Transitory Provisions

Section 314.
The Privy Council holding office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the Privy Council under the provisions of this Constitution.
During the termination of membership of senators en masse under section 323, the President of the Privy Council shall also act as the Privy Council while the remainder of the Privy Council shall act as the National Assembly under section 19, section 21, section 22 and section 23; provided that section 20 paragraph three and section 24 paragraph three shall not apply. The Privy Council shall elect one among themselves to act as President pro tempore.
 
Section 315
As from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution, the House of Representatives under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2534 as last amended by the Constitution Amendment (No. 6), B.E. 2539 shall act as the House of Representatives under this Constitution until the date of the election of members of the House of Representatives under section 324; and the Senate under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2534 as last amended by the Constitution Amendment (No. 6), B.E.2539 shall act as the Senate under this Constitution until the expiration of the period of four years, as from the date of the appointment of senators by the King under paragraph five (1) or the date of the election of senators under paragraph five (2), as the case may be.
Members of the House of Representatives holding office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be members of the House of Representatives under this Constitution until the expiration of term of the House, the dissolution thereof, or the termination of membership under section 323, as the case may be. In the case where the office of a member of the House of Representatives becomes vacant for any reason whatsoever, theHouse shall consist of its remaining members.
Senators holding office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be senators under this Constitution until membership of senators terminates under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2534 as last amended by the Constitution Amendment (No. 6), B.E. 2539 or under section 323, as the case may be. In the case where the office of a senator becomes vacant for any reason whatsoever, the Senate shall consist of the remaining senators.
Section 107 (3), section 118 (7), section 121, section 125 (2) and (3), section 126 (2) and (3), section 127, section 130 and section 134 shall not apply to the members of the House of Representatives under paragraph two and the senators under paragraph three.
In the case where membership of senators under paragraph three has been caused to have terminated en masse under paragraph three, there shall be the first election of senators under this Constitution as follows:
  1. in the case where membership of senators terminates at the expiration of a term of four years as from the date of their appointment by the King, the election shall be held within sixty days before the expiration of the term of four years. In such case, the term of the Senate and membership of the elected senators shall commence as from the date of the termination of membership of senators under paragraph three;
  2. in the case where membership of senators has terminated under section 323, the election shall be held in accordance with the organic law on election of members of the House of Representatives and senators. If such law has not yet been enacted, the law on election of members of the House of Representatives as in force on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall apply in so far as it is not contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution; provided that a term "member of the House of Representatives" shall be replaced by the term 'senator' everywhere it appears and that the Chairman of the Election Commission appointed under section 319 shall have charge and control of the execution of such law. In the case where the Election Commission is of the opinion that any provision of the law on election of members of the House of Representatives is contrary to, or inconsistent with, or does not correspond with this Constitution, the Election Commission shall have the power to lay down necessary regulations in substitution of that provision in order for the election to proceed in an honest and fair manner. Such regulations and opinions that the provision of the said law is contrary to, or inconsistent with, or does not correspond with this Constitution shall be referred to the Constitution Court for consideration of their constitutionality before their publication in the Government Gazette.
The election of senators under (2) shall be held within ninety days as from the expiration of two hundred and forty days from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution and shall not be done on the same date as that of the election of members of the House of Representatives under section 324.
 
