System of Government

PART FIVE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER I The Head of the State

Article 73:

The Head of the State is the President of the Republic. He shall assert the sovereignty of the people, respect for the Constitution and the supremacy of the law. He shall safeguard national unity and the socialist gains and maintain the limits between authorities in a manner to ensure that each shall perform its role in the national action.

Article 74:

If any danger threatens the national unity or the safety of the motherland or obstructs the constitutional role of the State institutions, the President of the Republic shall take urgent measures to face this danger, direct a statement to the people and conduct a referendum on those measures within sixty days of their adoption.

Article 75:

The President of the Republic should be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and enjoy civil and political rights. His age must not be less than 40 Gregorian years.

Article 76:

The Peoples Assembly shall nominate the President of the Republic. The nomination shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite.

The nomination for the President of the Republic shall be made in the People Assembly upon the proposal of at least one third of its members.

The candidate who obtains two thirds of the votes of the members of the Peoples Assembly shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite. If he does not obtain the said majority the nomination process shall be repeated two days after the first vote. The candidate obtaining an absolute majority of the votes of the Assembly members shall be referred to the citizens for a plebiscite.

The candidate shall be considered President of the Republic when he obtains an absolute majority of votes cast in the plebiscite.
If the candidate does not obtain this majority, the Assembly shall propose the nomination of another candidate and the same procedure shall follow concerning his candidature and election.

Article 77:

The term of the presidency shall be six Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of result of the plebiscite.
The President of the Republic may be re-elected for other successive terms.

Article 78:

The procedures for the choice of a new President of the Republic shall begin sixty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office.

The new President shall be selected at least one week before the expiration of the term. Should this term expire without the choice of a new President for whatever reason, the former President shall continue to exercise his functions until his successor is elected.

Article 79:

Before exercising his functions, the President shall take the following oath before the Peoples Assembly:

"I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law, and to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland".

Article 80:

The salary of the President of the Republic shall be fixed by law. Any amendment in the salary shall not be applicable during the presidential term in which such an amendment is decided upon.
The President of the Republic may not receive any other salary or remunerations.

Article 81:

During his term of office the President of the Republic may not exercise any free profession or undertake any commercial, financial or industrial activity. Nor may he acquire or take or lease any state property, sell to or exchange with the State any property of his whatsoever.

Article 82:

In case the President of the Republic, due to any temporary obstacle, is unable to carry out his functions, he shall delegate his powers to a Vice-President.

Article 83:

In case of resignation, the President of the Republic shall address his letter of resignation to the People�s Assembly.

Article 84:

In case of the vacancy of the Presidential office or the permanent disability of the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the Peoples Assembly shall temporarily assume the Presidency. In case the Peoples Assembly is dissolved at such a time the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the Presidency on condition that neither one shall nominate himself for the Presidency.

The Peoples Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of President.

The President of the Republic shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days form the date of the vacancy of the Presidential office.

Article 85:

Any charge against the President of high treason or of committing a criminal act shall be made upon a proposal by at least one third of the members of the Peoples Assembly. No impeachment shall be issued except upon the approval of a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.

The President of the Republic shall be suspended form the exercise of his duties as from the issuance of the impeachment. The Vice-President shall take over the Presidency temporarily until the decision concerning the impeachment is taken.

The President of the Republic shall be tried by a special Tribunal set up by law. The law shall also organize the trial procedures and define the penalty. In case he is found guilty, he shall be relieved of his post without prejudice to other penalties.

CHAPTER II The Legislature The People's Assembly

Article 86:

The Peoples Assembly shall exercise the legislative power, approve the general policy of the State, the general plan of economic and social development and the general budget of the State. It shall exercise control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution.

Article 87:

The law shall determine the constituencies into which the State shall be divided. The number of the elected members of the Peoples Assembly must be at least 350 members of whom one half at least must be workers and farmers elected by direct secret pubic balloting.

The Law shall determine the definition of the worker and the farmer.

The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members not exceeding ten.

Article 88:

The Law shall determine the conditions which members of the Assembly must fulfill as well as the rules of election and referendum, while the ballot shall be conducted under the supervision of the members of a judiciary organ.

Article 89:

Employees of the State and the public sector may nominate themselves for membership in the Peoples Assembly with the exception of cases determined by law. The member of the Peoples Assembly shall devote himself entirely to his duties, while his former work or post shall be preserved for him as determined by law.

Article 90:

Before exercising his duties, the member of the Peoples Assembly shall take the following oath before the Assembly:

" I swear by God Almighty that I shall sincerely safeguard the safety of the nation, the republican regime, attend to the interests of the people and shall respect the Constitution and the law".

Article 91:

The members of the Peoples Assembly shall receive a remuneration determined by law.

Article 92:

The duration of the Peoples Assembly term shall be five Gregorian years starting from the date of its first meeting.
Elections for the renewal of the Assembly shall take place within the sixty days preceding the termination of its term.

