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pakistanHome > Lawyers > Pakistan > Constitution> relations between federation and provinces
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Relations Between Federation and Provinces

Chapter 1. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS

ARTICLE 141. Extent of Federal and Provincial laws.
Subject to the Constitution, [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may make laws (including laws having extra-territorial operation ) for the whole or any part of Pakistan, and a Provincial Assembly may make laws for the Province or any part thereof.

ARTICLE 142. Subject-matter of Federal and Provincial laws.
Subject to the Constitution-

(a) [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List;
(b) [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], and a Provincial Assembly also, shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Concurrent Legislative List;
(c)A Provincial Assembly shall, and [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall not, have power to make laws with respect to any matter not enumerated in either the Federal Legislative List or the Concurrent Legislative List; and
(d) [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to matters not enumerated in either of the Lists for such areas in the Federation as are not included in any Province.

ARTICLE 143.Inconsistency between Federal and Provincial laws.
If any provision of an Act of a Provincial Assembly is repugnant to any provision of an Act of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] which [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] is competent to enact, or to any provision of any existing law with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent Legislative List, then the Act of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], whether passed before or after the Act of the Provincial Assembly, or, as the case may be, the existing law, shall prevail and the Act of the Provincial Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void.

ARTICLE 144.Power of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] to legislate for two or more Provinces by consent.
(1) If two or more Provincial Assemblies pass resolutions to the effect that [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law regulate any matter not enumerated in either List in the Fourth Schedule, it shall be lawful for [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] to pass an Act for regulating that matter accordingly, but any act so passed may, as respects any Province to which it applies, be amended or repealed by Act of the Assembly of that Province.

Chapter 2. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN FEDERATION AND PROVINCES.

145. Power of President to direct Governor to discharge certain functions as his Agent.
(1) The President may direct the Governor of any Province to discharge as his Agent, either generally or in any particular matter, such functions relating to such areas in the Federation which are not included in any Province as may be specified in the direction.
(2) The provisions of Article 105 shall not apply to the discharge by the Governor of his functions under clause (1).

146. Power of Federation to confer powers, etc., on Provinces, in certain cases.
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the Federal Government may, with the consent of the Government of a Province, entrust either conditionally or unconditionally to that Government, or to its officers, functions in relation to any matter to which the executive authority of the Federation extends.
(2) An Act of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may, notwithstanding that it relates to a matter with respect to which a Provincial Assembly has no power to make laws, confer powers and impose duties upon a province or officers and authorities thereof.
(3) Where by virtue of this Article powers and duties have been conferred or imposed upon a Province or officers or authorities thereof, there shall be paid by the Federation to the Province such sum as may be agreed or, in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, in respect of any extra costs of administration incurred by the Province in connection with the exercise of those powers or the discharge of those duties.

147. Power of the Provinces to entrust functions to the Federation.
Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the Government of a Province may, with the consent of the Federal Government, entrust, either conditionally or unconditionally, to the Federal Government, or to its officers, functions in relation to any matter to which the executive authority of the Province extends.

148. Obligation of Provinces and Federation.
(1) The executive authority of every Province shall be so exercised as to secure compliance with Federal laws which apply in that Province.
(2) Without prejudice to any other provision of this Chapter, in the exercise of the executive authority of the Federation in any Province regard shall be had to the interests of that Province.
(3) It shall be the duty of the Federation to protect every Province against external aggression and internal disturbances and to ensure that the Government of every Province is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

149. Directions to Provinces in certain cases.
(1) The executive authority of every Province shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive authority of the Federation, and the executive authority of the Federation shall extend to the giving of such directions to a Province as may appear to the Federal Government to be necessary for that purpose.
(2) The executive authority of the Federation shall also extend to the giving of directions to a Province as to the carrying into execution therein of any Federal law which relates to a matter specified in the Concurrent Legislative List and authorises the giving of such directions.
(3) The executive authority of the Federation shall also extend to the giving of directions to a Province as to the construction an d maintenance of means of communication declared in the direction to be of national or strategic importance.
(4) The executive authority of the Federation shall also extend to the giving of directions to a Province as to the manner in which the executive authority thereof is to be exercised for the purpose of preventing any grave menace to the peace or tranquility or economic life of Pakistan or any part thereof.

150. Full faith and credit for public acts, etc.
Full faith and credit shall be given throughout Pakistan to public acts and records, and judicial proceedings of every Province.

151. Inter-Provincial trade
(1) Subject to clause (2), trade, commerce and intercourse throughout Pakistan shall be free.
(2) Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law impose such restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse between one Province and another or within any part of Pakistan as may be required in the public interest.
(3) A Provincial Assembly or a Provincial Government shall not have power to-

  1. make any law, or take any executive action, prohibiting or restricting the entry into, or the export from, the Province of goods of any class or description, or
  2. impose a tax which, as between goods manufactured or produced in the Province and similar goods not so manufactured or produced, discriminates in favour of the former goods or which, in the case of goods manufactured or produced outside the Province discriminates between goods manufactured or produced in any area in Pakistan and similar goods manufactured or produced in any other area in Pakistan.
(4) An Act of a Provincial Assembly which imposes any reasonable restriction in the interest of public health, public order or morality, or for the purpose of protecting animals or plants from disease or preventing or alleviating any serious shortage in the Province of an essential commodity shall not, if it was made with the consent of the President, be invalid.

152. Acquisition of land for Federal purposes.
The Federation may, if it deems necessary to acquire any land situate in a Province for any purpose connected with a matter with respect to which [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] has power to make laws, require the Province to acquire the land on behalf, and at the expense, of the Federation or, if the land belongs to the Province, to transfer it to the Federation on such terms as may be agreed or, in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan.

