The Federation of Pakistan

Chapter 1. THE PRESIDENT

ARTICLE 41. The President.
(1) There shall be a President of Pakistan who shall be the Head of State and shall represent the unity of the Republic.
(2) A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as member of the National Assembly.
(3) The President to be elected after the expiration of the term specified in clause ( 7) shall be elected in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule by the members of an electoral college consisting of:
  1. the members of both Houses; and
  2. the members of the Provincial Assemblies.
4) Election to the office of President shall be held not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office;

Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.

5) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President shall be held not later than thirty days from the occurrence of the vacancy:
Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.
(6) The validity of the election of the President shall not be called in question by or before any court or other authority.
(7) The Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan-
  1. shall relinquish the office of Chief Executive on such day as he may determine in accordance with the judgement of the Supreme Court of Pakistan of the 12th May, 2000; and
  2. having received the democratic mandate to serve the nation as President of Pakistan for a period of five years shall, on relinquishing the office of the Chief Executive, notwithstanding anything contained in this Article or Article 43 or any other provision of the Constitution or any other law for the time being in force, assume the office of President of Pakistan forthwith and shall hold office for a term of five years under the Constitution, and Article 44 and other provisions of the Constitution shall apply accordingly.
[Provided that paragraph (d) of clause (1) of Article 63 shall become operative on and from the 31st day of December, 2004.]

8) Without prejudice to the provisions of clause (7), any member or members of a House of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or of a Provincial Assembly, individually or jointly, may, not later than thirty days from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 2003, move a resolution for vote of confidence for further affirmation of the President in office by majority of the members present and voting, by division or any other method as prescribed in the rules made by the Federal Government under clause (9), of the electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and the Provincial Assemblies, in a special session of each House of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and of each Provincial Assembly summoned for the purpose, and the vote of confidence having been passed, the President, notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution or judgment of any court, shall be deemed to be elected to hold office for a term of five years under the Constitution, and the same shall not be called in question in any court or forum on any ground whatsoever.
(9) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution or any other law for the time being in force, the proceedings for the vote of confidence referred to in clause (8) shall be regulated and conducted by the Chief Election Commissioner in accordance with such procedure and the votes shall be counted in such manner as may be prescribed by the rules framed by the Federal Government:-

Provided that clauses (8) and (9) shall be valid only for the forthcoming vote of confidence for the current term of the President in office.

ARTICLE 42. Oath of President.
Before entering upon office, the President shall make before the Chief Justice of Pakistan oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

ARTICLE 43. Conditions of President's office.
(1) The President shall not hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan or occupy any other position carrying the right to remuneration for the rendering of services.
(2) The President shall not be a candidate for election as a member of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] or a Provincial Assembly; and, if a member of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] or a Provincial Assembly is elected as President, his seat in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly shall become vacant on the day he enters upon his office.

ARTICLE 44. Term of office of President.
(1) Subject to the Constitution, the President shall hold office for a term of five years from the day he enters upon his office:
Provided that the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.
(2) Subject to the Constitution, a person holding office as President shall be eligible for re-election to that office, but no person shall hold that office for more than two consecutive terms.
(3) The President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker of the National Assembly, resign his office.

ARTICLE 45. President's power to grant pardon, etc.
The President shall have power to grant pardon, reprieve and respite, and to remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority.

ARTICLE 46. Duties of Prime Minister in relation to President.
It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister:
(a) to communicate to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation;
(b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and
(c) if the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Prime Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet.

ARTICLE 47. Removal [or impeachment] of President.
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the President may, in accordance with the provisions of this Article, be removed from office on the ground of physical or mental incapacity or impeached on a charge of violating the Constitution or gross misconduct.
(2) Not less than one-half of the total membership of either House may give to the Speaker of the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Chairman written notice of its intention to move a resolution for the removal of, or, as the case may be, to impeach, the President; and such notice shall set out the particulars of his incapacity or of the charge against him.]
(3) If a notice under clause (2) is received by the Chairman, he shall transmit it forthwith to the Speaker.
(4) The Speaker shall, within three days of the receipt of a notice under clause (2) or clause (3), cause a copy of the notice to be transmitted to the President.
(5) The Speaker shall summon the two Houses to meet in a joint sitting not earlier than seven days and not later than fourteen days after the receipt of the notice by him.
(6) The joint sitting may investigate or cause to be investigated the ground or the charge upon which the notice is founded.
(7) The President shall have the right to appear and be represented during the investigation, if any, and before the joint sitting.
(8) If, after consideration of the result of the investigation, if any, a resolution is passed at the joint sitting by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] declaring that the President is unfit to hold the office due to incapacity or is guilty of violating the Constitution or of gross misconduct, the President shall cease to hold office immediately on the passing of the resolution.

