LIBERTIES, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES

Article 8
Liberties and fundamental rights are recognised and their exercise is guaranteed to citizens under the conditions and forms specified by the Constitution and the law.

Article 9
Chadian of either sex has the same rights and the same duties. They are equal before the law.

Article 10
The state assures to all equality before the law, without distinction of origin, race, sex, religion, political opinion, or social position. It has the duty to see to the elimination of all forms of discrimination with regard to women and to assure the protection of their rights in all areas of private and public life.

Article 11
Foreigners who have been admitted legally on the territory of the Republic of Chad benefit from the same rights and liberties as Chadian nationals, excluding political rights. They are required to comply with the Constitution, the laws and regulations of the Republic.

Article 12
The rights of juridical persons are guaranteed by this Constitution.

Liberties and Fundamental Rights

Article 13
The human person is sacred and inviolable. Each individual has the right to life, personal integrity, security, freedom, the protection of private life and possessions.

Article 14
No one may be subjected to cruelty, degrading or humiliating treatment, or torture.

Article 15
Each individual has the right to the free development of his or her person with respect, subject to the rights of others, good morals and public order.

Article 16
No one may be held in slavery or servitude.

Article 17
Illegal and arbitrary arrests and detentions are forbidden.

Article 18
No one may be detained in a penitentiary institution unless by virtue of a penal law in force.

Article 19
No one may be arrested nor charged except by virtue of a law promulgated prior to the acts for which he or she is blamed.

Article 20
Any accused is presumed innocent until the establishment of his or her culpability following a regular process offering indispensable guarantees for his or her defence.

Article 21
Punishment is personal. No one may be held responsible and prosecuted for an act which he or she has not committed.

Article 22
Customary and traditional rules concerning collective penal responsibility are forbidden.

Article 23
The freedoms of opinion and of expression, communication, conscience, religion, the press, association, assembly, circulation, demonstration, and parade are guaranteed to all. These can only be restricted by respect for the freedoms and rights of others and the obligation to safeguard the public order and good morals. The law determines the conditions of their exercise.

Article 24
The freedom to belong to trade unions is recognised. Each citizen is free to belong to the union of his choice.

Article 25
The right to strike is recognised. It is exercised within the order of the laws which regulate it.

Article 26
The dissolution of associations, of political parties and of trade unions may only take place according to conditions provided in their statutes or by judicial means.

Article 27
Access to public employment is guaranteed to each Chadian without any discrimination subject to specific conditions of each type of employment.

Article 28
The state recognises to all citizens the right to work. It guarantees to each worker just remuneration for his services or his production. No one may be wronged in their work on account of their origins, opinions, beliefs, sex or their marital status.

Article 29
Each Chadian has the right to culture. The state has the duty to safeguard and promote the national values of civilisation.

Article 30
Each citizen has the right to the creation, to the protection and to the enjoyment of his intellectual and artistic works. The state assures the promotion and protection of the national cultural patrimony as well as artistic and literary production.

Article 31
Each citizen has the right to education. Public education is secular and free. Private education is recognised and is exercised within conditions defined by law. Basic education is compulsory.

Article 32
The state and the Decentralised Territorial Collectivises establish the conditions and institutions which assure and guarantee the education of children.

Article 33
The family is the natural and moral basis of society. The state and the Decentralised Territorial Collectivises have the duty to see to the well-being of the family.

Article 34
Parents have the natural right and the duty to raise and educate their children. In this task they are supported by the state and the Decentralised Territorial Collectivises. The children may be separated from their parents or from those who have them in charge, only when these fail in their duty.

Article 35
The state and the Decentralised Territorial Collectivises establish the conditions for the blossoming and well-being of youth.

Article 36
The state strives to provide for the needs of each citizen who, on account of his age or his physical inability, finds himself unable to work, notably by the institution of organs of a social character.

Article 37
Private property is inviolable and sacred. No one may be dispossessed of it except for reasons of public utility, duly established and in return for which a just and predetermined indemnification.

Article 38
The domicile is inviolable. Searches may be effected only in cases and forms provided by law.

Article 39
Every Chadian has the right to establish freely his or her domicile and his or her residence anywhere in the national territory.

Article 40
Every Chadian has the right to move freely inside the national territory, to leave it and to return.

Article 41
The privacy of correspondence and of communications is guaranteed by the law.

Article 42
The right of asylum is granted to foreign nationals within the conditions determined by law. The extradition of political refugees is forbidden.

Article 43
Every person has the right to a healthy environment.

Article 44
The state and Decentralised Territorial Collectivises must see to the protection of the environment. The conditions of stocking, handling and removal of toxic or polluting wastes originating from national activities are determined by law. The transit, importation, stocking, burying and dumping on the national territory of foreign toxic or polluting wastes is forbidden.

Duties

Article 45
Every citizen is obliged to respect the Constitution, the laws and regulations as well as the institutions and the symbols of the Republic.

Article 46
Public assets are inviolable. Everyone must respect them and protect them.

Article 47
The defence of the fatherland and of the integrity of the national territory is a duty placed on every Chadian. Military service is obligatory. The conditions for accomplishing this duty are determined by law.

Article 48
Every citizen has the duty to respect and protect the environment.

Article 49
Each citizen participates, according to his or her income and his or her health, in public expenses.

Article 50
No one may avail oneself of one's religious beliefs, nor one's philosophical opinions, to excuse one from a duty dictated by the national interest.

Article 51
The state has the duty to protect the legitimate interests of Chadian nationals abroad.

Article 52
The state guarantees the political neutrality of the administration and the armed and security forces.

Article 53
The state exercises its complete and permanent sovereignty over all national wealth and natural resources for the well-being of the whole national community. However, it may cede the exploration and exploitation of those natural resources to private initiative.

Article 54
The state guarantees the freedom of trade.