Citizens

                                                 Section One.
                                                CITIZENSHIP

Article 13
1. The affiliation of an individual to the Kyrgyz Republic and his status is determined by citizenship. A citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic must observe the Constitution and the laws of the republic, and must respect the rights, freedom, honor and dignity of other people.

2. Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic shall not be recognized as citizens of other states.

3. No citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic can be deprived of his/her citizenship or of his right to change his/her citizenship.

4. The Kyrgyz Republic guarantees the defense and protection of its citizens beyond its borders.

Article 14
1. Every citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic by virtue of his/her citizenship enjoys rights and bears responsibilities.

2. In the Kyrgyz Republic, foreigners and persons without citizenship enjoy the rights and freedoms of citizens, and also bear responsibilities on the grounds, terms and according to procedures, provided by laws, international treaties and agreements.

Article 15
1. The dignity of individuals in the Kyrgyz Republic is absolute and inviolable.

2. Every person from birth is entitled to basic human rights and freedoms. These rights shall be recognized as absolute, inalienable, and protected by law and the courts from infringement by any other person.

3. All persons in the Kyrgyz Republic shall be equal before the law and the court. No one shall be subject to any type of discrimination, violation of his rights and freedoms, on the grounds of ethnic origin, sex, race, nationality, language, religious belief, or other conditions or circumstances of a personal or social nature.

4. Human rights and freedoms are valid in the Kyrgyz Republic. As such, they determine, the meaning, content and application of laws, and obligate legislative and executive powers, local self-government and are guaranteed by the judiciary.

5. In the Kyrgyz Republic, folk customs and traditions which do not contradict human rights and freedoms are supported by the state.

Article 16
1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, basic human rights and freedoms are recognized and guaranteed in accordance with universally accepted norms and principles of international law, international treaties and agreements concerning human rights which are ratified by the Kyrgyz Republic.

2. Every person in the Kyrgyz Republic has the right:
  1. to life, to physical and moral inviolability;
  2. to personal freedom and safety;
  3. to free development of his individuality;
  4. to freedom of religious belief, spiritual freedom and freedom
  5. of worship;
  6. to free expression and dissemination of thoughts, ideas and
  7. opinions, freedom of literary, artistic, scientific and technical
  8. creativity, freedom of press, transmission and dissemination of
  9. information;
  10. to freedom of movement, choice of destination and residence
  11. throughout the territory of Kyrgyzstan, and the right to travel freely
  12. abroad and to return home without hindrance;
  13. to associate;
  14. to assemble peacefully and without arms, to freely conduct
  15. meetings and demonstrations;
  16. to the inviolability of residence;
  17. to the freedom and secrecy of correspondence;
  18. to honor and freedom of private life, to private and family
  19. secrets;
  20. to secrecy of postal, telephonic and telegraphic
  21. communications;
  22. to own property and to possess, use and dispose of it at ones
  23. own discretion;
  24. to economic freedom, free use of one=s abilities and property
  25. for any economic activity;
  26. to freedom of labor, free choice of activity and profession.
The enumeration of rights and freedoms in the Constitution should not be interpreted as negating or diminishing other universally recognized human rights and freedoms.

Article 17
1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, no laws shall be issued which abolish or infringe upon human rights and freedoms.

2. Restrictions to the exercise of rights and freedoms is allowed by the Constitution and laws of the Kyrgyz Republic only for the purposes of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, public safety and the protection of the constitutional structure. But in doing so, the essence of constitutional rights and freedoms shall not be affected.

Article 18
1. Limitations which affect the physical and moral inviolability of an individual are allowed only on the basis of law by the decision of a court as punishment for the commission of a crime. No one may be tortured, subjected to mistreatment or inhuman, degrading punishments.

2. Medical, biological, and psychological experiments on people are prohibited without the properly expressed and verified voluntary agreement of the person participating in the experiment.

3. No one may be subjected to arrest or detention except on the basis of law. Any actions aimed at imposing responsibility for a crime on a person before a decision has been made by a court are not allowed, and are grounds for compensation to the victim through the court for the material and moral harm suffered.

4. Capital punishment may be imposed only in exceptional cases by court order. Any person sentenced to capital punishment shall have the right to seek a pardon.

Article 19
1. Private ownership in the Kyrgyz Republic is recognized and guaranteed as an inalienable human right, as a natural source of one=s welfare, business and creative activity, and as a guarantor of one=s economic and personal independence.

2. Property is inviolable. No person can be deprived of his/her property arbitrarily; Confiscation against the will of the owner is allowed by decision of a court.

3. In the Kyrgyz Republic the right of inheritance is guaranteed and protected by law.

Article 20
The Kyrgyz Republic may grant political asylum to foreign citizens and persons without citizenship on the basis of violation of human rights.

                                                Section Three.
                                RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF A CITIZEN

Article 21
1. Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic and their associations shall be allowed to engage in any act or activity, except those prohibited or restricted by this Constitution and laws of the Kyrgyz Republic.