ARTICLE 48. President to act on advice, etc.
(1) In the exercise of his functions, the President shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet [or the Prime Minister].
[Provided that the President may require the Cabinet or as the case may be, the Prime Minister to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the President shall act in his discretion in respect of any matter in respect of which he is empowered by the Constitution to do so [and the validity of anything done by the President in his discretion shall not be called in question on any ground whatsoever.
4) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered to the President by the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Minister of State shall not be inquired into in, or by, any court, tribunal or other authority.
(5) Where the President dissolves the National Assembly, he shall, in his discretion,:
  1. appoint a date, not later than [ninety] days from the date of the dissolution, for the holding of a general election to the Assembly; and
  2. appoint a care-taker Cabinet.
(6) If, at any time, the President, in his discretion, or on the advice of the Prime Minister, considers that it is desirable that any matter of national importance should be referred to a referendum, the President may cause the matter to be referred to a referendum in the form of a question that is capable of being answered either by "Yes" or "No".
(7) An act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may lay down the procedure for the holding of a referendum and the compiling and consolidation of the result of a referendum.

ARTICLE 49. Chairman or Speaker to act as, or perform functions of, President.
(1) If the office of President becomes vacant by reason of death, resignation or removal of the President the Chairman or, if he is unable to perform the functions of the office of President, the Speaker of the National Assembly shall act as President until a President is elected in accordance with clause (3) of Article 41.
(2) When the President, by reason of absence from Pakistan or any other cause, is unable to perform his functions, the Chairman or, if he too is absent or unable to perform the functions of the office of President, the Speaker of the National Assembly shall perform the functions of President until the President returns to Pakistan or, as the case may be, resumes his functions.

Chapter 2. THE MAJLIS-E-SHOORA (Parliament)

Composition, Duration and Meetings of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)]

ARTICLE 50. Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)
There shall be a Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of Pakistan consisting of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the National Assembly and the Senate.

ARTICLE 51. National Assembly.
(1) There shall be three hundred and forty-two seats of the members in the National Assembly, including seats reserved for women and non-Muslims.
(1A) The seats in the National Assembly referred to in clause (1), except as provided in clause (2A), are allocated to each Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Federal Capital as under-
        General     Women     Total
    Balochistan     14     3     17
    NWFP     35     8     43
    The Punjab     148     35     183
    Sind     61     14     75
    FATA     12     -     12
    Federal Capital     2     -     2
    Total     272     60     332
 
(2) A person shall be entitled to vote if:
  1. he is a citizen of Pakistan;
  2. he is not less than [eighteen] years of age;
  3. his name appears on the electoral roll; and
  4. he is not declared by a competent court to be of unsound mind .
(2A) In addition to the number of seats referred to in clause (1A), there shall be, in the National Assembly, ten seats reserved for non-Muslims.
(3) The seats in the National Assembly shall be allocated to each Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Federal Capital on the basis of population in accordance with the last preceding census officially published.
(4) For the purpose of election to the National Assembly,-
  1. the constituencies for the general seats shall be single member territorial constituencies and the members to fill such seats shall be elected by direct and free vote in accordance with law;
  2. each Province shall be a single constituency for all;
  3. the constituency for all seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be the whole country;
  4. members to the seats reserved for women which are allocated to a Province under clause (1A) shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties' lists of candidates on the basis of total number of general seats secured by each political party from the Province concerned in the National Assembly :
Provided that for the purpose of this sub-clause the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of the publication in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates.
(e) members to the seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties lists of candidates on the basis of total number of general seats won by each political party in the National Assembly:
Provided that for the purpose of this sub-clause the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of the publication in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates.

ARTICLE 52. Duration of National Assembly.
The National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, continue for a term of five years from the day of its first meeting and shall stand dissolved at the expiration of its term.

ARTICLE 53. Speaker and Deputy Speaker of National Assembly.
(1) After a general election, the National Assembly shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from amongst its members a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect another member as Speaker or, as the case may be, Deputy Speaker.
(2) Before entering upon office, a member elected as Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall make before the National Assembly oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) When the office of Speaker is vacant, or the Speaker is absent or is unable to perform his functions due to any cause, the Deputy Speaker shall act as Speaker, and if, at that time, the Deputy Speaker is also absent or is unable to act as Speaker due to any cause, such member as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly shall preside at the meeting of the Assembly.
(4) The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall not preside at a meeting of the Assembly when a resolution for his removal from office is being considered.
(5) The Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(6) The Deputy Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker, resign his office.
(7) The office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become vacant if:
  1. he resigns his office;
  2. he ceases to be a member of the Assembly;
  3. he is removed from office by a resolution of the Assembly, of which not less than seven days' notice has been given and which is passed by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the Assembly.
(8) When the National Assembly is dissolved the Speaker shall continue in his office till the person elected to fill the office by the next Assembly enters upon his office.

ARTICLE 54. Summoning and prorogation of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(1) The President may, from time to time, summon either House or both Houses of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] in joint sitting to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit and may also prorogue the same.
(2) There shall be at least [three] sessions of the National Assembly every year, and not more than one hundred and twenty days shall intervene between the last sitting of the Assembly in one session and the date appointed for its first sitting in the next session:
Provided that the National Assembly shall meet for not less than one hundred and [thirty] working days in each year.