Section 316
The President and Vice-Presidents of the House of Representatives and the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives holding office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the President, Vice-Presidents and Leader of the Opposition of the House of Representatives under this Constitution.
The President and Vice-Presidents of the Senate holding office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the President and Vice- Presidents of the Senate under this Constitution until the expiration of term of the Senate under section 315 or the vacation of office before the expiration of term under section 323.
Parliamentary committees carrying out duties on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the parliamentarycommittees under this Constitution.
The rules of procedure of the House of Representatives, the rules of procedure of the Senate and the rules of procedure of the National Assembly as in force on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall continue to be in force in so far as it is not contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution and shall cease to be in force upon any of the following circumstances:
  1. the termination or dissolution of the House of Representatives under section 315 paragraph one or the occurrence of the circumstance under section 323;
  2. the issuance of new rules of procedure of the Senate in accordance with this Constitution, which must not be later than two hundred and forty days as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution; or
  3. the issuance of new rules of procedure of the National Assembly in accordance with the Constitution, which must not be later than two hundred and forty days as from the date of the convocation of the National Assembly after the first general election of members of the House of Representatives under this Constitution.
Section 317
The Council of Ministers carrying out the administration of the State affairs on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the Council of Ministers under this Constitution.
The provisions of section 156 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2534 as last amended by the Constitution Amendment (No. 6), B.E. 2539 shall apply to a debate for a vote of no-confidence in an individual Minister and the Council of Ministers under paragraph one or to a debate for a vote of no-confidence in an individual Minister and in the Council of Ministers newly appointed while the election of members the House of Representatives under section 324 has not yet been held, as the case may be. If the vote of no- confidence has passed by the prescribed number of votes, the Minister or the Council of Ministers shall vacate office.
When the election of members the House of Representatives has been held under section 324, the Council of Ministers under paragraph one or the Council of Ministers appointed before the election under section 324, as the case may be, shall vacate office; provided that such Council of Ministers shall continue to perform duties until the newly appointed Council of Ministers has taken office.
The provisions of section 118 (7), section 127, section 201, section 202, section 203, section 204, section 206 (2), (3) and (6), section 209, section 215 paragraph four and section 216 (5) shall not apply to the holding and the vacation of office of the Prime Minister and Ministers under this section.
 
Section 318
In the initial period, the Judicial Commission under the law on judicial service shall be the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice under this Constitution until the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice under section 274 is constituted. The election of members of the Judicial Commission shall be in accordance with the law on judicial service.
All necessary acts for the implementation of section 274 of this Constitution shall be carried out within three years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution.
 
Section 319
In the initial period, the Senate shall elect the Election Commissioners under section 136 within thirty days as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution; provided that the period of time prescribed under section 138 shall not apply.
In the initial period in which there is no the President of the Supreme Administrative Court, the Selective Committee for Election Commissioners shall have nine members consisting of Rectors of all State higher education institutions which arejuristic persons, being elected among themselves to be five in number, representatives of all political parties having a member who is a member of the House of Representatives; provided that each party shall have one representative and all such representatives shall elect among themselves to be four in number.
While the organic law on the Election Commission has not yet been promulgated, the Election Commission shall lay down necessary regulations for the performance of its duties under this Constitution. Such regulations shall be submitted to the Constitutional Court for consideration of their constitutionality before their publication in the Government Gazette and shall be in force until the organic law on the Election Commission comes into force.
 
Section 320
In the initial period, the Constitutional Council under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2534 as last amended by the Constitution Amendment (No. 6), B.E. 2539 shall be the Constitutional Court under this Constitution until the Constitutional Court under paragraph two has been established.
In the initial period, there shall be an election of judges of the C onstitutional Court under section 255 and section 257 within forty five days as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution.
While there is no the Supreme Administrative Court, section 255(2) shall not apply and the Constitutional Court shall consist of the President of the Constitutional Court and twelve judges of the Constitutional Court appointed by the King from persons under section 255(1), (3) and (4).
 
Section 321
The Commission of Counter Corruption and the Office of the Commission of Counter Corruption under the law on counter corruption shall be the National Counter Corruption Commission and the Office of the National Counter Corruption Commission under this Constitution, as the case may be, until the National Counter Corruption Commission has been appointed or the Office of the National Counter Corruption Commission has been established in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, which shall be done within two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution.
For the purpose of implementing this Constitution, the National Counter Corruption Commission under paragraph one shall prescribe necessary regulations for the performance of its duties under this Constitution. Such regulations shall be submitted to the Constitutional Court for consideration of their constitutionality before their publication in the Government Gazette and shall be in force until the organic law on counter corruption comes into force.
In the initial period, while there is no the President of the Supreme Administrative Court, the Selective Committee for members the National Counter Corruption Commission under section 297 paragraph three shall have fourteen members consisting the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, the President of the Constitutional Court, Rectors of all State higher education institutions which are juristic persons, being elected among themselves to be seven in number, and representatives of all political parties having a member who is a member of the House of Representatives; provided that each party shall have one representative and all such representatives shall elect among themselves to be five in number.
 
