The States of the Federation
Article 115. For their internal government, the States shall adopt the popular, representative, republican form of government, with the free Municipality as the basis of their territorial division and political and administrative organization, in accordance with the following principles:
1. Each Municipality shall be administered by a council (Ayuntamiento), elected by direct popular vote, and there shall be no intermediate authority between this body and the government of the State.
Municipal presidents, aldermen (regidores), and syndics (síndicos), chosen by direct popular election, may not be reelected for the term immediately following. Persons who discharge the functions of those offices either by indirect election, appointment or designation by any authority, no matter what title they may be given, likewise may not be reelected for the term immediately following. None of the above-mentioned officials, when holding office as incumbents, may be elected for the term immediately following as alternates, but persons designated as alternates may be elected for the term immediately following as incumbents, unless they have performed such duties during the preceding term.
2. Municipalities shall freely administer their finances, which shall be composed of the taxes imposed by the legislatures of the States, and which, in all cases, shall be sufficient to meet the municipal needs.
3. Municipalities shall be invested with juridical personality for all legal purposes.
The federal Executive and the governors of the States shall command the public forces in the municipalities where they customarily or temporarily reside.
Governors of the States may not hold office for more than six years.
The election of governors of the States and the local legislatures shall be direct and in the manner prescribed by their respective electoral laws.
Governors of the States who hold office by regular or special election may not, in any case or for any reason, again occupy that office in an interim, provisional or substitute character, or be in charge of that office in any capacity.
The following may never be reelected for the immediately following term:
- A substitute constitutional governor or a governor designated to complete a term in case of the permanent absence of the constitutional governor, even when he has a different official title.
- An interim or provisional governor or a citizen who, under any title, replaces the governor during temporary absences, provided he held the office during the last two years of the term.
The constitutional governor of a State must be a Mexican citizen by birth and a native of the State or with actual residence therein for not less than five years immediately preceding the day of the election.
The number of representatives in the state legislatures shall be proportional to the inhabitants of each State; but in no case shall there be fewer than seven deputies in States having a population of less than 4000, 000 inhabitants; or nine in those in which the population exceeds that number but does not reach 800, 000; and eleven in States having a population greater than the latter figure.
Deputies to the legislatures of the States may not be reelected for the term immediately following. Alternate deputies may be elected for the term immediately following in the capacity of incumbents, provided they have not performed the duties of an incumbent deputy, but incumbent deputies may not be elected as alternates in the term immediately following.
Article 116. The States have the power to fix their respective boundaries among themselves, by amicable agreements; but such agreements will not be put into effect without the approval of the Congress of the Union.
Article 117. The States may not in any case:
1. Make any alliance, treaty or coalition with another State, or with foreign powers.
3. Coin money, issue paper money, stamps, or stamped paper.
4. Levy duty on persons or goods passing through their territory.
5. Prohibit or levy duty upon, directly or indirectly, the entrance into or exit from their territory of any domestic or foreign goods.
6. Tax the circulation of domestic or foreign goods by imposts or duties, the exemption of which is made by local customhouses, requiring inspection or registration of packages or documentation to accompany the goods.
7. Enact or maintain in force fiscal laws or provisions that relate to differences in duties or requirements by reason of the origin of domestic or foreign goods, whether this difference is established because of similar production in the locality or because, among such similar production there is a different place or origin.
8. Issue bonds of public debt payable in foreign currency or outside the national territory; contract loans directly or indirectly with the Governments of other nations, or contract obligations in favor of foreign companies or individuals, when the bonds or securities are payable to bearer or are transmissible by endorsement.
States and municipalities may not negotiate loans except for the construction of works intended to produce directly an increase in their revenues.
9. Levy duties on the production, storage, or sale of tobacco in a manner distinct from or with quotas greater than those authorized by the Congress of the Union.
The Congress of the Union and the state legislatures shall immediately enact laws designed to combat alcoholism.
Article 118. Nor shall the States, without the consent of the Congress of the Union:
1. Establish ship tonnage dues or any other port charges, or levy imposts or taxes on imports or exports.
2. Have at any time permanent troops or ships of war.
3. Make war themselves on any foreign power, except in cases of invasion and of danger so imminent that it does not admit of delay. In such cases, a report shall be made immediately to the President of the Republic.
Article 119. Each State has the obligation to deliver without delay the criminals of another State or of a foreign State to the authorities who claim them.
In such cases, the writ of the judge who orders the certificate of extradition shall be sufficient to cause detention of the accused for one month in the case of extradition between States and for two months if it is international.
Article 120. The governors of the States are required to publish and enforce federal laws.
Article 121. Complete faith and credence shall be given in each State of the Federation to the public acts, registries, and judicial proceedings of all the others. The Congress of the Union, through general laws, shall prescribe the manner of proving such acts, registries, and proceedings, and their effect, by subjecting them to the following principles:
1. The laws of a State shall have effect only within its own territory and consequently are not binding outside of that State;
2. Real and personal property shall be subject to the laws of the place in which they are located;
3. Judgments pronounced by the courts of one State on real rights or real property located in another State shall have executory effect in the latter only if its own laws so provide;
Judgments on personal rights shall be executed in another State only when the defendant has expressly or by reason of domicile submitted to the court that pronounced it and provided he has been personally cited to appear at the judicial hearing;
4. Acts of a civil nature done in accordance with the laws of one State shall have validity in the others;
5. Professional degrees issued by the authorities of one State, subject to its laws, shall be respected in the others.
Article 122. The powers of the Union have the duty of protecting the States against all foreign invasion or violence. In any case of internal uprising or disturbance, they shall give equal protection, provided it is requested by the legislature of the State or by its Executive if the former is not assembled.