Explanation: In this clause, "working days" includes any day on which there is a joint sitting and any period, not exceeding two days for which the National Assembly is adjourned.

(3) On a requisition signed by not less than one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Speaker shall summon the National Assembly to meet, at such time and place as he thinks fit, within fourteen days of the receipt of the requisition; and when the Speaker has summoned the Assembly only he may prorogue it.

ARTICLE 55. Voting in Assembly and quorum.
(1) Subject to the Constitution, all decisions Voting in of the National Assembly shall be taken by majority Assembly a of the members present and voting, but the person quorum. presiding shall not vote except in the case of equality of votes.
(2) If at any time during a sitting of the National Assembly the attention of the person presiding is drawn to the fact that less than one-fourth of the total membership of the Assembly is present, he shall either adjourn the Assembly or suspend the meeting until at least one-fourth of such membership is present.

ARTICLE 56. Address by President.
(1) The President may address either House or both Houses assembled together and may for that purpose require the attendance of the members.
(2) The President may send messages to either House, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient dispatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.
(3) At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the National Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year the President shall address both Houses assembled together and inform the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of the causes of its summons.]
(4) Provision shall be made in the rules for regulating the procedure of a House and the conduct of its business for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in the address of the President.

ARTICLE 57. Right to speak in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
The Prime Minister, a Federal Minister, a Minister of State and the Attorney General shall have the right to speak and otherwise take part in the proceedings of either House, or a joint sitting or any committee thereof, of which he may be named a member, but shall not by virtue of this Article be entitled to vote.

ARTICLE 58. Dissolution of the National Assembly.
(1) The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours after the Prime Minister has so advised.

Explanation:- Reference in this Article to "Prime Minister" shall not be construed to include reference to a Prime Minister against whom a [notice of a resolution for a vote of no-confidence has been given] in the National Assembly but has not been voted upon or against whom such a resolution has been passed or who is continuing in office after his resignation or after the dissolution of the National Assembly.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2) of Article 48, the President may also dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion where, in his opinion,:
  1. a vote of no-confidence having been passed against the Prime Minister, no other member of the National Assembly is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution as ascertained in a session of the National Assembly summoned for the purpose; or
  2. a situation has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary.
(3) The President in case of dissolution of the National Assembly under paragraph (b) of clause (2) shall, within fifteen days of the dissolution, refer the matter to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court shall decide the reference within thirty days whose decision shall be final.

ARTICLE 59. The Senate
(1) The Senate shall consist of one-hundred members, of whom,-
  1. fourteen shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly;
  2. eight shall be elected from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe;
  3. two on general seats, and one woman and one technocrat including aalim shall be elected from the Federal Capital in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe;
  4. four women shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly;
  5. four technocrats including ulema shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly.
(2) Election to fill seats in the Senate allocated to each Province shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
(3) The Senate shall not be subject to dissolution but the term of its members, who shall retire as follows, shall be six years:-
  1. of the members referred to in paragraph (a) of clause (1), seven shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and seven shall retire after the expiration of the next three years.
  2. of the members referred to in paragraph (b) of the aforesaid clause, four shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and four shall retire after the expiration of the next three years;
  3. of the members referred to in paragraph (c) of the aforesaid clause,-
    • one elected on general seat shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and the other one shall retire after the expiration of the next three years, and
    • one elected on the seat reserved for technocrat shall retire after first three years and the one elected on the seat reserved for woman shall retire after the expiration of the next three years;
  4. of the members referred to in paragraph (d) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of the three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years; and
  5. of the members referred to in paragraph (e) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years:
Provided that the term of office of a person elected to fill a casual vacancy shall be the unexpired term of the member whose vacancy he has filled.
 
ARTICLE 60. Chairman and Deputy Chairman
(1) After the Senate has been duly constituted, it shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from amongst its members a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman and, so often as the office of Chairman or Deputy Chairman becomes vacant, the Senate shall elect another member as Chairman or, as the case may be, Deputy Chairman.
(2) The term of office of the Chairman or Deputy Chairman shall be [three] years from the day on which he enters upon his office.

ARTICLE 61. Other provisions relating to Senate.
The provisions of clauses (2) to (7) of Article 53, clauses (2) and (3) of Article 54 and Article 55 shall apply to the Senate as they apply to the National Assembly and, in their application to the Senate, shall have effect as if references therein to the National Assembly, Speaker and Deputy Speaker were references, respectively, to the Senate, Chairman and Deputy Chairman [and as if, in the proviso to the said clause (2) of Article 54, for the words "one hundred and thirty" the word "ninety" were substituted].

