FUNDAMENTAL NATIONAL POLICIES

Section 1. National Defense

Article 137     
The national defense of the Republic of China shall have as its objective the safeguarding of national security and the preservation of world peace.
The organization of national defense shall be prescribed by law.

Article 138     
The land, sea, and air forces of the whole country shall be above personal, regional, and party affiliations, shall be loyal to the state and shall protect the people.

Article 139     
No political party and no individual shall make use of armed forces as an instrument in the struggle for political powers.

Article 140     
No military man in active service may concurrently hold a civil office.

Section 2. Foreign Policy

Article 141     
The foreign policy of the Republic of China shall, in a spirit of independence and initiative and on the basis of the principles of equality and reciprocity, cultivate good-neighborliness with other nations, and respect treaties and the interests of Chinese citizens residing abroad, promote international cooperation, advance international justice and ensure world peace.

Section 3. National Economy

Article 142     
National economy shall be based on the Principle of People's Livelihood and shall seek to effect equalization of land ownership and restriction of private capital in order to attain a well-balanced sufficiency in national wealth and people's livelihood.

Article 143     
All land within the territory of the Republic of China shall belong to the whole body of citizens. Private ownership of land, acquired by the people in accordance with law, shall be protected and restricted by law. Privately-owned land shall be liable to taxation according to its value, and the Government may buy such land according to its value.

Mineral deposits which are embedded in the land, and natural power which may, for economic purpose, be utilized for public benefit shall belong to the State, regardless of the fact that private individuals many have acquired ownership over such land.
If the value of a piece of land has increased, not through the exertion of labor or the employment of capital, the State shall levy thereon an increment tax, the proceeds of which shall be enjoyed by the people in common.

In the distribution and readjustment of land, the State shall in principle assist self-farming land-owners and persons who make use of the land by themselves, and shall also regulate their appropriate areas of operation.

Article 144     
Public utilities and other enterprises of a monopolistic nature shall, in principle, be under public operation. In cases permitted by law, they may be operated by private citizens.

Article 145     
With respect to private wealth and privately operated enterprises, the State shall restrict them by law if they are deemed detrimental to a balanced development of national wealth and people's livelihood.

Cooperative enterprises shall receive encouragement and assistance from the State.
Private citizens' productive enterprises and foreign trade shall receive encouragement, guidance and protection from the State.

Article 146     
The State shall, by the use of scientific techniques, develop water conservancy, increase the productivity of land, improve agricultural conditions, develop agricultural resources and hasten the industrialization of agriculture.

Article 147     
The Central Government, in order to attain a balanced economic development among the provinces, shall give appropriate aid to poor or unproductive provinces.
The provinces, in order to attain a balanced economic development among the hsien, shall give appropriate aid to poor or unproductive hsien.

Article 148     
Within the territory of the Republic of China, all goods shall be permitted to move freely from place to place.

Article 149     
Financial institutions shall, in accordance with law, be subject to State control.

Article 150     
The State shall extensively establish financial institutions for the common people, with a view to relieving unemployment.

Article 151     
With respect to Chinese citizens residing abroad, the State shall foster and protect development of their economic enterprises.

Section 4. Social Security

Article 152     
The State shall provide suitable opportunities for work to people who are able to work.

Article 153     
The State, in order to improve the livelihood of laborers and farmers and to improve their productive skills, shall enact laws and carry out policies for their protection.
Women and children engaged in labor shall, according to their age and physical condition, be accorded special protection.

Article 154     
Capital and labor shall, in accordance with the principles of harmony and cooperation, promote productive enterprises. Conciliation and arbitration of disputes between capital and labor shall be prescribed by law.

Article 155     
The State, in order to promote social welfare, shall establish a social insurance system. To the aged and the infirm who are unable to earn a living, and to victims of unusual calamities, the State shall give appropriate assistance and relief.

Article 156     
The State, in order to consolidate the foundation of national existence and development, shall protect motherhood and carry out a policy for the promoting of the welfare of women and children.

Article 157     
The State, in order to improve national health, shall establish extensive services for sanitation and health protection, and a system of public medical service.

Section 5. Education and Culture

Article 158     
Education and culture shall aim at the development among the citizens of the national spirit, the spirit of self-government, national morality, good physique, scientific knowledge and ability to earn a living.

Article 159     
All citizens shall have an equal opportunity to receive an education.

Article 160     
All children of school age from 6 to 12 years shall receive free primary education. Those from poor families shall be supplied with book by the Government.
All citizens above school age who have not received primary education shall receive supplementary education free of charge and shall also be supplied with books by the Government.

Article 161     
The national, provincial, and local government shall extensively establish scholarships to assist students of good scholastic standing and exemplary conduct who lack the means to continue their school education.

Article 162     
All public and private educational and cultural institutions in the country shall, in accordance with law, be subject to State supervision.

Article 163     
The State shall pay due attention to the balanced development of education in different regions, and shall promote social education in order to raise the cultural standards of the citizens in general. Grants from the National Treasury shall be made to frontier regions and economically poor areas to help them meet their education and cultural expanse. The Central Government may either itself undertake the more important educational and cultural enterprises in such regions or give them financial assistance.

Article 164     
Expenditures of educational programs, scientific studies and cultural service shall not be, in respect of the Central Government, not less than 15 per cent of the total national budget; in respect of each province, not less than 25 percent of the total provincial budget; and in respect of each municipality or hsien, less than 35 percent of the total municipal or hsien budget. Educational and cultural foundations established in accordance with law shall, together with their property, be protected.

Article 165     
The State shall safeguard the livelihood of those who work in the field of education, sciences and arts, and shall, in accordance with the development of national economy, increase their remuneration from time to time.

Article 166     
The State shall encourage scientific discoveries and inventions, and shall protect ancient sites and articles of historical, cultural or artistic value.

Article 167     
The State shall give encouragement or subsidies to the following enterprises or individuals:
  1. Educational enterprises in the country which have been operated with good record by private individuals;
  2. Educational enterprises which have been operated with good record by Chinese citizens residing abroad;
  3. Persons who have made discoveries or inventions in the field of learning and technology; and
  4. Persons who have rendered long and meritorious services in the field of education.
Section 6. Frontier Regions

Article 168     
The State shall accord to various racial groups in the frontier regions legal protection of their status and shall give special assistance to their local self-government undertakings.

Article 169     
The State shall, in a positive manner, undertake and foster the develop of education, culture, communications, water conservancy, public health and other economic and social enterprises of the various racial group in the frontier regions. With respect to the utilization of land, the State shall, after taking into account the climatic conditions, the nature of the soil, and the life and habits of the people, adopt measures to protect the land and to assist in its development.