Section 322
In the initial period, Election Commissioners, Ombudsmen, members of the National Human Rights Commission, judges of the Constitutional Court, members of the National Counter Corruption Commission and members of the State Audit Commission, who are elected by the resolution of the Senateunder section 315 paragraph three, shall hold office for half a period of the term designated for such office. For the purpose of the first election of such persons by the Senate elected under this Constitution, the provisions allowing the holding of such office for only one term shall not apply
Before the election of senators under this Constitution, the removal of persons from office under this Constitution shall be made by a resolution of a joint sitting of the House of Representatives and the Senate under section 315, and section 109(14), section 118(10), section 133(8), section 141(5), section 168(3), section 216(8), section 260(6), section 299, section 303, section 304 and section 307 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
 
Section 323
Within two hundred and forty days as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution, the National Assembly shall complete the consideration and approval of the organic law bill on the election of members of the House of Representatives and senators, the organic law bill on the Election Commission, and the organic law bill on political parties; provided that the House of Representatives shall not be dissolved during such period.
The act under paragraph one shall be proceeded as follows:
  1. the House of Representatives shall complete the consideration of the organic law bills under paragraph one within one hundred and twenty days as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution. In the case where such period of time has expired but the consideration of all the organic law bills under paragraph one has not yet been completed, membership of members of the House of Representatives shall terminate en masse and there shall not be a general election under this Constitution until all the organic law bills under paragraph one have been approved, or unless it is the case under section 324. In such cases, the Senate shall act as the National Assembly and shall complete the introduction and consideration of such organic law bills within ninety days as from the day following the expiration of the period of one hundred and twenty days after the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  2. in the case where the House of Representatives has considered all the organic law bills under paragraph one within the time prescribed under (1), the Senate shall complete the consideration of such bills within ninety days as from the date of receiving them;
  3. in the case where the Senate is unable to complete the consideration of all the organic law bills under paragraph one within the time prescribed under (1) or (2), membership of all senators shall terminate en masse. Any organic law bill which has been approved by the House of Representatives shall be deemed to have been approved by the National Assembly, and section 93 and section 94 shall apply to such bill mutatis mutandis.
When the organic law bill has been, or is deemed to have been, approved by the National Assembly under this section, the Prime Minister shall proceed in accordance with section 93 forthwith, and the time prescribed in section 93 shall not apply.
The provisions of section 169 in so far as it concerns a money bill shall not apply to the introduction and consideration of the organic law bills under paragraph one by members of the House of Representatives or the senators under paragraph (1) and (2).
Section 168 shall not apply to the proceeding under this section.