Provisions as to Members of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)

ARTICLE 62. Qualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
A person shall not be qualified to be elected or chosen as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) unless :-
(a) he is a citizen of Pakistan;
(b) he is, in the case of the National Assembly, not less than twenty -five years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any electoral roll in-
(i) any part of Pakistan, for election to a general seat or a seat reserved for non-Muslims; and
(ii) any area in a Province from which he seeks membership for election to a seat reserved for women.]
(c) he is, in the case of Senate, not less than thirty years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any area in a Province or, as the case may be, the Federal Capital or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, from where he seeks membership;
(d) he is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic Injunctions;
(e) he has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practises obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sins ;
(f) he is sagacious, righteous and non-profligate and honest and ameen;
(g) he has not been convicted for a crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence;
(h) he has not, after the establishment of Pakistan, worked against the integrity of the country or opposed the Ideology of Pakistan
Provided that the disqualifications specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) shall not apply to a person who is a non-Muslim, but such a person shall have good moral reputation; and
(i) he possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

ARTICLE 63. Disqualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(1) A person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen as, and from being, a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), if:-
  1. he is of unsound mind and has been so declared by a competent court; or
  2. he is an undischarged insolvent; or
  3. he ceases to be a citizen of Pakistan, or acquires the citizenship of a foreign State; or
  4. he holds an office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than an office declared by law not to disqualify its holder; or
  5. he is in the service of any statutory body of any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has a controlling share or interest; or
  6. being a citizen of Pakistan by virtue of section 14B of the Pakistan Citizenship Act, 1951 (II of 1951), he is for the time being disqualified under any law in force in Azad Jammu and Kashmir from being elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Azad Jammu and Kashmir; or
  7. he is propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner, prejudicial to the Ideology of Pakistan, or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or morality, or the maintenance of public order, or the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary or the Armed Forces of Pakistan; or
  8. he has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction on a charge of corrupt practice, moral turpitude or misuse of power or authority under any law for the time being in force; or
  9. he has been dismissed from the service of Pakistan or service of a corporation or office set up or controlled by the Federal Government, Provincial Government or a Local Government on the grounds of misconduct or moral turpitude; or
  10. he has been removed or compulsorily retired from the service of Pakistan or service of a corporation or office set up or controlled by the Federal Government, Provincial Government or a Local Government on the grounds of misconduct or moral turpitude; or]
  11. he has been in the service of Pakistan or of any statutory body or any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has a controlling share or interest, unless a period of two years has elapsed since he ceased to be in such service; or
  12. he is found guilty of a corrupt or illegal practice under any law for the time being in force, unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date on which that order takes effect; or
  13. he has been convicted under section 7 of the Political Parties Act, 1962 (III of 1962), unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date of such conviction; or
  14. he, whether by himself or by any person or body of persons in trust for him or for his benefit or on his account or as a member of a Hindu undivided family, has any share or interest in a contract, not being a contract between a cooperative society and Government, for the supply of goods to, or for the execution of any contract or for the performance of any service undertaken by, Government:
  15. Provided that the disqualification under this paragraph shall not apply to a person-
    • where the share or interest in the contract devolves on him by inheritance or succession or as a legatee, executor or administrator, until the expiration of six months after it has so devolved on him;
    • where the contract has been entered into by or on behalf of a public company as defined in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984), of which he is a share-holder but is not a director holding an office of profit under the company; or
    • where he is a member of a Hindu undivided family and the contract has been entered into by any other member of that family in the course of carrying on a separate business in which he has no share or interest; or
Explanation.- In this Article "goods" does not include agricultural produce or commodity grown or produced by him or such goods as he is, under any directive of Government or any law for the time being in force, under a duty or obligation to supply.
(o) he holds any office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than the following offices, namely :-
(i) an office which is not whole time office remunerated either by salary or by fee;
(ii) the office of Lumbardar, whether called by this or any other title;
(iii) the Qaumi Razakars;
(iv) any office the holder whereof, by virtue of such office, is liable to be called up for military training or military service under any law providing for the constitution or raising of a Force; or
(p) he has been convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for having absconded by a competent court under any law for the time being in force; or
(q) he has obtained a loan for an amount of two million rupees or more, from any bank, financial institution, cooperative society or cooperative body in his own name or in the name of his spouse or any of his dependents, which remains unpaid for more than one year from the due date, or has got such loan written off; or
(r) he or his spouse or any of his dependents has defaulted in payment of government dues and utility expenses, including telephone, electricity, gas and water charges in excess of ten thousand rupees, for over six months, at the time of filing his nomination papers [; or]
(s) he is for the time being disqualified from being elected or chosen as a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)or of a Provincial Assembly under any law for the time being in force.
(2) If any question arises whether a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has become disqualified from being a member, the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman shall, within thirty days from raising of such question refer the question to the Chief Election Commissioner.
(3) Where a question is referred to the Chief Election Commissioner under clause (2), he shall lay such question before the Election Commission which shall give its decision thereon not later than three months from its receipt by he Chief Election Commissioner.

