Luxembourgers and Their Rights

Article 9 Citizenship, Political Rights
(1) The status of Luxembourger shall be acquired, retained, and lost in accordance with the rules determined by civil law.

(2) The Constitution and the other laws relating to political rights determine what conditions in addition to this status are necessary for the exercise of these rights.

(3) By way of derogation from the preceding paragraph, the law may confer the exercise of political rights to non-Luxembourgers.

Article 10 Naturalization
(1) Naturalization is granted by the legislature.

(2) The law determines the effects of naturalization.

Article 11 Basic Rights
(1) There is no distinction of orders in the State.

(2) Luxembourgers are equal before the law; they alone are eligible for civil and military service, save as the law may in particular cases otherwise provide.

(3) The State guarantees the natural rights of the individual and of the family.

(4) The law guarantees the right to work and assure to every citizen the exercise of this right.

(5) The law organizes the social security, health protection, and rest of workers and guarantee the freedom of trade unions.

(6) The law guarantees freedom of trade and industry, the exercise of the professions and of agricultural labor, subject to any restrictions that may be imposed by the legislature.

Article 12 Individual Freedom
Individual freedom shall be guaranteed. No one may be prosecuted except for the cases and according to the procedure laid down by the law. Except in flagrante delicto, no one may be arrested without the reasoned order of the judge served at the time of arrest or within twenty four hours at the latest.

Article 13 Legal Judge
No one may be deprived, against his will, of the Judge assigned to him by the law.

Article 14 Nulla Poena Sine Lege
No penalty may be fixed or applied except in pursuance of the law.

Article 15 Home
The home is inviolable. No domiciliary visit may be made except in cases and according to the procedure laid down by the law.

Article 16 Property, Compensation
No one may be deprived of his property except on grounds of public interest in cases and in the manner laid down by the law and in consideration of prior and just compensation.

Article 17 No Confiscation
Confiscation of property as a penalty may not be instituted.

Article 18 Abolished Penalties
The death penalty on political grounds and civil death and branding are hereby abolished.

Article 19 Freedom of Religion
Freedom of religion and of public worship as well as freedom to express one's religious opinions are guaranteed, subject to the repression of offenses committed in the exercise of such freedoms.

Article 20 No Forced Religion
No one may be forced to take part in any way whatsoever in the acts and ceremonies of a religion or to observe its days of rest.

Article 21 Civil Marriage
Civil marriage must always precede the nuptial benediction.

Article 22 State and Church
The State's intervention in the appointment and installation of heads of religions, the mode of appointing and dismissing other ministers of religion, the right of any of them to correspond with their superiors and to publish their acts and decisions, as well as the Church's relations with the State shall be made the subject of conventions to be submitted to the Chamber of Deputies for the provisions governing its intervention.

Article 23 Education, Health
(1) The State ensures that every Luxembourger receives primary education which is compulsory and provided free of charge. Medical and social assistance is regulated by the law.

(2) The State sets up secondary educational establishments and the necessary courses of higher education. It also establishes free vocational training courses.

(3) The law determines the means of supporting State education and the conditions under which it is to be supervised by the Government and the communes; it also regulates all educational matters and creates a fund for the exceptionally gifted.

(4) Every Luxembourger is free to pursue his studies in the Grand Duchy or abroad and to attend universities of his own choosing, subject to the provisions of the law concerning admission to employment and the exercise of certain callings.

Article 24 Expression
Freedom of speech in all matters and freedom of the press is guaranteed, subject to the repression of offenses committed in the exercise of these freedoms. No censorship may ever be introduced. Security may not be demanded of writers, publishers, or printers. Stamp duty on native journals and periodicals is hereby abolished. No publisher, printer, or distributor may be prosecuted if the author is known, if he is a Luxembourger, and resident in the Grand Duchy.

Article 25 Assembly
Luxembourgers have the right to assemble peaceably and unarmed in compliance with the laws governing the exercise of this right which may not require prior authorization. This provision does not apply to open-air political, religious, or other meetings which are fully governed by laws and police regulations.

Article 26 Association
Luxembourgers enjoy freedom of association. This right shall not be made subject to any prior authorization.

Article 27 Petition
Everyone has the right to address petitions signed by one or more persons to the public authorities. Only constituted authorities have the right to address petitions collectively.

Article 28 Correspondence
(1) The secrecy of correspondence is inviolable. The law determines the agents responsible for the violation of the secrecy of correspondence entrusted to the postal services.

(2) The law determines the guarantee to be afforded to the secrecy of telegrams.

Article 29 Language
The law shall regulate the use of languages in administrative and
judicial matters.

Article 30 Proceedings Against Public Officials
No prior authorization is required for instituting proceedings against public officials for their administrative acts, except as provided for in respect of members of the Government.

Article 31 Punishment of Public Officials
Public officials, to whatever order they may belong, members of the Government excepted, may be deprived of their office, honors, and pensions only in the manner laid down by law.