Liberties, Rights, Duties

                         Section I Civil and Political Rights and Duties

Article 9 [Rule of Law]
The exercise and protection of individual rights and fundamental liberties shall be organized by law.

Article 10 [Expression, Association, Assembly, Move, Religion]
Freedom of opinion and expression, communication, press, association, assembly, travel, conscience, and religion shall be guaranteed to all and may be limited only in respect of the rights and liberties of others and of the necessity to safeguard public order.

Article 11 [Information]
(1) Information in all forms shall be subject to no prior restraint.

(2) Conditions of freedom of information and its responsibility shall be determined by law and by codes of professional ethics.

Article 12 [Leave, Travel, Settle]
(1) Everyone shall have the right to leave the territory and to return under conditions established by law.

(2) Everyone shall have the right to travel and to settle freely within the territory of the Republic while respecting the rights of others and the limits of the law.

Article 13 [Liberty, Home, Communication, Nulla Poena Sine Lege, Legal Recourse, Counsel]
(1) Everyone shall be assured of protection of his person, his residence, and his correspondence.

(2) No search may take place except under law on the written order of the competent judicial authority, except in cases of flagrante delicto.

(3) No one may be prosecuted, arrested, or detained except in cases determined by law, according to the forms prescribed by law.

(4) No one may be punished except by virtue of a law promulgated and published prior to the commission of the act to be punished.

(5) No one may be punished twice for the same deed.

(6) The law shall assure everyone access to justice; lack of resources will not be no obstacle.

(7) The State shall guarantee full, inviolable rights of defense in all jurisdictions and all stages of procedure, including the preliminary investigation, Judicial police, and court.

Article 14 [Association, Political Parties]
(1) Citizens may organize freely without prior authorization in associations and political parties; however, associations or political parties which preach totalitarianism or segregation of an ethnic, tribal, or religious nature areforbidden.

(2) The law shall establish conditions for the creation and functioning of associations and political parties.

Article 15 [Eligibility, Electoral Rights]
Every citizen shall have the right to be a candidate in the elections provided for in this Constitution, without discrimination based on membership in a political party, under conditions established by law.

Article 16 [Duty to Respect the Laws]
Within the limits of the democratic liberties recognized by this Constitution, everyone shall have the duty to respect the Constitution, institutions, laws, and regulations of the Republic.

         Section II Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Duties

Article 17 [Personal Integrity, Dignity, Development]
The State shall organize the exercise of rights which guarantee to the individual personal integrity and dignity, and complete physical, intellectual, and moral development.

Article 18 [National Service]
National service shall be an honorable duty. It shall not affect employment or political rights.

Article 19 [Health, No Abortion]
The State shall recognize every individual's right protection of his health, starting from conception.

Article 20 [Family, Inheritance]
The family, the natural basis of society, shall be protected by the State. Everyone shall have the right to form a family and to bequeath personal goods through inheritance.

Article 21 [Protection of Family, Mother, Child]
The State shall protect the well-being of the family, the mother and child, by legislation and by appropriate social institutions.

Article 22 [Promotion of Development]
The State shall attempt, as its means permit, to assure the intellectual development of every individual, limited only by each person's ability.

Article 23 [Education, Training, Parents' Responsibility]
(1) Every child shall have the right to education and training, with the responsibility of the parents, and respecting their freedom of choice.

(2) Every adolecscent shall be entitled to professional training.

Article 24 [Public Education]
The State shall organize public education, free and accessible to all. Primary education shall be compulsory for all.

Article 25 [Private Education]
(1) The State shall recognize the right to private education and shall guarantee freedom of education subject to conditions of health, morality, and capacity established by the law.

(2) Private educational establishments shall have the benefit of the same fiscal regime, with conditions established by law.

Article 26 [Culture, Science]
(1) Everyone shall have the right to participate in the cultural life of the community, in scientific progress, and the resulting benefits.
(2) The State shall assure the promotion and protection of the natural cultural heritage, as well as artistic and literary production.

Article 27 [Work, Public Employment]
(1) Work and professional training shall be a right and a duty for every citizen.

(2) Access to public institutions shall be open to every citizen with no conditions other than those of ability and aptitude.

Article 28 [Workers' Equality]
No one may suffer injury in his employment because of sex, age, religion, opinion, origin, or political conviction.

Article 29 [Remuneration]
Every citizen shall have the right, based on the quality and product of his work, to fair remuneration to assure him and his family a living appropriate to human dignity.

Article 30 [Handicapped]
Through social agencies, the State shall attempt to provide for the needs of every citizen who, by reason of age or physical or mental handicap, is unable to work.

Article 31 [Union]
(1) The State shall recognize the right of every worker to defend his interests through union activity and especially freedom to form a union.

(2) However, membership in a union shall be voluntary.

Article 32 [Workers' Participation]
Every worker shall have the right to participate, through his representatives, in determining the rules and conditions of employment.

Article 33 [Strike]
The right to strike shall be recognized and exercised under conditions established by law.

Article 34 [Private Property]
The State shall guarantee the right to private property. No one can be deprived of property except for public use and with the condition of fair, prior compensation.

Article 35 [Minority Rights]
(1) The Fokonolona may take appropriate measures to prevent destruction of their environment, loss of their land, seizure of herds of cattle, or loss of their ceremonial heritage, unless these measures jeopardize the common interest or public order.

(2) The coverage and terms of these provisicns shall be determined by law.

Article 36 [Taxation]
Every citizen's share in public expenditures must be progressive and calculated on his ability to pay.

Article 37 [Enterprise]
The State shall guarantee free enterprise within the limits of respect for the common good, public order, and the environment.

Article 38 [Capital, Investment]
The State shall guarantee the security of capital and investment.

Article 39 [Environment]
Everyone shall have the duty to respect the environment; the State shall assure its protection.

Article 40 [State Neutrality, Ombudsmen]
(1) The State shall guarantee the political neutrality of the administration, the Armed Forces, justice, the police, education, and training.

(2) The State shall be committed to instituting an independent agency responsible for the promotion and protection of human rights.