ARTICLE 63A. Disqualification on grounds of defection, etc.
(1) If a member of a Parliamentary Party composed of a single political party in a House
  1. resigns from membership of his political party or joins another Parliamentary Party; or
  2. votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issued by the Parliamentary Party to which he belongs, in relations to-
    • election of the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister; or
    • a vote of confidence or a vote of no-confidence; or
    • a Money Bill;
he may be declared in writing by the Head of the Parliamentary Party to have defected from the political party, and the Head of the Parliamentary Party may forward a copy of the declaration to the Presiding Officer, and shall similarly forward a copy thereof to the member concerned:
Provided that before making the declaration, the Head of the Parliamentary Party shall provide such member with an opportunity to show cause as to why such declaration may not be made against him.
(2) A member of a House shall be deemed to be a member of a Parliamentary Party if he having been elected as a candidate or nominee of a political party which constitutes the Parliamentary Party in the House or, having been elected otherwise than as a candidate or nominee of a political party, has become a member of such Parliamentary Party after such election by means of a declaration in writing.
(3) Upon receipt of the declaration under clause (1), the Presiding Officer of the House shall within two days refer the declaration to the Chief Election Commissioner who shall lay the declaration before the Election Commission for its decision thereon confirming the declaration or otherwise within thirty days of its receipt by the Chief Election Commissioner.
(4) Where the Election Commission confirms the declaration, the member referred to in clause (1) shall cease to be a member of the House and his seat shall become vacant.
(5) Any party aggrieved by the decision of the Election Commission may within thirty days, prefer an appeal to the Supreme Court which shall decide the matter within three months from the date of the filing of the appeal.
(6) Nothing contained in this Article shall apply to the Chairman or Speaker of a House.
(7) For the purpose of this Article-
  1. "House" means the National Assembly or the Senate in relation to the Federation and a Provincial Assembly in relation to the Province, as the case may be.
  2. "Presiding Officer" means the Speaker of the National Assembly, the Chairman of the Senate or the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly, as the case may be.
ARTICLE 64. Vacation of seats.
(1) A Member of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman resign his seat, and thereupon his seat shall become vacant.
(2) A House may declare the seat of a member vacant if, without leave of the House, he remains absent for forty consecutive days of its sittings.

ARTICLE 65. Oath of members.
A person elected to a House shall not sit or vote until he has made before the House oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

ARTICLE 66. Privileges of members, etc.
(1) Subject to the Constitution and to the rules of procedure of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], there shall be freedom of speech in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) ] and no member shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.
(2) In other respects, the powers, immunities and privileges of [Majlis-e-Shoora, (Parliament)], and the immunities and privileges of the members of  [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) ], shall be such as may from time to time be defined by law and, until so defined, shall be such as were, immediately before the commencing day, enjoyed by the National Assembly of Pakistan and the committees thereof and its members.
(3) Provision may be made by law for the punishment, by a House, of persons who refuse to give evidence or produce documents before a committee of the House when duly required by the chairman of the committee so to do:

Provided that any such law-
  1. may empower a court to punish a person who refuses to give evidence or produce documents; and
  2. shall have effect subject to such Order for safeguarding confidential matters from disclosure as may be made by the President.
(4) The provisions of this Article shall apply to person s who have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] as they apply to members.
(5) In this Article, [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] means either House or a joint sitting, or a committee thereof.

Procedure Generally

ARTICLE 67. Rules of Procedure, etc.
(1) Subject to the Constitution, a House may make rules for regulating its procedure and the conduct of its business, and shall have power to act notwithstanding any vacancy in the membership thereof, and any proceedings in the House shall not be invalid on the ground that some persons who were not entitled to do so sat, voted or otherwise took part in the proceedings.
(2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the procedure and conduct of business in a House shall be regulated by the rules of procedure made by the President.

ARTICLE 68. Restriction on discussion in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
No discussion shall take place in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties.

ARTICLE 69. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(1) The validity of any proceedings in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall not be called in question on the ground of any irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of  [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] in whom powers are vested by or under the Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.
(3) In this Article, [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] has the same meaning as in Article 66.

Legislative Procedure

ARTICLE 70. Introduction and passing of Bills.
(1) A Bill with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List or in the Concurrent Legislative List may originate in either House and shall, if it is passed by the House in which it originated, be transmitted to the other House; and, if the Bill is passed without amendment, by the other House also, it shall he presented to the President for assent.
(2) if a Bill transmitted to a House under clause (1) is rejected or is not passed within ninety days of its receipt or is passed with amendment, the Bill, at the request of the House in which it originated, shall be [referred to a Mediation Committee constituted under Article 71 for consideration and resolution thereon].
(3) Where a Bill is referred to the Mediation Committee under clause (2), the Mediation Committee shall, within ninety days, formulate an agreed Bill which is likely to be passed by both Houses of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and place the agreed Bill separately before each House and if both the Houses pass the Bill, it shall be presented to the President for assent. President for assent.
(4) In this Article and the succeeding provisions of the Constitution, "Federal Legislative List" and "Concurrent Legislative List" mean respectively the Federal Legislative List and the Concurrent Legislative List in the Fourth Schedule.

