As the name suggests, a First Information Report commonly known as an FIR is the first information received by the police with respect to the commission of any cognizable offence. In case of non-cognizable offences mostly non-cognizable report which is also known as NCR is lodged.
A Cognizable offence is an offence in which a police officer can arrest without a warrant and without the orders of a magistrate. The Cognizable offences are serious in nature such as Rape, Murder, Dowry death, Kidnapping, Theft, Criminal Breach of Trust, Waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the government in India.
Through the registration of an FIR the process of criminal justice is initiated. Once the FIR is registered by the police, it becomes the duty of the police officer to take up investigation of the case.
According to Sec 157 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, when information as to the commission of any offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer in charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot if it appears to the officer in charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case.
However, the officer in charge of the police station shall record reasons reasons for not fully complying with the requirements and shall also forthwith notify to the informant.
Any person can report to the police regarding the commission of any cognizable offence either orally or in writing. Even a complaint made over a phone call can be treated as an FIR after judging its veracity. Where an FIR is made verbally, it is the duty of the police officer to write it down in words and read it back to the individual to assure that the details are recorded in the manner the said individual wanted it to. Hence an F.I.R can be lodged by-
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