Fundamental Constituents of Society

Part Two Fundamental Constituents of Society

Article 4

Justice underlies the system of government. Co-operation and mutual understanding are firm bonds among citizens. liberty, equality, security, tranquillity, education, social solidarity and equal opportunities for citizens are the pillars of society guaranteed by the State.

Article 5
  1. The family is the corner-stone of society and its strength lies in religion, morality and patriotism. The law shall preserve its legal integrity and strengthen its bonds and values, and shall protect motherhood and childhood within the family. The law shall also protect the young and defend them against exploitation and moral, physical and spiritual neglect. The State shall take particular care of the physical, mental and moral growth of youth.
  2. The State shall ensure the accomplishment of necessary social security for citizens in old age, sickness, inability to work, orphanhood, widowhood or unemployment. The State shall also provide them with services of social insurance and medical care, and strive to protect them from ignorance, fear and poverty.
Article 6

The State shall preserve the Arab and Islamic heritage, it shall participate in the furtherance of human civilization, and it shall strive to strengthen ties with the Muslim countries and to bring to fruition the aspirations of the Arab Nation for unity and advancement.

Article 7

  1. The State shall patronize the sciences, literature and the arts, and shall encourage research. It shall ensure educational and cultural services of citizens. Primary education shall be compulsory and free in accordance with the law. The law shall lay down the necessary plan to eliminate illiteracy.
  2. The law shall regulate the various aspects of religious education and attention also be given to the strengthening of the citizen's personality and pride in his Arab Nationalism.
  3. Individuals and bodies may establish private schools under the supervision of the State and in accordance with the law.
  4. Inviolability of the educational institutions shall be guaranteed by the State.
Article 8
  1. Every citizen shall have the right to health welfare. The State shall care for public health and ensure means of prevention and treatment by establishing various kinds of hospitals and provide medical facilities.
  2. Individuals and bodies may establish hospitals, clinics or infirmaries under the supervision of the State and in accordance with the law.
Article 9

  1. Property, capital and work, in accordance with the principles of Islamic justice, shall be fundamental constituents of the social structure of the State and the national wealth. They are all individual rights with a social function regulated by the law.
  2. Public property shall be inviolable and its protection shall be the duty of every citizen.
  3. Private property shall be well protected. No one shall be prevented from disposing of his property except within the limits of the law. No property shall be expropriated except in the public interest, in accordance with the law and provided that just compensation is paid.
  4. General confiscation of property shall be prohibited. Confiscation of private property as a penalty may not be inflicted except by a court judgement and in the circumstances specified by the law.
  5. The law shall regulate, on an economic basis with due regard being given to social justice, the relationship between landlords and tenants.
  6. The State shall strive to provide housing for citizens with limited income.
  7. The State shall make the necessary arrangements to ensure the utilization of arable land in a productive manner, and shall endeavour to raise the standard of farmers. The law shall specify the means whereby assistance and ownership of land are granted to small farmers.
Article 10
  1. The national economy shall be based on social justice. It shall be founded on fair co-operation between public and private sectors. Its aim shall be economic development within a well conceived plan and achievement of prosperity for citizens, all within the limits of law.
  2. The State shall strive for the attainment of Arab economic unity.
Article 11

All natural resources shall be the property of the state. It shall ensure their preservation and proper utilization, due regard being given to the requirements of the State's security and national economy.

Article 12

The State shall ensure the solidarity of society in shouldering burdens resulting from disasters and natural calamities, and shall provide compensation for damages or injuries suffered by people as a result of a war or as a result of performing their military duties.

Article 13
  1. Work shall be the duty of every citizen necessitated by personal dignity and public good. Every citizen shall have the right to work and to choose his type of work in accordance with public order and moral standards.
  2. The State shall ensure that work is made available to the citizens and that its terms are equitable.
  3. No forced labour shall be imposed on anyone except in circumstances specified by the law for national emergency and with just remuneration, or as an implementation of a judicial decision.
  4. Relations between employers and employees shall be regulated by the law on an economic basis, due regard being given to the principles of social justice.
Article 14

The State shall encourage co-operation and saving, and supervise the regulation of credit.

Article 15
  1. Taxes and public imports shall be based on the principles of social justice, and the payment thereof shall be duty in accordance with the law.
  2. Citizens shall have equal opportunities to hold public offices in accordance with the conditions specified by the law.