ARTICLE 71. Mediation Committee
(1) Both Houses of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall, within fifteen days from the date of referral of the Bill by the House in which it was originated for consideration and resolution by the Mediation Committee under clause (2) of Article 70 nominate eight members each as members of a Mediation Committee.
(2) The House in which the Bill was originated shall nominate a member of the Mediation Committee as Chairman of the Committee and the other House shall nominate a member as the Vice-Chairman thereof.
(3) All decisions of the Mediation Committee shall be made by a majority of the total number of members of each House in the Committee.
(4) The President may, in consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly and Chairman of the Senate, make rules for conduct of business of the Mediation Committee.

ARTICLE 72. Procedure at joint sittings.
(1) The President, after consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly and the Chairman, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to the joint sittings of, and communications between, the two Houses.
(2) At a joint sitting, the Speaker of the National Assembly or, in his absence, such person as may be determined by the rules made under clause (1), shall preside.
(3) The rules made under clause (1) shall be laid before a joint sitting and may be added to, varied, amended or replaced at a joint sitting.
(4) Subject to the Constitution, all decisions at a joint sitting shall be taken by the votes of the majority of the members present and voting.

ARTICLE 73. Procedure with respect to Money Bill.
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 70, a Money Bill shall originate in the National Assembly.
Provided that simultaneously when a Money Bill, including the Finance Bill containing the Annual Budget Statement, is presented in the National Assembly, a copy thereof shall be transmitted to the Senate which may, within seven days, make recommendations thereon to the National Assembly.
(1A) The National Assembly shall, consider the recommendations of the Senate and after the Bill has been passed by the Assembly with or without incorporating the recommendations of the Senate, it shall be presented to the President for assent.]
(2) For the purpose of this Chapter, a Bill or amendment shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:-
  1. the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
  2. the borrowing of money, or the giving of any guarantee, by the Federal government, or the amendment of the law relating to the financial obligations of that Government;
  3. the custody of the Federal Consolidated Fund, the payment of moneys into, or the issue of moneys from, that Fund;
  4. the imposition of a charge upon the Federal Consolidated Fund, or the abolition or alteration of any such charge;
  5. the receipt of moneys on account of the Public Account of the Federation, the custody or issue of such moneys;
  6. the audit of the accounts of the Federal Government or a Provincial Government; and
  7. any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in the preceding paragraphs.
(3) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides:-
  1. for the imposition or alteration of any fine or other pecuniary penalty, or for the demand or payment of a licence fee or a fee or charge for any service rendered; or
  2. for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.
(4) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the National Assembly thereon shall be final.
(5) Every Money Bill presented to the President for assent shall bear a certificate under the hand of the Speaker of the National Assembly that it is a Money Bill, and such certificate shall be conclusive for all purposes and shall not be called in question.

ARTICLE 74. Federal Government's consent required for financial measures.
A Money Bill or a Bill or amendment which if enacted and brought into operation would involve expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund or withdrawal from the Public Account of the Federation or affect the coinage or currency of Pakistan or the constitution or functions of the State Bank of Pakistan shall not be introduced or moved in [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] except by or with the consent of the Federal Government.

ARTICLE 75. President's assent to Bills.
(1) When a Bill is presented to the President for assent, the President shall, within [thirty] days,-
  1. assent to the Bill; or
  2. in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, return the Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) with a message requesting that the Bill, or any specified provision thereof, be reconsidered and that any amendment specified in the message be considered.
(2) When the President has returned a Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), it shall be reconsidered by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and, if it is again passed, with or without amendment, by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), [in accordance with Article 70] it shall be deemed for the purposes of the Constitution to have been passed by both Houses and shall be presented to the President and the President shall not withhold assent therefrom.
(3) When the President has assented to a Bill, it shall become law and be called an Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(4) No act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and no provision in any such Act, shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation, previous sanction or consent required by the Constitution was not given if that Act was assented to in accordance with the Constitution.

ARTICLE 76. Bill not to lapse on prorogation, etc.
(1) A Bill pending in either House shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House.
(2) A Bill pending in the Senate which has not been passed by the National Assembly shall not lapse on the dissolution of the National Assembly.
(3) A Bill pending in the National Assembly, or a Bill which having been passed by the National Assembly is pending in the Senate, shall lapse on the dissolution of the National Assembly.

ARTICLE 77. Tax to be levied by law only.
No tax shall be levied for the purposes of the Federation except by or under the authority of Act of  [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)].

Financial Procedures

ARTICLE 78. Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
(1) All revenues received by the Federal Government, all loans raised by that Government and all moneys received by it in repayment of any loan, shall form part of a consolidated fund, to be known as the Federal Consolidated Fund.
(2) All other moneys-
  1. received by or on behalf of the Federal Government; or
  2. received by or deposited with the Supreme Court or any other court established under the authority of the Federation; shall be credited to the Public Account of the Federation.
ARTICLE 79. Custody, etc., of Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
The custody of the Federal Consolidated Fund, the payment Or moneys into that Fund, the withdrawal of moneys therefrom, the custody of other moneys received by or on behalf of the Federal Government, their payment into, and withdrawal from, the Public Account of the Federation, and all matters connected with or ancillary to the matters aforesaid shall be regulated by Act of  [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] or, until provision in that behalf is so made, by rules made by the President.