Article 93:

The Peoples Assembly shall be competent to decide upon the validity of the membership of its members. The Court of Cassation shall be competent to investigate the validity of contestants on membership presented to the Assembly after referring them to the Court by the Speaker of the Assembly.

 The contestant shall be referred to the Court of Cassation within fifteen days as from the date on which the Assembly has been informed thereof while the investigation shall be completed within ninety days from the date on which the contestant is referred to the Court of Cassation.

The result of the investigation and the decision reached by the Court shall be submitted to the Assembly to decide upon the validity of the contestant within sixty days from the date of submission of the result of the investigation to the Assembly.
Memberships shall not be deemed invalid expect by a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.

Article 94:

If the seat of a member becomes vacant before the end of his term, a successor shall be elected or appointed to it, within sixty days from the date of the communication to the Assembly of the occurrence of the vacancy.
The term of the new member shall extend until the end of the term of his predecessor.

Article 95:

No member of the Peoples Assembly shall, during his term, purchase or rent any state property or sell or lease to the state or barter with it regarding any part of his property, or conclude a contract with the State in his capacity as entrepreneur, importer or contractor.

Article 96:

No membership in the Peoples Assembly shall be revoked except on the grounds of loss of confidence or status or loss of one of the conditions of membership or the loss of the members status as worker or farmer upon which he was elected or the violation of his obligations as a member. The membership shall be deemed invalid on the grounds of a decision taken by two-thirds of the Assembly members.

Article 97:

The Peoples Assembly alone may accept the resignation of its members.

Article 98:

Members of the Peoples Assembly shall not be censured for any opinions or thoughts expressed by them in the performance of their tasks in the Assembly or its committees.

Article 99:

Except in cases of flagrante delicto, no member of the Peoples .Assembly shall be subject to a criminal prosecution without the permission of the Assembly.
If the Assembly is not in session, the permission of the Speaker of the Assembly must be taken.
The Assembly must be notified of the measures taken in its first subsequent session.

Article 100:

The seat of the Peoples Assembly shall be Cairo. However, the Assembly may, under exceptional circumstances, meet in another city at the request of the President of the Republic or the majority of the Assembly members.
Any meeting of the Assembly in other than its designated seat is illegal and the resolutions passed in it shall be considered invalid.

Article 101:

The President of the Republic shall convoke the Peoples Assembly for its ordinary annual session before the second Thursday of November. If it is not convoked, the Assembly shall meet by force of the Constitution on the said date. The session of the ordinary meeting shall continue for at least seven months.

The President of the Republic shall declare the ordinary session closed. This may not take place until the general budget of the state is approved.

Article 102:

The President of the Republic may call the Peoples Assembly to an extraordinary session, in case of necessity, or upon request signed by a majority of the Assembly members.
The President of the Republic shall announce the dismissal of the extraordinary session.

Article 103:

The Peoples Assembly shall elect, in the first meeting of its ordinary annual session, a Speaker and two Deputy - Speakers for the term of the session. If the seat of anyone of them is vacated, the Assembly shall elect a replacement, whose term will last until the end of his predecessors term.

Article 104:

The Peoples Assembly shall lay down its own rules of procedure organizing the manner in which it fulfills its tasks.

Article 105:

The Peoples Assembly alone shall be entitled to preserve order inside it. The Speaker of the Assembly shall be entrusted with this task.

Article 106:

The meeting of the Peoples Assembly shall be public. However, a meeting in camera may be held at the request of the President of the Republic, or the Government, or the Prime Minister or of at least twenty of its members. The Assembly shall then decide whether the debate on the question submitted to it shall take place in a public meeting or in a meeting in camera.

Article 107:

The meeting of the Assembly shall be considered invalid unless the majority of its members are present. The Assembly shall adopt its resolutions by an absolute majority of its attending members, in cases other than those for which a specific majority is required. A separate vote will be taken on each article of the draft laws. In case of a tie vote, the question on which the debate has taken place shall be rejected.

Article 108:

The President of the Republic shall have the right, in case of necessity or in exceptional cases and on the authorization of the Peoples Assembly, to issue resolutions having the force of law. Such authorization must be for a limited period of time and must point out the subjects of such resolutions and the grounds upon which they are based. The resolutions must be submitted to the Peoples Assembly at its first meeting after the end of the authorization period. If they are not submitted or if they are submitted and not approved by the Assembly, they shall cease to have the force of law.

Article 109:

The President of the Republic and every member of the Peoples Assembly shall have the right to propose laws.

Article 110:

Every draft law shall be referred to one of the committees of the Assembly which will study it and submit a report concerning it. Draft laws presented by members of the Peoples Assembly shall not be referred to these committees unless they are first referred to a special committee which will study them and give an opinion on the suitability of their consideration by the Assembly and after the Assembly decides to consider them.

Article 111:

Every draft law proposed by a member and rejected by the Assembly cannot be presented again in the course of the same session.

Article 112:

The President of the Republic shall have the right to promulgate laws or object to them.

