- A multi-party system of government is recognized.
- Political organizations fulfilling the conditions required by law are permitted to be formed and to operate freely; they must abide by the Constitution and other laws as well as democratic principles and they should not destabilise national unity, territorial integrity and security of the nation.
- Political organizations participate in the education of citizens on politics based on democracy and elections and operate in such a manner as to ensure that women and men have equal access to elective offices.
- The leadership organs of political organizations shall only maintain offices at the national, provincial and Kigali City levels.
- Rwandans are free to join political organizations of their choice or not to join them.
- No Rwandan shall be subjected to discrimination by reason of membership of a given political organization or on account of not belonging to any political organization.
Political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race, ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other division which may give rise to discrimination.
Political organizations must constantly reflect the unity of the people of Rwanda and gender equality and complementality, whether in the recruitment of members, putting in place organs of leadership and in their operations and activities.
The Senate may lodge a complaint against a political organization which has grossly violated the obligations contained in the provisions of Articles 52, 53 and 54 of this Constitution with the High Court of the Republic. In case of appeal, the appeal is heard by the Supreme Court.
Depending on the gravity of the violation proved, the High Court of the Republic may, without prejudice to criminal prosecution, impose any of the following sanctions against the political organization found guilty of the violation:
- formal warning;
- suspension of activities for a period not exceeding two years;
- suspension of activities for the whole Parliamentary term;
In the event that the final decision of the court of last instance is the sanction of dissolution of a political organization, the Members of the Chamber of Deputies elected on the ticket of the dissolved political organization shall automatically lose their parliamentary seats.
By-elections are held to replace Deputies of the dissolved political organization if the remaining period of their mandate is more than one year.
Without prejudice to the independence of each political organization and their collaboration, political organizations officially recognized in Rwanda shall organize themselves in a consultative forum.
The forum is mainly responsible for:
- facilitating exchange of ideas by political organizations on major issues facing the country;
- consolidating national unity;
- advising on national policy;
- acting as mediators in conflicts arising between political organizations;
- assisting in resolving internal conflicts within a political organization upon request by that political organization.
- The forum's decisions shall always be taken by the consensus of the constituent organizations.
Political organizations which are duly registered shall be given grants by the State.
An organic law shall determine the modalities for the establishment of political organizations, their functioning, the conduct of their leaders, the manner in which they shall receive state grants as well as the organization and functioning of the Forum of Political organizations.
The President of the Republic and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies shall belong to different political organizations.
Judges, prosecutors as well as members of the armed forces, police and National Security Service shall not be permitted to be members of political organizations.
Other public servants and employees of public enterprises and parastatal organizations may join political organizations but shall not be permitted to take up senior leadership positions of political organizations as specified by an organic law.