ARTICLE 80. Annual Budget Statement.
(1) The Federal Government shall, in respect of every financial year, cause to be laid before the National Assembly a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Federal Government for that year, in this Part referred to as the Annual Budget Statement.
(2) The Annual Budget Statement shall show separately-
  1. the sums required to meet expenditure described by the Constitution as expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund; and
  2. the sums required to meet other expenditure proposed to be made from the Federal Consolidated Fund; and shall distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure.
ARTICLE 81. Expenditure charged upon Federal Consolidated Fund.
The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund:-
(a) the remuneration payable to the President and other expenditure relating to his office, and the remuneration payable to-
  • the Judges of the Supreme Court;
  • the Chief Election Commissioner;
  • the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman;
  • the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly;
  • the Auditor-General;
(b) the administrative expenses, including the remuneration payable to officers and servants of the Supreme Court, the department of the Auditor-General and the Office of the Chief Election Commissioner and of the Election Commission and the Secretariats of the Senate and the National Assembly;
(c) all debt charges for which the Federal Government is liable, including interest, sinking fund charges, the repayment or amortisation of capital, and other expenditure in connection with the raising of loans, and the service and redemption of debt on the security of the Federal Consolidated Fund;
(d) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award against Pakistan by any court or tribunal; and
(e) any other sums declared by the Constitution or by Act of  [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] to be so charged.

ARTICLE 82. Procedure relating to Annual Budget Statement.
(1) So much of the Annual Budget Statement as relates to expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund may be discussed in, but shall not be submitted to the vote of, the National Assembly.
(2) So much of the Annual Budget Statement as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted to the National Assembly in the form of demands for grants, and the Assembly shall have power to assent to, or to refuse to assent to, any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein;
Provided that, for a period of ten years from the commencing day or the holding of the second general election to the National Assembly, whichever occurs later, a demand shall be deemed to have been assented to without any reduction of the amount specified therein, unless, by the votes of a majority of the total membership of the Assembly, it is refused or assented to subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Federal Government.

ARTICLE 83. Authentication of schedule of authorised expenditure.
(1) The Prime Minister shall authenticate by his signature a schedule specifying-
  1. the grants made or deemed to have been made by the National Assembly under Article 82, and
  2. the several sums required to meet the expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund but not exceeding, in the case of any sum, the sum shown in the statement previously laid before the National Assembly.
(2) The schedule so authenticated shall be laid before the National Assembly, but shall not be open to discussion or vote thereon.
(3) Subject to the Constitution, no expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund shall be deemed to be duly authorised unless it is specified in the schedule so authenticated and such schedule is laid before the National Assembly as required by clause (2).

ARTICLE 84. Supplementary and excess grants.
If in respect of any financial year it is found-
(a) that the amount authorized to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is insufficient, or that a need has arisen for expenditure upon some new service not included in the Annual Budget Statement for that year; or
(b) that any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service for that year; the Federal Government shall have power to authorize expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund, whether the expenditure is charged by the Constitution upon that Fund or not, and shall cause to be laid before the National Assembly a Supplementary Budget Statement or, as the case may be, an Excess Budget Statement, setting out the amount of that expenditure, and the provisions of Articles 80 to 83 shall apply to those statements as they apply to the Annual Budget Statement.

ARTICLE 85. Votes on account.
Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions relating to financial matters, the National Assembly shall have power to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year, not exceeding four months, pending completion of the procedure prescribed in Article 82 for the voting of such grant and the authentication of the schedule of authorized expenditure in accordance with the provisions of Article 83 in relation to the expenditure.

ARTICLE 86. Power to authorise expenditure when Assembly stands dissolved.
Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions relating to financial matters, at any time when the National Assembly stands dissolved, the Federal Government may authorize expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund in respect of the estimated expenditure for a period not exceeding four months in any financial year, pending completion of the procedure prescribed in Article 82 for the voting of grants and the authentication of the schedule of authorized expenditure in accordance with the provisions of Article 83 in relation to the expenditure.

ARTICLE 87. Secretariats of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(1) Each House shall have a separate Secretariat
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses.
(2) [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed to the Secretarial staff of either House.
(3) Until provision is made by [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] under clause (2), the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman may, with the approval of the President, make rules regulating the recruitment and the conditions of service, of persons appointed to the secretarial staff of the National Assembly or the Senate.

ARTICLE 88. Finance Committees.
(1) The expenditure of the National Assembly and the Senate within authorised appropriations shall be controlled by the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Senate acting on the advice of its Finance Committee.
(2) The Finance Committee shall consist of the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman, the Minister of Finance and such other members as may be elected thereto by the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Senate.
(3) The Finance Committee may make rules for regulating its procedure.

