Public Rights and Duties

Part Three Public Rights and Duties

Article 17
  1. Citizenship shall be defined by the law, and no person enjoying citizenship by origin may be deprived of it except in cases of high treason and dual nationality and in accordance with the conditions specified by the law.
  2. Citizenship may not be withdrawn from a naturalised citizen except within the limits of the law.
  3. No citizen shall be deported from Bahrain, nor shall he be denied re-entry.

Article 18

People are equal in human dignity, and citizens shall be equal in public rights and duties before the law, without discrimination as to race, origin, language, religion or belief.

Article 19
  1. Personal liberty is guaranteed in accordance with the law.
  2. No person shall be arrested, detained, imprisoned, searched or compelled to reside in a specified place, nor shall the residence of any person or his liberty to choose his place of residence or his liberty of movement be restricted, except in accordance with the law and under the supervision of the judicial authorities.
  3. No detention or imprisonment shall be imposed in places other than those specified in prison laws. In these places health and social welfare shall be observed, and they shall be subject to the supervision of the judicial authorities.
  4. No person shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, enticement or degrading treatment, and the law shall provide the penalty for these acts. Any statement or confession shall be null and void if it is proved to have been made under duress or enticement or degrading treatment of threat thereof.
Article 20
  1. No crime or penalty may be established except by virtue of law, and no penalty may be imposed except for offences committed after the relevant law has come
  2. Penalty is personal.
  3. An accused person shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty in a legal trial in which the necessary guarantees for the exercise of his right of defence in all the stages of investigation and trial are ensured in accordance with the law.
  4. No physical or moral injury shall be inflicted on an accused person.
  5. A council for the defence of any person accused of a felony shall be appointed with the approval of the accused.
  6. The right to trial shall be guaranteed in accordance with the law.
Article 21

Extradition or political refugees is prohibited.

Article 22

Freedom of conscience is absolute. The State shall guarantee the inviolability of places of worship and the freedom to perform religious rites and to hold religious processions and meetings in accordance with the customs observed in the country.

Article 23

Freedom of speech and freedom to carry out scientific research shall be guaranteed. Every person shall have the right to express and propagate his opinion in words or in writing or by any other means, in accordance with the conditions and procedures specified by the law.

Article 24

Freedom of the press, printing and publication shall be guaranteed in accordance with the conditions and procedure specified by the law.

Article 25

Places of residence shall be inviolable. They may not be entered or searched without the permission of their occupants except in the circumstances and manner specified by the law.

Article 26

Freedom of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications and the secrecy thereof shall be guaranteed. No communications shall be censored nor the contents thereof revealed except in cases of necessity prescribed by the law and in accordance with the procedures and guarantees stated therein.

Article 27

Freedom to form associations and trade unions on a national basis and for lawful objectives and by peaceful means shall be guaranteed in accordance with the conditions and procedures prescribed by the law. No one shall be compelled to join or remain in any association or union.

Article 28
  1. Individuals shall have the right of private assembly without permission or prior notification, and no member of the security forces may attend such private meetings.
  2. Public meetings, processions and gatherings shall be permitted in accordance with the conditions and procedures prescribed by the law, provided that their purpose and means are peaceful and not contrary to morale.
Article 29

Any individual can address the public authorities in writing and with his signature. Only duly constituted organizations and corporate bodies shall have the right to address the public authorities collectively.

Article 30
  1. Peace shall be the objective of the State, and the safety of the country shall be part of the safety of the Great Arab Homeland, and defending it shall be the duty of every citizen. Military service is an honour for the citizens and regulated by law.
  2. The State alone shall establish armed forces and public security bodies. Duties of this kind shall be entrusted only to citizens except in cases of dire necessity and in the manner regulated by the law.
  3. Full or partial mobilization of forces shall be regulated by the law.
Article 31

Public rights and liberties laid down in this Constitution shall neither be regulated nor defined except by a law, or in accordance therewith. Such regulation or definition shall not affect the essence of the right or liberty.