The Head of State

Article (41) The Sultan is the Head of State and the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. His person is inviolable and must be respected and his orders must be obeyed. The Sultan is the symbol of national unity as well as its guardian and defender.

Article (42) The Sultan discharges the following functions:
  1. preserving the country’s independence and territorial integrity and assuring its internal and external security, maintaining the rights and freedoms of its citizens, guaranteeing the rule of law, and guiding the general policy of the State.
  2. taking prompt measures to counter any threat to the safety of the State or its territorial integrity, the security and interests of its people, or the smooth running of its institutions.
  3. representing the State both internally and externally in all international relations.
  4. presiding over the Council of Ministers or appointing a person to serve in that position.
  5. presiding over the Specialised Councils or appointing chairmen for them.
  6. appointing and dismissing Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and those of their rank.
  7. appointing and dismissing Under-Secretaries, General Secretaries and those of their rank.
  8. appointing and dismissing senior judges.
  9. declaring a state of emergency, general mobilisation, or war, and making peace in accordance with the provisions of the Law.
  10. issuing and ratifying laws.
  11. signing international treaties and agreements in accordance with the provisions of the Law (or authorising a signatory to sign them) and issuing decrees ratifying them.
  12. appointing and dismissing political representatives to other States and international organisations according to the limits and circumstances laid down by the Law. Accepting accreditation of representatives of States and international organisations.
  13. waiving or commuting punishments
  14. conferring honours, decorations and military ranks.
Article (43) The Sultan shall be assisted in drafting and implementing the general policy of the State by a Council of Ministers and Specialised Councils.

The Council of Ministers

Article (44) The Council of Ministers is the body entrusted with implementing general State policies. In particular it shall :
  1. submit recommendations to the Sultan on economic, political and social, as well as executive and administrative matters of concern to the Government, and propose draft laws and decrees.
  2. foster the welfare of citizens and ensure the provision of health and other essential services in order to improve the quality of their life socially and culturally as well as economically.
  3. formulate aims and general policies for economic, social, and administrative development and propose methods of implementing these policies which will make the best use of financial, economic and human resources.
  4. discuss developmental plans prepared by the relevant departments, submit them to the Sultan for approval, and follow up their implementation.
  5. discuss proposals by Ministries in their fields of executive jurisdiction and make appropriate recommendations and decisions in this regard.
  6. oversee the smooth running of the State’s administrative apparatus, follow up its performance of its duties , and co-ordinate the activities of its different departments.
  7. monitor the implementation of all laws, decrees, ordinances and decisions, as well as treaties and agreements and court judgements, in a manner that will ensure that they are complied with.
  8. discharge any other competencies vested in it by the Sultan or conferred upon it by the provisions of the Law.
Article (45) The Head of the Council of Ministers shall preside over the Council’s sessions and has the right to entrust the chairmanship of sessions, which he does not attend, to one of the Deputy Prime Ministers. If the Prime Minister and his Deputies are absent, the Sultan will authorise whoever he sees fit to chair the sessions.

Article (46) Meetings of the Council shall be quorate with the attendance of a majority of its members. Its deliberations are secret and its decisions are issued with the approval of a majority of those present.

Article (47) The Council of Ministers shall draw up Standing Orders including its Rules of Procedure. The Council shall have a General Secretariat which will be provided with a sufficient number of staff to assist it in carrying out its work.

The Prime Minister, His Deputies and Ministers

Article (48) If the Sultan appoints a Prime Minister, his competencies and powers shall be specified in the Decree appointing him.

Article (49) It is a prerequisite that whoever is appointed as Prime Minister, his Deputy, or a Minister :
a. Shall be originally of Omani nationality in accordance with the Law
b. Shall be aged not less than 30 years of the Gregorian calendar.

Article (50) Before assuming their powers the Prime Minister, his Deputies, and Ministers shall swear the following oath in the presence of the Sultan:

“ I swear by Almighty God that I shall be faithful to my Sultan and my Country, that I shall respect the Basic Law of the State and its implementing regulations; that I shall uphold at all times the integrity of the State and the security of its territories, and shall work to promote fully its interests and the interests of its citizens, and that I shall discharge my duties truly and honestly.”

Article (51) Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers shall supervise the affairs of their Ministries and Organisations, and implement the general policy of the Government therein, as well as drawing up future guidelines for their Ministries and Organisations and following up their implementation.

Article (52) Members of the Council of Ministers are politically collectively responsible before the Sultan for carrying out the general policies of the State, and each is individually responsible before the Sultan for the discharge of his duties and the exercise of his powers.

Article (53) Members of the Council of Ministers shall not combine their Ministerial position with the chairmanship or membership of the Board of any joint stock company. Nor may the Government departments of which they are in charge have dealings with any company or organisation in which they have an interest, whether direct or indirect. They should be guided in all their actions by considerations of national interest and public welfare and should not exploit their official positions in any way for their own benefit or for the benefit of those with whom they have special relations.

Article (54) The emoluments of Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers, during their term of office and after their retirement, shall be determined in accordance with the directives of the Sultan.

Article (55) The provisions of Articles 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 and 54 shall apply to all those with the rank of Minister.

Specialised Councils

Article (56) The Specialised Councils shall be established, their powers defined and their members appointed in accordance with Royal Decrees.

Financial Affairs

Article (57) The Law specifies the provisions concerning the following matters and the bodies responsible for them:
  1. collection of taxes, revenues and other public monies, and measures for their disbursement.
  2. maintenance and administration of State property, the conditions of its disposal, and the limits within which a part of this property may be assigned.
  3. the general State budget and the final account
  4. the autonomous and supplementary budgets and their final accounts
  5. control of State finances
  6. loans extended by or obtained by the State
  7. currency and banking , standards, weights and measures
  8. salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies and gratuities charged to the State Treasury