The Republic


(In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful)

We, the people of Bangladesh, having proclaimed our Independence on the 26th day of March, 1971 and through a historic war for national independence, established the independent, sovereign People's Republic of Bangladesh;
Pledging that the high ideals of absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah, nationalism, democracy and socialism meaning economic and social justice, which inspired our heroic people to dedicate themselves to, and our brave martyrs to sacrifice their lives in the war for national independence, shall be fundamental principles of the Constitution;
Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process to socialist society, free from exploitation-a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedom, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens;
Affirming that it is our sacred duty to safeguard, protect and defend this Constitution and to maintain its supremacy as the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh so that we may prosper in freedom and may make our full contribution towards international peace and co-operation in keeping with the progressive aspirations of mankind;
In our Constituent Assembly, this eighteenth day of Kartick, 1379 B.S corresponding to the fourth day of November, 1972 A.D., do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution.


Article 1: The Republic
Bangladesh is a unitary, independent, sovereign Republic to be known as the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

Article 2: The territory of the Republic
The territory of the Republic shall comprise-
  1. The territories which immediately before the proclamation of independence on the 26th day of March, 1971 constituted East Pakistan and the territories referred to as included territories in the Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1974, but excluding the territories referred to as excluded territories in that Act; and
  2. such other territories as may become included in Bangladesh.
Article 2A: The state religion
The state religion of the Republic is Islam, but other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony in the Republic.

Article 3: The state language
The state language of the Republic is Bangla

Article 4: National anthem, flag and emblem:
1. The national anthem of the Republic is the first ten lines of "Amar Sonar Bangla".

2. The national flag of the Republic shall consist of a circle, coloured red throughout its area, resting on a green background.

3. The national emblem of the Republic is the national flower Shapla (nympoea-nouchali) resting on water, having on each side and ear of paddy and being surmounted by three connected leaves of jute with two stars on each side of the leaves.

4. Subject to the foregoing clauses, provisions relating to the national anthem, flag and emblem shall be made by law.

Article 5: The capital
1. The capital of the Republic is Dhaka.

2. The boundaries of the capital shall be determined by law.

Article 6: Citizenship
1. The citizenship of Bangladesh shall be determined and regulated by law.

2. The citizens of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangladeshis.

Article 7: Supremacy of the Constitution
1. All powers in the Republic belong to the people, and their exercise on behalf of the people shall be effected only under, and by the authority of, this Constitution.

2. This Constitution is, as the solemn expression of the will of the people, the supreme law of the Republic, and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution and other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.