Ordinances

ARTICLE 89. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances.
(1) The President may, except when the National Assembly is in session, if satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary to take immediate action, make and promulgate an Ordinance, as the circumstances may require.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this Article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] and shall be subject to like restrictions as the power of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] to make law, but every such Ordinance-
  1. shall be laid-
    • before the National Assembly if it [contains provisions dealing with all or any of the matters specified in clause (2) of Article 73], and shall stand repealed at the expiration of four months from its promulgation or, if before the expiration of that period -a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Assembly, upon the passing of that resolution;
    • before both Houses if it [does not contain provisions dealing with any of the matters referred to in sub-paragraph (i)], and shall stand repealed at the expiration of four months from its promulgation or, if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by either House, upon the passing of that resolution; and
  2. may be withdrawn at any time by the President.
(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of clause (2) an Ordinance laid before the National Assembly, shall be deemed to be a Bill introduced in the National Assembly.

Chapter 3. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

ARTICLE 90. Exercise of executive authority of the Federation.
(1) The executive authority of the Federation shall vest in the President and shall be exercised by him, either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution.
(2) Nothing contained in clause (1) shall :-
  1. be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any Province or other authority; or
  2. prevent the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President.
ARTICLE 91. The Cabinet.
(1) There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Prime Minister at its head, to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.
(2) The President shall in his discretion appoint from amongst the members of the National Assembly a Prime Minister who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly.
(2A) Notwithstanding any-thing contained in clause (2), after the twentieth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and ninety, the President shall invite the member of the National Assembly to be the Prime Minister who commands the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly, as ascertained in a session of the Assembly summoned for the purpose in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
(3) The person appointed under clause (2) [or as the case may be, invited under clause (2A)] shall, before entering upon the office, make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule and shall within a period of sixty days thereof obtain a vote of confidence from the National Assembly.
(4) The Cabinet, together with the Ministers of State, shall be collectively responsible to the National Assembly.
(5) The Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, but the President shall not exercise his powers under this clause unless he is satisfied that the Prime Minister does not command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly, in which case he shall summon the National Assembly and require the Prime Minister to obtain a vote of confidence from the Assembly.
(6) The Prime Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(7) A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the National Assembly shall, at the expiration of that period, cease to be a Minister and shall not before the dissolution of that Assembly be again appointed a Minister unless he is elected a member of that Assembly:
Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to a Minister who is a member of the Senate.
(8) Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as disqualifying the Prime Minister or any other Minister or a Minister of State for continuing in office during any period during which the National Assembly stands dissolved, or as preventing the appointment of any person as Prime Minister or other Minister or as Minister of State during any such period.

ARTICLE 92. Federal Ministers and Ministers of State.
(1) Subject to clauses (7) and (8) of Article 91, the President shall appoint Federal Ministers and Ministers of State from amongst the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) on the advice of the Prime Minister:
Provided that the number of Federal Ministers an d Ministers of State who are members of the Senate shall not at any time exceed one-fourth of the number of Federal Ministers.
(2) Before entering upon office, a Federal Minister or Minister of State shall make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) A Federal Minister or Minister of State may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office or may be removed from office by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

ARTICLE 93. Advisers.
(1) The President may, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint not more than five Advisers, on such terms and conditions as he may determine.
(2) The provisions of Article 57 shall also apply to an Adviser.

ARTICLE 94. Prime Minister continuing in office.
The President may ask the Prime Minister to continue to hold office until his successor enters upon the office of Prime Minister.

ARTICLE 95. Vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister.
(1) A resolution for a vote of no-confidence moved by not less than twenty per centum of the total membership of the National Assembly may be passed against the Prime Minister by the National Assembly.
(2) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, or later than seven days, from the day on which such resolution is moved in the National Assembly.
(3) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be moved in the National Assembly while the National Assembly is considering demands for grants submitted to it in the Annual Budget Statement.
(4) If the resolution referred to in clause (1) is passed by a majority of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister shall cease to hold offce.

ARTICLE 96.

ARTICLE 96A.

ARTICLE 97. Extent of executive authority of Federation.
Subject to the Constitution, the executive authority of the Federation shall extend to the matters with respect to which [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] has power to make laws, including exercise of rights, authority and jurisdiction in and in relation to areas outside Pakistan:

Provided that the said authority shall not, save as expressly provided in the Constitution or in any law made by [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], extend in any Province to a matter with respect to which the Provincial Assembly has also power to make laws.

ARTICLE 98. Conferring of functions on subordinate authorities.
On the recommendation of the Federal Government, [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law confer functions upon officers or authorities subordinate to the Federal Government.

ARTICLE 99. Conduct of business of Federal Government.
(1) All executive actions of the Federal Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
(2) The President shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed in his name shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any court on the ground that it was not made or executed by the President.
(3) The President shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the business of the Federal Government.

ARTICLE 100. Attorney-General for Pakistan.
(1) The President shall appoint a person, being a person qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court, to be the Attorney-General for Pakistan.
(2) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.
(3) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Federal Government upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character as may be referred or assigned to him by the Federal Government, and in the performance of his duties he shall have the right of audience in all courts and tribunals in Pakistan.
(4) The Attorney-General may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.