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The Union Authorities

Article 45
The Union authorities shall consist of :-
1- The Supreme Council of the Union.
2- The president of the Union and his Deputy.
3- The Council of Ministers of the Union.
4- The Federal national council.
5- The Judiciary of the Union.

THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE UNION

Article 46
The Supreme Council of the Union shall be the highest authority in the Union. It shall consist of the Rulers of all the Emirates composing the Union, or of those who deputise for the Rulers in their Emirates in the event of their absence or if they have been excused from attending.
Each Emirate shall have a single vote in the deliberations of the Council.

Article 47
The Supreme Council of the Union shall exercise the following matters:-

1- Formulation of general policy in all matters invested in the Union by this Constitution and consideration of all matters leading to the achievement of the goals of the Union and the common interest of the member Emirates.
2- Sanction of various Union laws before their promulgation, including the laws of the Annual General Budget and the Final Accounts.
3- Sanction of decrees relating to matters, which by virtue of the provisions of this Constitution are subject to the ratification or agreement of the Supreme Council. Such sanction shall take place before the promulgation of these decrees by the president of the Union.
4- Ratification of treaties and international agreements. Such ratification shall be accomplished by decree.
5- Approval of the appointment of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union, acceptance of the resignation and his removal from office upon a proposal from the president of the Union.
6- Approval of the appointment of the president and Judges of the Supreme Court of the Union. Acceptance of their resignations and their dismissal in the circumstances stipulated by this Constitution Such acts shall be accomplished by decrees.
7- Supreme Control over the affairs of the Union in general.
8- Any other relevant matters stipulated in this Constitution or in the Union laws.

Article 48
1- The Supreme Council shall lay down its own bylaws; which- shall include its procedure for the conduct of work and the procedure for voting on its decisions. The deliberations of the Council shall be secret.
2- The Supreme Council shall establish a general Secretariat, which shall consist of an adequate number of officials to assist it the execution of its duties.

Article 49
Issuing the decisions of the Supreme Council on substantive matters shall be by a majority of five of its members provided that this majority includes the votes of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The minority shall be bound by the view of the said majority.
Issuing decisions of the Council on procedural matters shall be by a majority vote. Such matters shall be defined in the bylaws of the Council.

Article 50
Sessions of the Supreme Council shall be held in the Union capital. Session may be held in any other place agreed upon beforehand.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNION AND HIS DEPUTY

Article 51
The Supreme Council of the Union shall elect from among its members a president and a Vice president of the Union. The Vice president of the Union shall exercise all the powers the president in the event of his absence for any reason.

Article 52
The term of office of the president and the Vice president shall be five Gregorian years. They are eligible for re-election to the same offices.
Each of them shall, on assuming office, take the following oath before the Supreme Council:

" I swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful to the United Arab Emirates; that I will respect its Constitution and its laws; that I will protect the interests of the people of the Union; that I will discharge my duties faithfully and loyally and that I will safeguard the independence of the Union and its territorial integrity."

Article 53
Upon vacancy of the office of the president or his Deputy for death or resignation, or because either one of them ceases to be Ruler in his Emirate for any reason, the Supreme Council shall be called into session within one month of that date to elect a 52 of this Constitution.
In the event that the two office of the president of the Supreme Council and his Deputy become vacant simultaneously, the Council shall be immediately called into session by any one of its members or by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union, to elect a new president and Vice president to fill the two vacant offices .

