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polandHome > Lawyers > Poland > Constitution> extraordinary measures
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Extraordinary Measures

Article 228
1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a state of natural disaster.
  
2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall additionally require to be publicized.
  
3. The principles for activity by organs of public authority as well as the degree to which the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens may be subject to limitation for the duration of a period requiring any extraordinary measures shall be established by statute.
  
4. A statute may specify the principles, scope and manner of compensating for loss of property resulting from limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens during a period requiring introduction of extraordinary measures.
  
5. Actions undertaken as a result of the introduction of any extraordinary measure shall be proportionate to the degree of threat and shall be intended to achieve the swiftest restoration of conditions allowing for the normal functioning of the State.
  
6. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, the following shall not be subject to change: the Constitution, the Acts on Elections to the Sejm, the Senate and organs of local self-governments, the Act on Elections to the Presidency, as well as statutes on extraordinary measures.
  
7. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, as well as within the period of 90 days following its termination, the term of office of the Sejm may not be shortened, nor may a nationwide referendum, nor elections to the Sejm, Senate, organs of local self-government nor elections for the Presidency be held, and the term of office of such organs shall be appropriately prolonged. Elections to organs of local self-government shall be possible only in those places where the extraordinary measures have not been introduced.

Article 229
In the case of external threats to the State, acts of armed aggression against the territory of the Republic of Poland or when an obligation of common defence against aggression arises by virtue of international agreement, the President of the Republic may, on request of the Council of Ministers, declare a state of martial law in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State.

Article 230
1. In the case of threats to the constitutional order of the State, to security of the citizenry or public order, the President of the Republic may, on request of the Council of Ministers, introduce for a definite period no longer than 90 days, a state of emergency in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State.
  
2. Extension of a state of emergency may be made once only for a period no longer than 60 days and with the consent of the Sejm.

Article 231
The President of the Republic shall submit the regulation on the introduction of martial law or a state of emergency to the Sejm within 48 hours of signing such regulation. The Sejm shall immediately consider the regulation of the President. The Sejm, by an absolute majority of votes taken in the presence of at least half the statutory number of Deputies, may annul the regulation of the President.

Article 232
In order to prevent or remove the consequences of a natural catastrophe or a technological accident exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.

Article 233
1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39, Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility), Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
  
2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
  
3. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22 (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1 (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para. 2 (the right to rest).

Article 234
1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
  
2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally binding law.
 
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