal article, meat, trophy or uncured trophy in his control, custody or possession, or any licence, permit or other document granted to him or required to be kept by him under the provisions of this Act;

(b) Stop any vehicle or vessel in order to conduct search or inquiry or enter upon and search any premises, land, vehicle or vessel, in the occupation of such person, and open and search any baggage or other things in his possession;

(c) Seize any captive animal, wild animal, animal article, meat, trophy or uncured trophy in the possession of any person and appearing to him to be Government property, together with any trap, tool, vehicle, vessel or weapon used for committing any such offence, and unless he is satisfied that such person will appear and answer any charge which may be preferred against him, arrest him without warrant, and detain him.

(2) Any officer of a rank not inferior to that of an Assistant Director of Wild Life Preservation or Wild Life Warden, who, or whose sub-ordinate, has seized any trap, tool, vehicle or weapon under clause (c) of sub-section (1), may release the same, on the execution by the owner thereof of a bond for the production of the property so released, if and when so required, before the Magistrate having jurisdiction to try the offence on account of which the seizure has been made.

(3) It shall be lawful for any of the officers referred to in sub-section (1) to stop and detain any person, who he sees doing any act for which a licence or permit is required under the provisions of this Act, for the purposes of requiring such person to produce the licence or permit and if such person fails to produce the licence or permit, as the case may be, he may be arrested without warrant, unless he furnishes the name and address, and otherwise satisfies the officer arresting him that he will duly answer any summons or other proceedings which may be taken against him.

(4) Any person detained, or things seized under the foregoing power, shall forthwith be taken before a Magistrate to be dealt with according to law.

(5) Any person who, without reasonable cause, fails to produce anything, which he is required to produce under this section, shall be guilty of an offence against this Act.

(6) (a) Where any meat or uncured trophy is seized under the provisions of this section, the Assistant Director of Wild Life Preservation or any other officer of a gazetted rank authorised by him in this behalf or the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may arrange for the sale of the same and deal with the proceeds of such sale in such manner as may be prescribed.

(b) Where it is proved that the meat or uncured trophy seized under the provisions of this section is not Government property, the proceeds of the sale shall be returned to the owner.

(7) Whenever any person is approached by any of the officers referred to in sub-section (1) for assistance in the prevention or detection of an offence against this Act, or in apprehending persons charged with the violation of this Act, or for seizure in accordance with clause (c) of sub-section (1), it shall be the duty of such person or persons to render such assistance.



(1) Any person who contravenes any provisions of this Act or any rule or order made thereunder or who commits a breach of any of the conditions of any licence or permit granted under this Act, shall be guilty of an offence against this Act, and shall, on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both :

Provided
that where the offence committed is in relation to any animal specified in Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II or meat of any such animal or animal article, trophy or uncured trophy derived from such animal or where the offence relates to hunting in a sanctuary or a National Park, such offence shall be punshishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but may extend to six years and also with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees.

Provided further that in the case of a second or subsequent offence of the nature mentioned in the foregoing proviso, the term of imprisonment shall not be less than one year and the amount of the fine shall not be less than one thousand rupees.

(2) When any person is convicted of an offence against this Act, the Court trying the offence may order that any captive animal, wild animal, animal article, trophy, uncured trophy or meat in respect of which the offence has been committed, and any trap, tool, vehicle, vessel or weapon, used in the commission of the said offence be forfeited to the State Government and that any licence or permit, held by such person under the provisions of this Act, be cancelled.

(3) Such cancellation of licence or permit or such forfeiture shall be in addition to any other punishment that may be awarded for such offence.

(4) Where any person is convicted of an offence against this Act, the Court may direct that the licence, if any granted to such person under the Arms Act, 1959, (54 of 1959) for possession of any arm with which an offence against this Act has been committed, shall be cancelled and that such person shall not be eligible for a licence under the Arms Act, 1959, for a period of five years from the date of conviction.



Whoever attempts or contravene, or abets the contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule or order made there under shall be deemed to have contravened that provision or rule or order, as the case may be.



If any person, exercising powers under this Act, vexatiously and unnecessarily seizes the property of any other person on the preference of seizing it for the reasons mentioned in section 50, he shall, on conviction be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.



(1) The State Government may, by notification, empower the Chief Wild Life Warden or any officer of a rank not inferior to that of a Deputy Conservator of Forests,-

(a) To accept, from any person against whom a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed an offence against this Act, payment of a sum of money by way of composition of the offence which such person is suspected to have committed; and

(b) When any property has been seized as liable to be forfeited, to release the same on payment of the value thereof as estimated by such officer.

(2) On payment of such sum of money or such value, or both, as the case may be, to such officer, the suspected person, if in custody, shall be discharged, and the property, other than Government property, if any, seized, shall be released and no further proceedings in respect of the offence shall be taken against such person.

(3) The officer compounding any offence may order the cancellation of any licence or permit granted under this Act to the offender, or if not empowered to do so, may approach an officer so empowered, for the cancellation of such licence or permit.

(4) The sum of money accepted or agreed to be accepted as composition under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall, in no case, exceed the sum of two thousand rupees :

Provided
that no offence, for which a minimum period of imprisonment has been prescribed in sub-section (1) of section 51, shall be compounded.



No court shall take cognizance of any offence against this Act except on the complaint of the Chief Wild Life Warden or such other officer as the State Government may authorise in this behalf.



Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to prevent any person from being prosecuted under any other law for the time being in force, for any act or omission which constitutes an offence against this Act or from being liable under such other law to any higher punishment or penalty than that provided by this Act :

Provided that no person shall be punished twice for the same offence.



Where, in any prosecution for an offence against this Act, it is established that a person is in possession, custody or control of any captive animal, animal article, meat, trophy or uncured trophy, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, the burden of proving which shall lie on the accused, that such person is in unlawful possession, custody or control of such captive animal, animal article, meat, trophy or uncured trophy.



(1) Where an offence against this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of a company as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly :

Provided
that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence against this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation,- For the purposes of this section,-

(a) Company means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) Director, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.
Last updated on September, 2016

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