Section 324
An election of members of the House of Representatives shall be held upon any of the following circumstances:
  1. in the case where all organic law bills have been approved by the National Assembly within the time prescribed in section 323 paragraph one, or by the House of Representatives or the Senate acting as the National Assembly under section 323 within the time prescribed in the section 323, the Election Commission under section 319 shall hold an election under this Constitution within sixty days as from the date of the expirationof term or the dissolution of the House of Representatives, or when the circumstance under section 323 occurs;
  2. in the case where the House of Representatives and the Senate are unable to complete the consideration and approval of the organic law bills under section 323 paragraph one within the prescribed time, an election of members of the House of Representatives under this Constitution shall be held within ninety days as from the date of the expiration of the time under section 323 paragraph one. The law on the election of members of the House of Representatives as in force on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution shall apply to the election in so far as it is not contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution and, for this purpose, the Chairman of the Election Commission established under section 319 shall have charge and control of the execution of such law, and in the case where the Election Commission is of the opinion that any provision of the law on the election of members of the House of Representatives is contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution, the Election Commission shall have the power to prescribe necessary regulations in substitution of that provision in order to enable the election to proceed in an honest and fair manner. Such regulations and the opinion that such provision of law is contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution shall be submitted to the Constitutional Court for consideration of their constitutionality before their publication in the Government Gazette.
When the election of members of the House of Representatives and senators have been held under this Constitution but the organic laws under section 323 paragraph one have not yet been all enacted, the House of Representatives and the Senate shall consider the approval of the bills not yet enacted under section 323; provided that the time limit shall commence as from the date of the general election of members of the House of Representatives and the provisions of (2) and section 315 paragraph five (2) shall apply mutatis mutandis.
 
Section 325
The period of time under section 107(4) shall not apply to the first general election of members of the House of Representatives after the promulgation of this Constitution.
 