Article 54
The president of the Union shall assume the following Powers:
  1. Presiding over the Supreme Council and directing its discussions.
  2. Calling the Supreme Council into session, and terminating its sessions according to the rules of procedure upon which the Council shall decide its bylaws. It is obligatory for him to convene the Council for sessions, whenever one of its members so requested.
  3. Calling the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers into joint session whenever necessity demands.
  4. Signing Union laws, decrees and decisions which the Supreme Council has sanctioned and promulgating them.
  5. Appointing the prime Minister, accepting his resignation and relieving him of office with the consent of the Supreme Council. He shall also appoint the Deputy prime Minister and the Ministers and shall receive their resignations and relieve them of office in accordance with a proposal from the prime Minister of the Union.
  6. Appointing the diplomatic representatives of the Union to foreign states and other senior Union officials both civil and military (with the exception of the president and Judges of the Supreme Court of the Union) and accepting their resignations and dismissing them with the consent of the Council of Ministers of the Union. Such appointments, acceptance of resignations and dismissals shall be accomplished by decrees and in accordance with Union laws.
  7. Signing of letters of credence of diplomatic representatives of the Union to foreign states and organizations and accepting the credentials of diplomatic and consular representatives of. Foreign states to the Union and receiving their letters of credence. He shall similarly sign documents of appointment and credence of representatives.
  8. Supervising the implementation of Union laws, decrees and decisions through the Council of Ministers of the Union and the competent Ministers.
  9. Representing the Union internally, vis-à-vis other states and in all international relations.
  10. Exercising the right of pardon and commutation of sentences and approving capital sentences according to the provisions of these Constitution and Union laws.
  11. Conferring decorations and medals of honour, both civil and military, in accordance with the laws relating to such decorations and medals.
  12. Any other power vested in him by the Supreme Council or vested in him in conformity with these Constitution or Union laws.
THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE UNION

Article 55
The Council of Ministers of the Union shall consist of the prime Minister, his Deputy and a number of Ministers.

Article 56
Ministers shall be chosen from among citizens of the Union known for their competence and experience.

Article 57
The prime Minister, his Deputy and Ministers shall, before assuming the responsibilities of their office. Take the following the president of the Union:-

"I swear by Almighty God that I will be loyal to the United Arab Emirates; that I will respect its Constitution and laws; that 1 will discharge my duties faithfully; that 1 will completely observe the interests of the people of the Union and that I will completely safeguard the existence of the Union and its territorial integrity."

Article 58
The law shall define the Jurisdiction of the Ministers and the powers of each Minister. The first Council of Ministers of the Union shall be composed of the following Ministers :-
  1. Foreign affairs
  2. Public Health
  3. Interior
  4. Public Works and Agriculture
  5. Defence   
  6. Communications, Post, Telegraph and Telephone.
  7. Finance, Economy and Industry
  8. Labour and Social Affairs
  9. Justice    
  10. Information
  11. Education
  12. Planning
Article 59
The Prime Minister shall preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers. He shall call it into session, direct its debates follow up the activities of Ministers and shall supervise the co-ordination of work between the various Ministries and in all executive organs of the Union.
The Deputy Prime Minister shall exercise all the powers of The Prime Minister in the event of his absence for any reason.

Article 60
The Council of Ministers, in its capacity as the executive authority of the Union, and under the supreme control of the President of the Union, and the Supreme Council. Shall be responsible for dealing with all domestic and foreign affairs, Which are within the competence of the Union acceding to these Council of ministers of the Union laws.

The Council of Ministers shall, in particular, assume the following powers:
  1. Following up the implementation of the general policy of the Union Government both domestic and foreign.
  2. Initiating drafts of Federal Laws and submitting them to the Federal National Council before they are raised to the president of the Union for presentation to the Supreme Council for sanction.
  3. Drawing up the annual general budget of the Union, and the final accounts.
  4. Preparing drafts of decrees and various decisions.
  5. Issuing regulations necessary for the implementation of Union laws without amending or suspending such Laws or making any exemption from their execution. Issuing also control regulations and other regulations relating to the organization of public services and administrations. Within the limits of this Constitution and Union laws. A special provision of the law or the Council of Ministers, may charge the competent Union Minister or any other administrative .
  6. Supervising the implementation of Union laws, decrees, decisions and the Emirates.
  7. Supervising the execution of judgments rendered by Union Law Courts and the implementation of international treaties and agreements concluded by the Union.
  8. Appointment and dismissal of Union employees in accordance with the provisions of the law, provided that there appointment and dismissal do not require the issue of a decree.
  9. Controlling the conduct of work in departments and public services of the Union and the conduct and discipline of Union employees in general.
  10. Any other authority vested in it by law or by the Supreme Council within the limits of this Constitution.
Article 61
Deliberations of the Council of Ministers shall be secret. Its resolutions shall be passed by majority of its members. In the event the voting is evenly divided, the side on which the Prime Minister has voted shall prevail. The minority shall abide by the opinion of the majority.

