Fundamental Principles

Part I Fundamental Principles

Article 1
The Republic of Angola shall be a sovereign and independent nation whose primary objective shall be to build a free and democratic society of peace, justice and social progress.

Article 2
The Republic of Angola shall be a democratic State based on the rule of law, national unity, the dignity of the individual, pluralism of expression and political organization, respecting and guaranteeing the basic rights and freedoms of persons, both as individuals and as members of organized social groups.

Article 3
1. Sovereignty shall be vested in the people, who shall exercise it in the manner provided for in the present Law.

2. The Angolan people shall exercise political power through periodic universal suffrage to choose their representatives, by means of referendums and other forms of democratic participation in national life.

3. Special laws shall regulate the process of general elections.

Article 4
1. Political parties, within the framework of the present law and statutory laws, shall Compete, on the basis of a project for society and a political program, to organize and express the will of citizens, participating in political life and the exercise of universal suffrage by democratic and peaceful means.

2. Political parties shall, in their objectives, program and activity, contribute to:

  1. The consolidation of the Angolan nation, national independence and strengthened national unity;
  2. The safeguarding of territorial integrity;
  3. The defense of national sovereignty and democracy;
  4. The protection of fundamental freedoms and the rights of the individual;
  5. The defense of the republican form and unitary and secular nature of the State.

3. Political parties shall be entitled to equal treatment by those exercising public power, as well as to equal treatment by the press, in accordance with the law.

4. The constitution and functioning of parties shall, in accordance with the law, comply with the following fundamental principles:

  1. National in character and scope;
  2. Free constitution;
  3. Public pursuance of aims;
  4. Freedom of membership and single membership;
  5. Exclusive use of peaceful means in pursuing their aims, prohibiting the creation or use of military, paramilitary or militarized organizations;
  6. Democratic organization and functioning;
  7. Prohibition to receive contributions of monetary or economic value from foreign governments or governmental institutions.

Article 5
The Republic of Angola shall be a unitary and indivisible State whose inviolable and inalienable territory shall be that defined by the present geographical limits of Angola, and any attempt at separatism or dismemberment of its territory shall be vigorously combated.

Article 6
The State shall exercise its sovereignty over the territory, internal and territorial waters, air space, soil and sub-soil.

Article 7
Economic, social and cultural solidarity between all regions of the Republic of Angola shall be promoted and intensified, with a view to the common development of the Angolan nation as a whole.

Article 8
1. The Republic of Angola shall be a secular State, and there shall be separation between the State and churches.

2. Religions shall be respected and the State shall protect churches and places and objects of worship, provided they abide by the laws of the State.

Article 9
The State shall guide the development of the national economy, with a view to guaranteeing harmonious and balanced growth of all sectors and regions of the country, and rational and efficient use of all productive capacity and national resources, as well as heightening the well-being and quality of life of citizens.

Article 10
The economic system shall be based on the coexistence of diverse forms of property - public, private, mixed, cooperative and family - and all shall enjoy equal protection. The State shall encourage participation in the economic process of all agents and forms of property, creating conditions for them to function efficiently in the interests of national economic development and satisfying the needs of citizens.

Article 11
1. Sectors and activities that remain the preserve of the State shall be determined by law.

2. In the use and exploitation of public property, the State shall guarantee efficiency and profitability, in accordance with the proposed aims and objectives.

3. The State shall encourage the development of private, mixed, cooperative and family enterprises, creating conditions for them to operate, and shall give special support to small and medium-scale economic activity, in accordance with the law.

4. The State shall protect foreign investment and foreign property, in accordance with the law.

Article 12
1. All natural resources existing in the soil and subsoil, in internal and territorial waters, on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic area, shall be the property of the State, which shall determine under what terms they are used, developed and exploited.

2. The State shall promote the protection and conservation of natural resources guiding the exploitation and use thereof for the benefit of the community as a whole.

3. Land, which is by origin the property of the State, may be transferred to individuals or corporate bodies, with a view to rational and full use thereof, in accordance with the law.

4. The State shall respect and protect people's property, whether individuals or corporate bodies, and the property and ownership of land by peasants, without prejudice to the possibility of expropriation in the public interest, in accordance with the law.

Article 13
Any nationalization or confiscation carried out under the appropriate law shall be considered valid and irreversible for all legal purposes, without prejudice to the provisions of specific legislation on reprivatization.

Article 14
1. The fiscal system shall aim at meeting the economic, social and administrative needs of the State and ensuring the fair distribution of income and wealth.

2. Taxes may he created or abolished only by law, which shall determine applicability, rates, tax benefits and guarantees for taxpayers.

Article 15
The Republic of Angola shall respect and implement the principles of the United Nations Charter, the Charters of the Organization of African Unity and the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, and shall establish relations of friendship and cooperation with all States, based on the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in the internal affairs of each country and reciprocal advantages.

Article 16
The Republic of Angola shall support and be in solidarity with the struggles of peoples for national liberation and shall establish relations of friendship and cooperation with all democratic forces in the world.

Article 17
The Republic of Angola shall not join any international military organization or permit the establishment of foreign military bases on its national territory.