2. The exercise of rights and freedoms by a citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic shall be inseparable from his/her duties which must be performed for the security of personal and national interests.

Article 22
Laws of the Kyrgyz Republic concerning the rights and duties of citizens are to be applied equally to all citizens and do not bestow on anyone advantages and privileges, except those provided by the Constitution and by laws for the social protection of citizens.

Article 23
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic participate in state governance directly and through their representatives in the discussion and adoption of laws and decisions of republican and local significance, and they have equal access to governmental services.

Article 24
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right and duty to defend the Motherland. Citizens perform military service within the limits and in the forms established by law.

Article 25
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic are obliged to pay taxes and fees in accordance with legislation.

Article 26
1. The family shall be the primary unit of society; family, fatherhood, motherhood, and childhood are the concern of the whole society and preferential protection by law; child care and upbringing is a natural right and civic duty of parents. Able-bodied, legal aged children are obligated to care for their parents.

2. The state provides maintenance, up-bringing, education for orphans and children without parental support.

3. Respect for the elderly and caring for relatives and friends are sacred traditions of the people of Kyrgyzstan.

Article 27
1. In the Kyrgyz Republic social security at the expense of the state is guaranteed in old age, in sickness and in the event of work disability or loss of the main provider.

2. Pensions and social security in accordance with economic resources of the society shall provide a standard of living not below the minimum wage established by law.

3. Voluntary social insurance and the establishment of additional forms of security and charity are encouraged.

Article 28
1. A citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic has the right to job protection in all its forms and appearances, and to working conditions which comply with requirements of security and hygiene, as well as the right to social protection against unemployment.

2. The state will concern itself with professional training and improvement of professional qualification of citizens, and encourages and promotes international agreements and international organizations, which have the aim of strengthening and securing the right to work.

3. Forced labor of citizens is prohibited, except in cases of war, natural disaster, epidemic, or in other extraordinary circumstances, as well as in accordance with execution of punishment per order of court.

Article 29
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, working under a labor agreement (contract), shall have the right to remuneration not less than the minimum wage established by the state.

Article 30
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic shall have the right to strike. The procedure and conditions for holding strikes shall be prescribed by law.

Article 31
1. Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right to time off.

2. The maximum duration of working hours, the minimum weekly time off and annual paid leave, as well as other conditions for exercising of the right to time off, shall be prescribed by law.

Article 32
1. Every citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic has the right to education.

2. Basic education shall be compulsory and free of charge; everyone shall have the right to receive it at state educational institutions. In state educational institutions every citizen has the right to a free education.

3. The state provides every person in accordance with individual aptitude access to vocational, special secondary and higher education.

4. Paid education of citizens in state and other educational institutions is allowed on the basis and in the procedure established by legislation.

5. The state exercises control over the activity of educational institutions.

Article 33
Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right to housing. The state facilitates the fulfillment of the right to housing by supplying and selling housing from the state-owned housing fund and by encouraging construction of individual dwellings.

Article 34
1. Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right to the protection of health and to free use of the network of state public health institutions.

2. Paid medical service shall be allowed on the basis and in the procedure established by law.

Article 35
1. Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right to a healthy, safe environment and to compensation for damage caused to one=s health or property by activities utilizing nature.

2. The protection of the environment, natural resources and historical monuments is the sacred duty of every citizen.

Article 36
1. Culture, art, literature, science and the mass media are free [uncontrolled].

2. The state protects historical monuments, cares for and creates necessary conditions for the development of literature, art, science, mass media and sports.

3. Citizens have the right of access to cultural treasures and to be involved in artistic and scientific activities.

Article 37
Social activity of the State shall not lead to the substitution  of state guardianship over a citizen's own economic freedom, activity and the opportunity of the citizen to achieve economic welfare for himself/herself and his/her own family.

Article 38
1. It is the duty of the state, all its bodies and state officials to provide for full, absolute and immediate protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens, to prevent the infringement upon rights in this area and to restore a violated status.

2. The Kyrgyz Republic guarantees judicial defense of all rights and freedoms of citizens fixed by the Constitution and the laws.

Article 39
1. A citizen is presumed innocent of committing a criminal offense until determined guilty by an order of court in force.

2. The state guarantees everyone protection from arbitrary and unlawful interference into one=s private and family life, infringement upon one=s honor and dignity, and violation of secrecy of correspondence and telephone conversations.

3. No one shall have the right to enter a dwelling except in cases when it is necessary to conduct a sanctioned search or seizure of property, to secure public order, to arrest a criminal or to save the life, health or property of an individual.

Article 40
Every citizen in the Kyrgyz Republic shall be provided qualified legal assistance and defense of the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution.

Article 41
The publication of laws and other normative legal acts concerning the rights, freedoms and duties of an individual and a citizen is a prerequisite for their utilization.