Article 62
While in office, the Prime Minister, his Deputy or any Union Minister, may not practice any professional, commercial or Financial occupation or enter into any commercial transactions with the Government of the Union or the Governments of the Emirates or combine with their office the membership of the board of directors of any financial or commercial company.
Furthermore, they may not combine with their office more than one official post in any of the Emirates and shall relinquish all other local official posts if any.

Article 63
The members of the Council of Ministers shall to serve in their conduct the interests of the Union, the promotion of public welfare and totally renounce personal benefits. The must not exploit the official posts serve their benefit or the benefits of people related to them personally.

Article 64
The prime Minister and the Ministers collectively shall be politically responsible before the president of the Union and the Supreme Council of the Union for the execution of the general policy of the Union both domestic and foreign. Each of them shall be personally responsible to the President of the Union and the Supreme Council for the activities of his Ministry or office.
The resignation of the Prime Minister , his removal from office, his death , or the vacating of his office for any reason whatsoever shall involve the resignation of the whole Cabinet .
The president of the Union may require the Ministers to remain in office temporarily , to carry out immediate administration, until the formation of the new Cabinet .

Article 65
At the beginning of every financial year the Council of Ministers shall submit to the President of the Union for presentation to the Supreme Council , a detailed statement of internal achievements , and on the Unions relations with other states and international organizations, together with the recommendations of the Cabinet on the best and most practical means of strengthening the foundations of the Union, consolidating its security and stability , achieving its goals and progress in all fields.

Article 66
1. The council of Ministers shall draw up its own bylaws including its rules of procedure.
2. The Council of Ministers shall establish a general Secretariat provided with a number of employees to assist it the conduct of its work.

Article 67
The Law shall prescribe the salaries of the prime Minister, his Deputy and the other Ministers.

THE FEDERAL NATIONAL COUNCIL

Section 1  General provisions

Article 68
The Federal national council shall be composed of forty members. Seats shall be distributed to member Emirates as follows:-

  1. Abu Dhabi 8 seats   
  2. Dubai 8 seats   
  3. Sharjah 6 seats      
  4. Ajman 4 seats 
  5. Umm Al – Quwain 4 seats
  6. Fujairah 4 seats
Article 69
Each Emirate shall be free to determine the method of selection of the citizens representing it in the Federal National Council.

Article 70
A member of the Federal national council must satisfy the following conditions:-
  1. Must be a citizen of one of the Union, and permanently resident in the Emirate represents in the Council.
  2. Must be not less than twenty-five Gregorian years of age at the time of his selection.
  3. Must enjoy civil fitness, good conduct, sound reputation and has not been previously convicted of a dishonorable offence unless he has been acquitted in accordance with the law.
  4. Must have adequate knowledge of reading and writing.
Article 71
Membership of the Federal national council shall be incompatible with any public office in the Union, including ministerial portfolios.

Article 72
The term of membership in the Federal council shall be two Gregorian years commencing from the date of its first session. The Constitution.
Any member who has completed his term may be re-elected.

Article 73
Before assuming his duties in the council or its Committees, a member of the Federal national council shall take the following oath before the Council in public session:-

I swear by Almighty God that I will be loyal to the United Arab Emirates; that I will respect the Constitution and the laws of the Union and that I will discharge my duties in the Council and its Committees honestly and truthfully.

Article 74
If, for any reason, a seat of any member of the Council becomes vacant before the end of the term of his membership, a replacement shall be selected within two months of the date on which the vacancy is announced by the Council, unless the vacancy occurs during the three months preceding the end of the term of the Council.
The new member shall complete the term of membership of his predecessor.

Article 75
Sessions of the Federal national council shall be held in the Union capital. Exceptionally, sessions may be held in any other place within the Union on the basis of a decision taken by a majority vote of the members and with the approval of the Council of Ministers.

Article 76
The Council shall decide upon the validity of the representation of its members. It shall also decide upon withdrawal of membership of those who lose one of the required conditions, by a majority of all its members and on the proposal of five among them. The council shall be competent accept resignation of members. The Council shall consider the resignation final as from the date of its acceptance.

Article 77
A member of the Federal national council shall represent the whole people o the Union and merely the Emirate, which he represents in the Council.

