Article 9. Citizens of Uganda.
Every person who, on the commencement of this Constitution, is a citizen of Uganda shall continue to be such a citizen.
Article 10. Citizenship by birth.
The following persons shall be citizens of Uganda by birth—
(a) every person born in Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents is or was a member of any of the indigenous communities existing and residing within the borders of Uganda as at the first day of February, 1926, and set out in the Third Schedule to this Constitution; and
(b) every person born in or outside Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents was at the time of birth of that person a citizen of Uganda by birth.
Article 11. Foundlings and adopted children.
(1) A child of not more than five years of age found in Uganda, whose parents are not known, shall be presumed to be a citizen of Uganda by birth.
(2) A child under the age of eighteen years neither of whose parents is a citizen of Uganda, who is adopted by a citizen of Uganda shall, on application, be registered as a citizen of Uganda.
Article 12. Citizenship by registration.
(1) Every person born in Uganda—
- at the time of whose birth—
- neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents had diplomatic status in Uganda; and
- neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents was a refugee in Uganda; and
- who has lived continuously in Uganda since the ninth day of October, 1962, shall, on application, be entitled to be registered as a citizen of Uganda.
(2) The following persons shall, upon application, be registered as citizens of Uganda—
- every person married to a Uganda citizen upon proof of a legal and subsisting marriage of three years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
- every person who has legally and voluntarily migrated to and has been living in Uganda for at least ten years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
- every person who, on the commencement of this Constitution, has lived in Uganda for at least twenty years.
(3) Clause (2)(a) of this article applies also to a person who was married to a citizen of Uganda who, but for his or her death, would have continued to be a citizen of Uganda under this Constitution.
(4) Where a person has been registered as a citizen of Uganda under clause (2)(a) of this article and the marriage by virtue of which that person was registered is—
- annulled or otherwise declared void by a court or tribunal of competent jurisdiction; or
- dissolved, that person shall, unless he or she renounces that citizenship, continue to be a citizen of Uganda.
Article 13. Citizenship by naturalisation.
Parliament shall by law provide for the acquisition and loss of citizenship by naturalisation.
Article 14. Loss of citizenship by registration.
A person may be deprived of his or her citizenship if acquired by registration, on any of the following grounds—
(a) voluntary acquisition of the citizenship of another country;
(b) voluntary service in the armed forces or security forces of a country hostile to or at war with Uganda;
(c) acquisition of Uganda citizenship by fraud, deceit, bribery, or having made intentional and deliberate false statements in his or her application for citizenship; and
(d) espionage against Uganda.
Article 15. Prohibition of dual citizenship.
(1) Subject to this article, a Uganda citizen shall not hold the citizenship of another country concurrently with his or her Uganda citizenship.
(2) A citizen of Uganda shall cease forthwith to be a citizen of Uganda if, on attaining the age of eighteen years he or she, by voluntary act other than marriage, acquires or retains the citizenship of a country other than Uganda.
(3) A person who—
- becomes a citizen of Uganda by registration; and
- upon becoming a citizen of Uganda, is also a citizen of another country, shall cease to be a citizen of Uganda unless he or she has—
- renounced his or her citizenship of that other country;
- taken the oath of allegiance specified in the Fourth Schedule to this Constitution;
- made and registered such declaration of his or her intentions concerning residence as may be prescribed by law; or
- obtained an extension of time for taking those steps and the extended period has not expired.
(4) A Uganda citizen who loses his or her Uganda citizenship as a result of the acquisition or possession of the citizenship of another country shall, on the renunciation of his or her citizenship of that other country, become a citizen of Uganda.
(5) Where the law of a country, other than Uganda, requires a person who marries a citizen of that country to renounce the citizenship of his or her own country by virtue of that marriage, a citizen of Uganda who is deprived of his or her citizenship by virtue of that marriage shall, on the dissolution of that marriage, if he or she thereby loses his or her citizenship acquired by that marriage, become a citizen of Uganda.
Article 16. National Citizenship and Immigration Board.
(1) There shall be a National Citizenship and Immigration Board.
(2) The board shall consist of a chairperson and not less than four other persons, each of whom shall be of high moral character and proven integrity, appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament.
(3) The functions of the board shall be prescribed by Parliament and shall include—
- registering and issuing national identity cards to citizens;
- issuing Uganda passports and other travel documents;
- granting and cancelling citizenship by registration and naturalisation;
- granting and cancelling immigration permits; and
- registering and issuing identity cards to aliens.
(4) The functions of the board set out in clause (3)(a), (b) and (d) of this article may be decentralised to the district level.
Article 17. Duties of a citizen.
(1) It is the duty of every citizen of Uganda—
- to respect the national anthem, flag, coat of arms and currency;
- to respect the rights and freedoms of others;
- to protect children and vulnerable persons against any form of abuse, harassment or ill-treatment;
- to protect and preserve public property;
- to defend Uganda and to render national service when necessary;
- to cooperate with lawful agencies in the maintenance of law and order;
- to pay taxes;
- to register for electoral and other lawful purposes;
- to combat corruption and misuse or wastage of public property; and
- to create and protect a clean and healthy environment.
(2) It is the duty of all able-bodied citizens to undergo military training for the defence of this Constitution and the protection of the territorial integrity of Uganda whenever called upon to do so; and the State shall ensure that facilities are available for such training.
Article 18. Registration of births, marriages and deaths.
The State shall register every birth, marriage and death occurring in Uganda.
Article 19. Citizenship of a parent dying before the birth of a person.
(1) A reference in this Chapter to the citizenship of the parent of a person at the time of the birth of that person shall, in relation to a person born after the death of the parent, be construed as a reference to the citizenship of he parent at the time of the parent’s death.
(2) For the purposes of clause (1) of this article, where the death occurred before the coming into force of this Constitution, the citizenship that the parent would have had if he or she had died on the coming into force of this Constitution shall be taken to be his or her citizenship at the time of his or her death.