PRINCIPLES AND BASES OF THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SYSTEM

ARTICLE  9.       
Sovereignty belongs to the people, who exercise it through their representatives and the democratic organs established by or under this Constitution.

ARTICLE 10.        
The right to form political parties and their freedom of action are guaranteed. Political parties must respect the principles of national sovereignty and of democracy.

ARTICLE  *11.        
Co-operatives, trade unions and all socio-economic organisations of a national character are entitled to participate in the various management and decision making processes of the States and particularly in the political, economic, social and cultural sectors of national life.

Validation –– Act No. 1 of 1988

*6.  Any written law passed or made on or after 6th October, 1980 and before the date on which the Bill for this Act received the assent of the President, and anything done, or any action taken, under any such written law shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have been void, only on the ground that any consultation, or any participation in any management or decision making process, pursuant to article 11 or any other provision of Chapter II of Part 1 of the Constitution, has not taken place, and every such written law shall, subject to the provisions of Title 1 of Part 2 of the Constitution and to the power of the Parliament to repeal or amend it, continue in force:  

Provided that this section shall not be deemed to validate section 28C inserted in the Labour Act of the Labour (Amendment) Act 1984 or section 7 of the latter Act.

ARTICLE 12.        
Local government by freely elected representatives of the people is an integral part of the democratic organisation of the State.

ARTICLE  13.        
The principle objective of the political system of the State is to extend socialist democracy by providing increasing opportunities for the participation of citizens in the management and decision making processes of the State.

ARTICLE  14.       
The supreme goal of the economic system which is being established in the State is the fullest possible satisfaction of the people's growing material, cultural and intellectual requirements, as well as the development of their personality and their socialist relations in society.

ARTICLE  15.    
(1)  In order to achieve economic independence as the imperative concomitant of its political independence, the State will revolutionize the national economy.
(2)  The national economy of the State will be based upon the social ownership of the means of production and the eventual abolition of internal arrangements and relationships which perm it the exploitation of man by man.
(3)  The economy will develop in accordance with the economic laws of socialism on the foundation of socialist relations of production and development of the production forces.
(4)  National economic planning shall be the basic principle of the development and management of the economy. It shall provide for the widest possible participation of the people and their socio-economic organs at enterprise, community, regional and national levels, and shall also provide continuous opportunity for the working people to exercise initiative and to develop a spirit of creativity and innovation.

ARTICLE  16.        
Co-operativism in practice shall be the dynamic principle of socialist transformation and shall pervade and inform all interrelationships in the society. Co-operativism is rooted in the historical experience of the people, is based on self-reliance, is capable of releasing the productive energies of the people, and is a unifying principle in the total development of the nation.

ARTICLE  17.        
The existence of privately owned economic enterprises is recognized. Such enterprises must satisfy social needs and operate within the regulatory framework of national policy and the law.

ARTICLE  18.        
Land is for social use and must go to the tiller.

ARTICLE  19.        
Every citizen has the right to own personal property which includes such assets as dwelling houses and the land on which they stand, farmsteads, tools and equipment, motor vehicles and bank accounts.

ARTICLE  20.        
The right of inheritance is guaranteed.

ARTICLE  21.        
The source of the growth of social wealth and of the well-being of the people, and of each individual, is the labour of the people.

ARTICLE  22.    
(1)  Every citizen has the right to work and its free selection in accordance with social requirements and personal qualifications. He has the right to be reward ed according to the nature, quality and quantity of his work. Women and men have the right to equal pay for equal work.
(2)  Socially useful activity is an honourable duty of every citizen able to work. The right to work implies a corresponding duty to work.
(3)  The right to work is guaranteed ––
  1. by social ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange;
  2. by socialist planning, development and management of the economy;
  3. by planned and progressive growth of the socialist productive forces and labour productivity;
  4. by consistent implementation of scientific principles and new and productive forces and labour productivity;
  5. by continuous education and training of citizens;
  6. by socialist labour laws; and
  7. by sustained efforts on the part of the State, co-operatives, trade unions and other socio-economic organisations and the people working together to develop the economy in accordance with the foregoing principles in order to increase continuously the country's material wealth, expand employment opportunities, improve working conditions and progressively increase amenities and benefits.
ARTICLE  23.        
Every citizen has the right to rest, recreation and leisure. The State in co-operation with co-operatives, trade unions and other socio-economic organisations will guarantee this right by prescribing hours and conditions of work and by establishing holiday arrangements for workers, including a complex of cultural, educational and health institutions.

ARTICLE  24.        
Every citizen has the right to free medical attention and also to social care in case of old age and disability.

ARTICLE  25.        
Every citizen has a duty to participate in activities designed to improve the environment and protect the health of the nation.

ARTICLE 26.        
Every citizen has the fight to proper housing accommodation.

ARTICLE  27.        
Every citizen has the right to a free education from nursery to university as well as at non-formal laces share opportunities are provided for education and training.

ARTICLE  28.        
Every young person has the right to ideological, social, cultural and vocational development and to the right of the socialist order of society.

ARTICLE  29.    
(1) Women and men have equal rights and the same legal status in all spheres of political, economic and social life. All forms of discrimination against women on the basis of their sex is illegal.
(2) The exercise of women's rights is ensured by according women access with men to academic, vocational and professional training, equal opportunities in employment, remuneration and promotion, and in social, political and cultural activity, by special labour and health protections measures for women, by providing conditions enabling mothers to work, and by legal protection and material and moral support for mothers and children, including paid leave and other benefits for mothers and expectant mothers.

ARTICLE 30.        
Children born out of wedlock are entitled to the same legal rights and legal status as are enjoyed by children born in wedlock. All forms of discrimination against children on the basis of their being born out of wedlock are illegal.

ARTICLE  31.        
It is the duty of the State to protect the just rights and interests of citizens abroad.

ARTICLE 32.        
It is the joint duty of the State, the society and every citizen to combat and prevent crime and other violations of the law and to take care of and protect public property .

ARTICLE  33.        
It is the duty of every citizen to defend the State.

ARTICLE  34.        
It is the duty of the State to enhance the cohesiveness of the society by eliminating discriminatory distinctions between classes, between town and country, and between mental and physical labour.

ARTICLE  35.        
The State honours and respects the diverse cultural strains which enrich the society and will seek constantly to promote national appreciation of them at all levels and to develop out of them a socialist national culture for Guyana.

ARTICLE 36.        
In the interests of the present and future generations, the State will protect and make rational use of its land, mineral and water resources, as well as its fauna and flora, and will take all appropriate measures to conserve and improve the environment.

ARTICLE 37.        
The State supports the legitimate aspirations of other peoples for freedom and independence and will establish relations with all states on the basis of sovereign equality, mutual respect, inviolability of frontiers, territorial integrity of states, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-intervention in internal affairs, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and co-operation among States.

ARTICLE 38.        
It is the duty of the State, co-operatives, trade unions and other socio-economic organisations and the people through sustained and disciplined endeavors to achieve the highest possible levels of production and productivity and to develop the economy in order to ensure the realization of the rights set out in this Chapter.
       
Amended by Act No. 1 of 1988 by insertion of the Article as follows:

ARTICLE 39.        
Parliament may by law provide that any provision of this Chapter shall be enforceable in any court or tribunal and only where, and to the extent to which, such law provides for the enforcement of any such provision, and not otherwise, shall that provision be enforceable in any court or tribunal.