I swear by Almighty God that I will be loyal to the United Arab Emirates; that I will respect the Constitution and the laws of the Union and that I will discharge my duties in the Council and its Committees honestly and truthfully.

Article 74
If, for any reason, a seat of any member of the Council becomes vacant before the end of the term of his membership, a replacement shall be selected within two months of the date on which the vacancy is announced by the Council, unless the vacancy occurs during the three months preceding the end of the term of the Council.
The new member shall complete the term of membership of his predecessor.

Article 75
Sessions of the Federal national council shall be held in the Union capital. Exceptionally, sessions may be held in any other place within the Union on the basis of a decision taken by a majority vote of the members and with the approval of the Council of Ministers.

Article 76
The Council shall decide upon the validity of the representation of its members. It shall also decide upon withdrawal of membership of those who lose one of the required conditions, by a majority of all its members and on the proposal of five among them. The council shall be competent accept resignation of members. The Council shall consider the resignation final as from the date of its acceptance.

Article 77
A member of the Federal national council shall represent the whole people o the Union and merely the Emirate, which he represents in the Council.

Section 2  Organisations of work in the Council

Article 78
The Council shall hold an annual ordinary session lasting not less than six months, commencing on the third week of November each year. It may be called into extraordinary session whenever the need arises. The Council may not consider at an extraordinary session any matter other than those for which it has been called into session.
Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, the President of the Union shall summon the Federal National Council to convene its first ordinary session within a period not exceeding sixty days from the entry into force of this Constitution. This session shall end at the time appointed by the Supreme Council by decree.

Article 79
The council shall be summoned into session, and its session shall be terminated by decree issued by the president of the union with the consent of the council of ministers of the Union. Any meeting help by the council without a formal summons , or in a place other than that legally assigned for its meeting in accordance with this constitution , shall be invalid be and shall have no effect .
Nevertheless, if the council is not called to hold its meeting for its annual ordinary session before the third week of November, the council shall be ipso facto in session on the twenty first of the said month.

Article 80
The president of the union shall inaugurate the ordinary annual session of the council whereupon he shall deliver a speech reviewing the situation of the country and the important event and affair which happened during the year and outlining the project and reform and reforms , the union Government plans to undertake during the new session. The president of the Union my depute his vice – president or the prime minister to open the session or to deliver the speech.
The federal national council shall select , from among its members a committee to draft the reply to the inauguration speech , embodying the council observation and wishes , and shall submit the reply after approval by the council to the president of the union for submission to the supreme council .

Article 81
Members of the council shall not be censured for any opinions or views expressed in the course of carrying out their duties within the council or its committees.

Article 82
Except in cases of '' flagrant delicate'', no penal proceedings may be taken against any member while the council is in session, without the authorization of the council. The council must be notified if such proceedings are taken while it is not in session.

Article 83
The president of the council and its other members shall be entitled as of the date of taking the oath before the council to a remuneration which shall be determined by law, in addition to traveling expenses from their place of residence to the venue in which the council is meeting.

Article 84
The council shall have a Bureau consisting of a president; a first and second vice president and two controllers. All selected be the council from among its members.
The term of office of the president and the two vice president shall expire when the term of council expires or when the of the second paragraph of article 88.
The term of the office controllers at the opening of the next ordinary annual session. if any post in the bureau becomes vacant , the council shall select who shall fill it for remaining period .

Article 85
The council shall have a secretary – general who shall be assisted by a number of staff who shall be directly responsible to the council .the council s standing orders shall lay down their conditions of service and their powers.
The council shall lay down its standing orders, issued by decree promulgated by the president of the union with the council of ministers.
The standing orders shall define the powers of the president of the council , his two vice president and the controllers , and shall define generally all matters pertaining to the council , its committees, members , secretariat , employees , rules and procedures of discussion and voting in the council the committees and other matters within the limit of the provisions of his constitution.

Article 86
Sessions of the Council shall be public. Secret sessions may be held at the request of a representative of the Government, the president of the Council or one third of its members.

Article 87
Deliberations of the council shall not be valid unless the majority of its members at least are present. Resolutions shall be taken by an about majority of the votes of members present, except in cases where especial majority has been prescribed. if votes are equally divided , the side , which the president of the session supports . Shall prevail.