Chapter 3. SPECIAL Provisions

152A.
    * * *

153. Council of Common Interests.
(1) There shall be a Council of Common Interests, in this Chapter referred to as the Council, to be appointed by the President.
(2) The members of the Council shall be-
  1. the Chief Ministers of the Provinces, and
  2. an equal number of members from the Federal Government to be nominated by the Prime Minister from time to time.
(3) The Prime Minister. if he is a member of the Council. shall be the Chairman of the Council but, if at any time he is not a member, the President may nominate a Federal Minister who is a member of the Council to be its Chairman.
(4) The Council shall be responsible to [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)].

154. Functions and rules of procedure.
(1) The Council shall formulate and regulate policies in relation to matters in Part II of the Federal Legislative List and, in so far as it is in relation to the affairs of the Federation, the matter in entry 34 (electricity) in the Concurrent Legislative List, and shall exercise supervision and control over related institutions.
(2) The decisions of the Council shall be expressed in terms of the opinion of the majority.
(3) Until [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] makes provision by law in this behalf, the Council may make its rules of procedure.
(4) [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] in joint sit ting may from time to time by resolution issue directions through the Federal Government to the Council generally or in a particular matter to take action as [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may deem just and proper and such directions shall be binding on the Council.
(5) If the Federal Government or a Provincial Government is dissatisfied with a decision of the council, it may refer the matter to [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] in a joint sitting whose decision in this behalf shall be final.

155. Complaints as to interference with water supplies.
(1) If the interests of a Province, the Federal Capital or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, or any of the inhabitants thereof, in water from any natural source of supply have been or are likely to be affected prejudicially by-
  1. any executive act or legislation taken or passed or proposed to be taken or passed, or
  2. the failure of any authority to exercise any of its powers with respect to the use and distribution or control of water from that source, the Federal Government or the Provincial Government concerned may make a complaint in writing to the Council.
(2) Upon receiving such complaint, the Council shall, after having considered the matter, either give its decision or request the President to appoint a commission consisting of such persons having special knowledge and experience in irrigation, engineering, administration, finance or law as he may think fit, hereinafter referred to as the Commission.
(3) Until [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] makes provision by law in this behalf, the provisions of the Pakistan Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1956, as in force immediately before the commencing day shall apply to the Council or the Commission as if the Council or the Commission were a commission appointed under that Act to which all the provisions of section 5 thereof applied and upon which the power contemplated by section 10A thereof had been conferred.
(4) After considering the report and supplementary report, if any, of the Commission, the Council shall record its decision on all matters referred to the Commission.
(5) Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, but subject to the provisions of clause (5) of Article 154, it shall be the duty of the Federal Government and the Provincial Government concerned in the matter in issue to give effect to the decision of the Council faithfully according to its terms and tenor.
(6) No proceeding shall lie before any court at the instance of any party to a matter which is or has been in issue before the Council. or of any person whatsoever, in respect of a matter which is actually or has been or might or ought to have been a proper subject of complaint to the Council under this Article.

156. National Economic Council.
(1) The President shall constitute a National Economic Council consisting of the Prime Minister, who shall be its Chairman. and such other members as the President may determine:

Provided that the President shall nominate one member from each Province on the recommendation of the Government of that Province.
(2) The National Economic Council shall review the overall economic condition of the country and shall, for advising the Federal Government and the Provincial Governments, formulate plans in respect of financial, commercial, social and economic policies; and in formulating such plans, it shall be guided by the, Principles of Policy set out in Chapter 2 of Part II.

157. Electricity.
(1) The Federal Government may in any Province construct or cause to be constructed hydro-electric or thermal power installations or grid stations for the generation of electricity and lay or cause to be laid inter-provincial transmission lines.
(2) The Government of a Province may-
  1. to the extent electricity is supplied to that Province from the national grid, require supply to be made in bulk for transmission and distribution within the Province:
  2. levy tax on consumption of electricity within the Province;
  3. construct power houses and grid stations and lay transmission lines for use within the Province; and
  4. determine the tariff for distribution of electricity within the Province.
158. Priority of requirements of natural gas.
The Province in which a well-head of natural gas is situated shall have precedence over other parts of Pakistan in meeting the requirements from the well-head, subject to the commitments and obligations as on the commencing day.

159. Broadcasting and telecasting.
(1) The Federal Government shall not un reasonably refuse to entrust to a Provincial Government such functions with respect to broadcasting and telecasting as may be necessary to enable that Government-
  1. to construct and use transmitters in the Province; and
  2. to regulate, and impose fees in respect of, the construction and use of transmitters and the use of receiving apparatus in the Province:
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as requiring the Federal Government to entrust to any Provincial Government any control over the use of transmitters constructed or maintained by the Federal Government or by persons authorised by the Federal Government, or over the use of receiving apparatus by person so authorised.

(2) Any functions so entrusted to a Provincial Government shall be exercised subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Federal Government, including, notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, any conditions with respect to finance, but it shall not be lawful for the Federal Government so to impose any conditions regulating the matter broadcast or telecast by, or by authority of, the Provincial Government.
(3) Any Federal law with respect to broadcasting and telecasting shall be such as to secure that effect can be given to the foregoing provisions of this Article.
(4) If any question arises whether any conditions imposed on any Provincial Government are lawfully imposed, or whether any refusal by the Federal Government to entrust functions is unreasonable, the question shall be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan.
(5) Nothing in this article shall be construed as restricting the powers of the Federal Government under the Constitution for the prevention of any grave menace to the peace or tranquility of Pakistan or any part thereof.    
 
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