Basic Constituents of the Society


CHAPTER I Social and Moral Constituents

Article 7 :

Social solidarity is the basis of society.

Article 8 :

The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all Egyptians.

Article 9 :

The family is the basis of the society founded on religion, morality and patriotism.

The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family- with all values and traditions represented by it- while affirming and promoting this character in the interplay of relations within the Egyptian society.

Article 10 :

The State shall guarantee the protection of motherhood and childhood, look after children and youth and provide the suitable conditions for the development of their talents.

Article 11 :

The State shall guarantee coordination between woman�s duties towards her family and her work in the society, considering her equal to man in the political, social, cultural and economic spheres without detriment to the rules of Islamic jurisprudence (Sharia).

Article 12:

Society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian traditions and abiding by the high standards of religious education, moral and national values, the historical heritage of the people, scientific facts, socialist conduct and public manners within the limits of the law. The State is committed to abiding by these principles and promoting them.

Article 13 :

Work is a right, a duty and an honor ensured by the State. Distinguished workers shall be worthy of the appreciation of the State and the society. No work shall be imposed on citizens, except by virtue of the law, for the performance of a public service and in return for a fair remuneration.

Article 14 :

Citizens are entitled to public offices, which are assigned to those who shall occupy them in the service of people. The State guarantees the protection of public officers in the performance of their duties in safeguarding the interests of the people. They may not be dismissed by other than the disciplinary way except in the cases specified by the law.

Article 15 :

War veterans and those injured during wars or because of them, martyrs wives and children shall have priority in work opportunities according to the law.

Article 16 :

The State shall guarantee cultural, social and health services and shall work to ensure them particularly for villagers in an easy and regular manner in order to raise their standard.

Article 17 :

The State shall guarantee social and health insurance services. All citizens shall have the right to pensions in cases of incapacity, unemployment, and old-age in accordance with the law.

Article 18 :

Education is a right guaranteed by the State. It is obligatory in the primary stage. The State shall work to extend obligation to other stages. The State shall supervise all branches of education and guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centers, with a view to linking all this with the requirements of society and production.

Article 19 :

Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.

Article 20 :

Education in the State: Educational institutions shall be free of charge in their various stages.

Article 21 :

Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the peoples capacity shall be mobilized.

Article 22 :

The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited.

CHAPTER II Economic Constituents

Article 23 :

The national economy shall be organized in accordance with a comprehensive development plan which ensures raising the national income, fair distribution, raising the standard of living, solving the problem of unemployment, increasing work opportunities, connecting wages with production, fixing a minimum and maximum limit for wages in a manner that guarantees lessening the disparities between incomes

Article 24 :

The people shall control all means of production and direct their surplus in accordance with development plan laid down by the State.

Article 25 :

Every citizen shall have a share in the national revenue to be defined by law in accordance with his work or his unexploiting ownership.

Article 26 :

Workers shall have a share in the management and profits of projects. They shall be committed to the development of production and the implementation of the plan in their production units, in accordance with the law. Protecting the means of production is a national duty.

Workers shall be represented on the boards of directors of the public sector units by at least 50% of the number of members of these boards. The law shall guarantee for the small farmers and small craftsmen 80%of the membership on the boards of directors of the agricultural and industrial co-operatives.

Article 27 :

Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of the services projects of public interest and their supervision in accordance with the law.

Article 28 :

The State shall look after the co-operative establishments in all their forms and encourage handicrafts with a view to developing production and raising income.

The State shall endeavor to support agricultural co-operatives according to modern scientific bases.

Article 29 :

Ownership shall be under the supervision of the people and the protection of the State. There are three kinds of ownership: public ownership, co-operative ownership and private ownership.

Article 30 :

Public ownership is the ownership of the people and it is confirmed by the continuous support of the public sector. The public sector shall be the vanguard of progress in all spheres and shall assume the main responsibility in the development plan.

Article 31 :

Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the co-operative societies. The law shall guarantee its protection and self-management.

Article 32 :

Private ownership shall be represented by the unexploited capital. The law shall organize the performance of its social function in the service of the national economy within the framework of the development plan, without deviation or exploitation. The ways of its utilization should not contradict the general welfare of the people.

Article 33 :

Public ownership shall have its sanctity. Its protection and support shall be the duty of every citizen in accordance with the law as it is considered the mainstay of the strength of the homeland, a basis for the socialist system and a source of prosperity for the people.

Article 34 :

Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may not be placed under sequestration except in the cases defined by law and in accordance with a judicial decision. It may not be expropriated except for the general good and against a fair compensation as defined by law. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed in it.

Article 35 :

Nationalization shall not be allowed except for considerations of public interest and in accordance with a law and against a compensation.

Article 36 :

General confiscation of funds shall be prohibited. Private confiscation shall not be allowed except by a judicial decision.

Article 37 :

The law shall fix the maximum limit of land ownership with a view to protecting the farmer and the agricultural laborer from exploitation and asserting the authority of the alliance of the people working forces in villages.

Article 38 :

The tax system shall be based on social justice.

Article 39 :

Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged and organized by the State.