Article 88
Meeting of the council may be adjourned by a decree primal – gated by the President of the president of the Union with the approval of the council of minster of the union for a period not exceeding one month , provided that such adjournment is not repeated in one session except with the approval of the Council and for the Council and for once only . The period of adjournment shall not be deemed part of the term of the ordinary session.
The council may also be dissolved by a decree promulgated by the president of the Union with the approval of the supreme Council of the Union. Provided that the decree of dissolution includes a summons to the new Council to into session within sixty days of the date of the decree of dissolution. The Council may not be dissolved again for the same reason

Section 3  Powers of the national council

Article 89
In so far as it does not conflict with the provisions of Article 110, Union bills, including financial bills , shall submitted to the federal national council before their submission to the President of the Union for presentation to the Supreme Council for ratification .
The National Council shall discuss these bills and my pass amends or reject them.

Article 90
The Council shall examine during its ordinary. Session the Annual General Budget draft law of the union and the draft law of the final accounts, in accounts ,in accordance with the provisions in Chapter Eight of Constitution.

Article 91
The Government shall inform the Union Council of international treaties and agreement concluded with other states and the various international organizations , together with appropriate explanations.

Article 92
The federal national council may discuss any general subject pertaining to the affairs of the Union unless the Council of Ministers Inform the Federal national council that such discussion is contrary to the highest interests of the Union . The Prime Minister or the Minister concerned shall attend the debates. The Federal national council may express its recommendation and may define the subject's debate. If the Council of Ministers do not approve of these recommendations, it shall notify the federal national council of the reasons.

Article 93
The government of the federal national council by the Prime Minister or his deputy or one member of the Union Cabinet at least. the prime Minister or his deputy or the competent Minister , shall answer question put to them by any member of the Council requesting explanation of any matters within their jurisdiction , in conformity with the procedures prescribed in the standing orders of the Council.

THE JUDICIARY IN THE FEDERATION AND THE EMIRATES

Article 94
Justice is the basis of rule. In performing their duties, judges shall be independent and shall not be subject to any authority but the law and their own conscience.

Article 95
The Union shall have a Union Supreme Court and Union Primary Tribunals as explained hereinafter.

Article 96
The Union Supreme Court shall consist of the President and a number of judges, all not exceeding the total of five, whom shall be appointed by a decree, issued by the President of the Union after approval by the Supreme Council. The law shall prescribe the number of the chambers in the Court, their order and procedures, conditions of service and retirement for its members and the preconditions and qualifications required of them.

Article 97
The President and the Judges of the Federal Supreme Court shall not be removed while they administer justice. Their tenure of office shall not be terminated except for one of the following reasons:
  1. Death
  2. Resignation
  3. Expiration of term of contract for those who are appointed by fixed term contract or completion of term of secondment.
  4. Reaching retirement age.
  5. Permanent incapacity to carry the burdens of their duties by reasons of ill health.
  6. Disciplinary discharge on the basis of the reasons and proceedings stipulated in the law.
  7. Appointment to other offices. With their consent.
Article 98
The President and the Judges of the Union Supreme Court shall, before holding office, swear on oath before the president of Union and in the presence of the Union Minister of Justice, that they will render justice without fear or favour and that they will be loyal to the constitution and the law of the Union.

Article 99
The Union Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction in the following matters:-
  1. Various disputes between member Emirates in the Union , or between any Emirate or more and the Union Government, whenever such disputes are submitted to the Court on the request of any of the interested parties.
  2. Examination of the constitutionality of Union laws, if one or more of the Emirates on the grounds of violating the Constitution of the Union challenged them.
  3. Examination of the constitutionality of legislation's promulgated by one of the Emirates, if they are challenged by one of the Union authorities on the ground of violation of the Constitution of the Union or of Union laws.
  4. Examination of the constitutionality of laws, legislation's and regulations in general, if such request is referred to it by any Court in the country during a pending case before it. The aforesaid court shall be bound to accept the ruling of the Union Supreme Court rendered in this connection.
  5. Interpretation of the provisions of the Constitution, when so requested by any Union authority or by the Government of any Emirate. Any such interpretation shall be considered binding on all.
  6. Questioning of Ministers and senior officials of the Union appointed by decree regarding their actions in carrying out their official duties upon demand by the Supreme Council and in accordance with the relevant law.
  7. Crime directly affecting the interests of the Union, such as crimes related to its internal or external security, forgery of the official records or seals of any of the Union authorities and counterfeiting of currency crimes.
  8. Conflicts of jurisdiction between the Union judicial authorities and the local judicial authorities in the Emirates.
  9. Conflicts of jurisdictions between the judicial authority in one Emirate and judicial authority in another Emirate. The rules relating thereof shall be regulated by a Union law.
  10. Any other terms of reference stipulated in this Constitution, or which may be assigned to it by a Union law.
Article 100
The Union Supreme Court shall hold its sessions in the capital of the Union. It may, exceptionally, assemble when necessary in the capital of any of the Emirates.