Section 326
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on the election of members of the House of Representatives and senators shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. the declaration of the reason for inability to be present to vote and the provision of facilities for the election;
  2. the permission of persons having the right to vote under section 105 paragraph two to cast ballot;
  3. the preparation of name-list of candidates in an election on a party-list basis, inspection, and deletion from candidacy of repeated names of candidates and the publicity of names of candidates listed;
  4. the prescription of the form of ballot-papers, in which space shall be provided for an entry of a mark indicating the intention to cast a ballot for no candidate, and the publicity of the number of persons intending to cast ballot for no candidate;
  5. the support of an election of members of the House of Representatives and the introduction of candidates in an election of senators by the State including the procedure under which the introduction of candidates in an election of senators can be made by the candidates themselves or by other persons;
  6. the limitation of electoral expenditure by a candidate, the appointment of a treasurer by a candidate, the inspection of electoral expenditure and the declaration of the result of the inspection;
  7. the counting of votes and the announcement of the result of the vote-counting in an election of members of the House of Representatives in each constituency, which must be doneopenly in only one place unless otherwise provided by the Election Commission due to the necessity in a particular locality;
  8. the counting of votes and the announcement of the result of the vote-counting in an election of senators;
  9. the announcement of the name of the elected person from the candidates in an election on a party-list basis and the elevation of the person whose name is listed in the next order to replace the elected person who vacates office.
Section 327
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on the Election Commission shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. powers and duties of the Election Commission;
  2. the activities to be carried out by the Election Commission, which shall at least include the division of constituencies, the procurement of rolls of voters and the re-counting of votes;
  3. the provision of education to the people on the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State;
  4. the investigation, inquiry and decision process of the Election Commission;
  5. the bringing of a lawsuit before the Court by the Election Commission in respect of offences relating to an election or political parties;
  6. the co-operation to be given to the Election Commission by Courts, public prosecutors, inquiry officials, or other State agencies;
  7. the acknowledgement and appointment of representatives of private organisations for the purpose of the supervision of an election;
  8. the establishment of an independent secretariat to carry out activities in connection with personnel administration, budget and other activities, with the Chairman of the Election Commission as the highest superior;
  9. the commencement of the time at which the Election Commission may control, hold or cause to be held, an election of a local assembly or local administrators, which shall not be later than ten years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution.
Section 328
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on political parties shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. the formation of a political party, which shall be carried out by at least not less than fifteen persons, and the entry of the formation of a political party in the Register of Political Parties;
  2. the dissolution of a political party; provided that failure of a political party to send candidates to stand for election or to have a member who has been elected in an election shall not be invoked as a ground for the dissolution;
  3. the conduct of activities of a political party and the preparation of report on the operation of a political party;
  4. the support to be given by the State in the formation and the development of branches of a political party;
  5. financial support or other benefits to be given by the State to a political party, the limitation of expenditure of a political party in an election, and the control of the donation to a political party;
  6. the examination of a financial status of a political party including the examination and the disclosure of income sources and expenditure of a political party;
  7. the preparation of an account indicating revenues and expenses of a political party and an account indicating assets and liabilities of a political party, which must disclose its income sources and annual expenditure in every calendar year, for submission to the Election Commission for examination and publication.
Section 329
Within two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution, the following organic laws shall be enacted:
  1. the organic law on Ombudsmen;
  2. the organic law on counter corruption;
  3. the organic law on criminal procedure for persons holding political positions;
  4. the organic law on the State audit;
  5. the organic law on referendum.
Section 330
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on Ombudsmen shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. the performance of duties of the Ombudsman;
  2. the co-operation to be given to the Ombudsmen by Courts, public prosecutors, inquiry officials, or other State agencies;
  3. qualifications of and procedure for the appointment of the Secretary-General of the Office of the Ombudsmen;
  4. powers and duties of the Office of the Ombudsmen.
Section 331
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on counter corruption shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. the description of characters of unusual wealthiness and acts amounting to corruption;
  2. the prohibition of the commission of an act representing a conflict between personal interests and public interests for which holders of political positions or other State officials must be accountable both during the currency of office and after the vacation of office;
  3. positions and classes of judges or public prosecutors, and positions and ranks of Government officials, officials and holders of other positions in respect of which a declaration of assets and liabilities is required or from which removal may be made under this Constitution;
  4. the provision for the declaration by holders of political positions and other State officials of assets and liabilities together with the supporting documents, rules for the consideration and inspection of such assets and liabilities every certain period of time, and rules for the disclosure of the account of assets and liabilities;
  5. the procedure for making an accusation that a holder of a political position or State official has been unusually wealthy, corrupted, or committed malfeasance in office or malfeasance in judicial office or an act indicative of such circumstances; provided that the circumstances, evidence or clues shall reasonably be stated;
  6. the procedure for the investigation of facts and preparation of a file in the case where a holder of a political position is accused, having regard to the status of the position by virtue of which a high degree of favour-or-disfavour powers can be exercised and to reasonable protection of the person accused;
  7. the procedure of the Senate for the removal of persons from office, which shall be open except where it is necessary for the protection of important public interests or where a resolution shall be made by secret ballot;