Article 101
The judgments of the Union Supreme Court shall be final and binding upon all.
If the Court, in ruling on the constitutionality of law, legislation's and regulation, decides that a Union legislation is inconsistent with the Union Constitution, or that local legislation's or regulations under consideration contain provisions which are inconsistent with the Union Constitution or with a Union law, the authority concerned in the Union or in the Emirate, accordingly, shall be obliged to hasten taking the necessary measures to remove or rectify the constitutional inconsistency.

Article 102
The Union shall have one or more Union primary tribunals which shall sit in the permanent capital of the Union or in the capitals of some of the Emirates, in order to exercise the judicial powers within the sphere of their jurisdiction in the following cases :-
  1. Civil, commercial and administrative disputes between the Union and individual whether the Union is plaintiff or defendant.
  2. Crimes committed within the boundaries of the permanent capital of the Union, with the exception of such matters as are reserved for the Union Supreme Court under Article 99 of this Constitution.
  3. Personal status cases, civil and commercial cases and other cases between individuals which shall arise in the permanent capital of the Union.
Article 103
The law shall regulate all matters connected with the Union primary tribunals in respect of their organization, formation, and chambers. Local jurisdiction, procedures to be followed before them, the oath to be sworn be their judges, conditions of service relating to them and ways of appeal against their judgments.
The law may stipulate that appeals against the judgments of these tribunals shall be heard before one of the chambers of the Union Supreme Court, in the case and according to the procedures prescribed therein.

Article 104
The local judicial authorities in each Emirate shall have jurisdiction in all judicial matters not assigned to the Union judicature in accordance this Constitution.

Article 105
All or part of the jurisdiction assigned to the local judicial authorities in accordance with the preceding Article may be transferred by a Union law issued at the request of the Emirate concerned, to the primary Union tribunals.
Circumstances, in which appeals against judgments by the local judicial authorities in penal, civil, commercial and other litigation are allowed to be referred to the Union tribunals, shall be defined by Union law provided that its decision in such appeals shall be final.

Article 106
The Union shall have a public prosecutor who shall be appointed by a Union decree issued with the approval of the Council of Ministers, the public a prosecutor shall be assisted by a number of members of the public prosecutor's office.
The law shall regulate matters relating to the members of the Union public prosecutor's office with respect to their method of appointment, ranks, promotion, retirement and the qualifications required of them.
Besides, the Union law of Criminal Procedure and trials shall regulate the power of this body and its procedures and the competence of its assistants from the police and the public security officers.

Article 107
The president of the Union may grant pardon from the execution of any sentence passed by a Union judicature before it is carries out or while it is being served or he may commute such sentence, on the basis of the recommendation of the Union Minister of Justice, after obtaining the approval of a committee formed under the chairmanship of the minister and consisting of six members selected by the Union Council of Ministers for a term of three years which may be renewed. The members of the committee shall be chosen from citizens of good repute and capability.
Membership of the committee shall gratis. Its deliberations shall be secret. Its decisions shall be issued by a majority vote.

Article 108
No sentence of death imposed finally by a Union judicial authority shall be carried out until the president of the Union has confirmed the sentence. He may substitute it by an attenuate sentence in accordance with the procedure stridulated in the preceding Article.

Article 109
There shall be no general amnesty for a crime or for specified crimes except by law.
The promulgation of the law of amnesty shall consider such crimes being deemed Non Avenue, and shall remit the execution of the sentence or the remaining part of it. 
 
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