  8. the procedure for investigating and giving decision in the case where a State official has been unusually wealthy, committed corruption or malfeasance in office or malfeasance in judicial office; provided that the procedure to be prescribed shall be suitable to the rank of the position and reasonable protection of the accused person;
  9. the institution of a criminal action against other State official not holding a political position in a Court having competent jurisdiction to try and decide criminal cases;
  10. the co-operation to be given to the National Counter Corruption Commission by Courts, inquiry officials or Government agencies;
  11. the proceeding under section 305 paragraph five for the initiation of an action including the power to bring the accused person to trial;
  12. rules and procedure for compensation for assets in the case where such assets have been transferred or removed;
  13. penalties to be inflicted on the President or a member of the National Counter Corruption Commission in the case of the commission of an unjust act, corruption, malfeasance in office, which must not be less than twice heavier penalties than those provided in the law prescribing such offences.
Section 332
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, an organic law on criminal procedure for persons holding political positions shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. competence of the Supreme Court of Justice's Criminal Division for Persons Holding Political Positions;
  2. criminal procedure for holders of political positions, which shall be founded upon the inquisitorial system as to which the file-brief prepared by the National Counter Corruption Commission shall principally be relied on and the principles of equal hearing and right of defence of the accused persons shall be observed;
  3. open trials except where it is necessary for the protection of important public interests;
  4. the prohibition of repetitious or duplicate institution of actions for the same offence;
  5. the appointment of a person to institute prosecution under section 305;
  6. execution of orders or judgements of the Supreme Court of Justice's Criminal Division for Persons Holding Political Positions;
  7. other matters necessary for the expeditious and fair trial and adjudication of cases and, in particular, for the co-operation to be given to the Supreme Court of Justice's Criminal Division for Persons Holding Political Positions by other Courts, inquiry officials, or other State agencies.
Section 333
In addition to the provisions of this Constitution, the organic law on State audit shall at least contain the following matters as its substance:
  1. the powers and duties of the State Audit Commission, viz, the policy-making, the provision of advice and recommendations, the recommendation for the correction of defects and errors in the State audit, the prescription of standard rules for the State audit, the prescription of rules and procedure for disciplinary actions in budget and finance, the prescription of administrative penalties, the consideration and decision, in the capacity as the highest organ, of disciplinary liability as well as budget and financial liability and the selection of a person suitable to be the Auditor-General;
  2. the performance of duties of members of the State Audit Commission and the Auditor-General;
  3. the establishment of the Office of the State Audit Commission which has autonomy in its personnel administration, budget, work performance and other activities.
Section 334
In the initial period, the following acts shall be accomplished within the time limit hereunder provided:
  1. the laws under section 68, section 199, section 200, section 248, section 270, section 275 and section 284 paragraphs two and paragraph three shall be enacted within two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  2. within two years as from the date of promulgation of this Constitution, there shall be enacted the law prescribing rules for the transfer of a judge of a Court of Justice who will be sixty years of age in any fiscal year to be a senior judge sitting in a Court of First Instance as from the day following the date of theend of such fiscal year in which he or she reaches the age of sixty until the end of the fiscal year in which such person becomes sixty five years of age. Any such senior judge who, upon the appraisal as provided by law, is still capable of performing duties shall continue to hold office until the end of the fiscal year in which such person becomes seventy years of age;
  3. the Administrative Courts under section 276 shall be established within two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  4. the local administrative committee or local administrators elected by direct suffrage or with the approval of the local assembly under section 285 paragraph three shall be caused to be in existence within two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution, except for the case under section 335(7).
Section 335
In the initial period, the following provisions shall not apply to the following cases:
  1. the provisions of section 29 paragraph two and paragraph three shall not apply to the law as in force on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution or already approved by the National Assembly before the date of the promulgation of this Constitution. If there is enactment of a new law on that matter or there is any amendment to such law, it shall comply with section 29; provided that this requirement shall also apply to rules or regulations issued by virtue of the provisions of the law mutatis mutandis;
  2. the provisions of section 40 shall not apply until the law implementing such provisions has been enacted, which shall not be later than three years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution; provided that such law shall not affect any licence, concession, or contract valid on the date such law comes into force until the expiration of such licence, concession, or contract;
  3. the provisions of section 43 paragraph one shall not apply until the implementation of such provisions has been carried out, which shall not be later than five years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  4. the provisions of section 170 and section 209 shall not apply until the law implementing such provisions has been enacted, which shall not be later than two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  5. the provisions of section 236 and section 249 paragraph three and paragraph five shall not apply to a trial of the Courts of Justice and section 273 paragraph two shall not apply to the Judicial Commission under section 318; provided that action shall be taken in implementation of such provisions not later than five years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  6. the provisions of section 237 shall not apply until the law has been amended in implementation of such provisions, which shall not be later than five years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution;
  7. the provisions of section 285 paragraph two and paragraph three shall not apply to members or the administrator of Tambon Administrative Organisation ex officio who hold office on the date of the promulgation of this Constitution until the expiration of the term of office of members elected by the Council of such Tambon Administrative Organisation;
  8. the provisions of section 288 paragraph two shall not apply to the composition of the Local Officials Committee until the law has been amended or enacted in implementation of such provisions, which shall not be later than two years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution.
Section 336
When the period of five years as from the date of the promulgation of this Constitution has elapsed, the ElectionCommission, the Constitutional Court, or the National Counter Corruption Commission shall have the power to submit to the National Assembly or the Council of Ministers a report presenting opinions on the amendment of this Constitution or other laws.