Article 113:

If the President of the Republic objects to a draft law ratified by the Peoples Assembly, he shall refer it back to the Assembly within thirty days from the Assembly s communication of it.
If the draft law is not referred back within this period. It is considered a law and shall be promulgated.
If it is referred back to the Assembly on the said date and approved once again by a majority of two-thirds of the members, it shall be considered a law and shall be promulgated.

Article 114:

The Peoples Assembly shall approve the general plan for economic and social development.
The manner of the preparation of the plan and of its submission to the Peoples Assembly shall be determined by law.

Article 115:

The draft general budget of the State shall be submitted to the Assembly at least two months before the beginning of the fiscal year. It shall not be considered in effect unless it is approved by the Assembly.

Each chapter of the draft budget shall be voted upon separately and shall be promulgated by law. The Peoples Assembly shall not make modifications in the draft budget except with the approval of the government. In case the ratification of the new budget does not take place before the beginning of the new fiscal year, the old budget shall be acted on pending such ratification.
The law shall determine the manner of preparing the budget and determine the fiscal year.

Article 116:

The approval of the Peoples Assembly shall be considered necessary for the transfer of any funds from one title of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included in it or in excess of its estimates. These shall be issued by law.

Article 117:

The law shall determine the provisions regulating the budgets and accounts of public organizations and institutions.

Article 118:

The final account of the State budget shall be submitted to the Peoples Assembly within a period not exceeding one year from the date of the expiration of the fiscal year.

Each title shall be voted upon separately and issued by a law.
The annual report of the Central Agency for Accounting and its observations must be submitted to the Peoples Assembly. The Assembly has the right to demand from the Central Agency for Accounting any data or other pertinent reports.

Article 119:

The imposition, modification or abolition of general taxes cannot be effected except in the cases decreed by law.
No one may be exempted from their payment except in the cases specified by law.

Article 120:

The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated by law.

Article 121:

The Executive Authority shall not contract a loan, or bind itself to a project entailing expenditure of public funds from the State Treasury in the course of a subsequent period, except with the approval of the Peoples Assembly.

Article 122:

The rules governing the granting of salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies and bonuses from the State treasury, as well as the cases excepted from these rules and the authorities charged with their application, shall be determined by law.

Article 123:

The law shall determine the rules and procedures for granting concessions related to the investment of natural resources and public utilities. It shall also define cases where it is permitted to dispose free of charge, of real estate property belonging to the State and the ceding of its movable property and the rules and regulations organizing such procedures.

Article 124:

Every member of the Peoples Assembly shall be entitled to address questions to the Prime Minister or to any of his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction. The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and the persons they delegate on their behalf shall answer the questions put to them by members.

The member may withdraw his question at any time; this same question may not be transformed into an interpolation in the same session.

Article 125:

Every member of the Peoples Assembly shall be entitled to address interpolations to the Prime Minster or his deputies or the Ministers and their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction.
Debate on an interpolation shall take place at least seven days after its submission, except in the cases of urgency as decided by the Assembly and with the Governments consent.

Article 126:

The Minister shall be responsible for the general policy of the State before the Peoples Assembly. Each minister shall be responsible for the affairs of his ministry.

The Peoples Assembly may decide to withdraw its confidence from any of the Prime Ministers deputies or from any of the Ministers or their deputies.

A motion of no confidence should not be submitted except after an interpolation, and upon a motion proposed by one tenth the members of the Assembly.

The Assembly shall not decide on such a motion until after at least three days from the date of its presentation.
Withdrawal of confidence shall be pronounced by the majority of the members of the Assembly.

Article 127:

The Peoples Assembly shall determine the responsibility of the Prime Minister, on a proposal by one-tenth of its members. Such a decision should be taken by the majority of the members of the Assembly. It may not be taken except after an interpolation addressed to the Government and after at least three days from the date of its presentation.

In the event that such responsibility is determined, the Assembly shall submit a report to the President of the Republic including the elements of the subject, the conclusions reached on the matter and the reasons behind them.

The President of the Republic may return such a report to the Assembly within ten days. If the Assembly ratifies it once again, the President of the Republic may put the subject of discord to a referendum. Such a referendum shall be held within thirty days from the date of the last ratification of the Assembly. In such a case the Assembly sessions shall be terminated.

If the result of the referendum is in support of the Government, the Assembly shall be considered dissolved, otherwise, the President of the Republic shall accept the resignation of the Cabinet.

Article 128:

If the Assembly withdraws its confidence from any of the Prime Ministers deputies or the Ministers or their deputies, he shall resign his office.
The Prime Minister shall submit his resignation to the President of the Republic if he is found responsible before the Peoples Assembly.

Article 129:

Any twenty members at least, of the Peoples Assembly may ask for the discussion of a public question to ascertain the Governments policy regarding such a question.

Article 130:

The members of the Peoples Assembly shall be entitled to express their opinions concerning public questions before the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or of the Ministers.

Article 131:

The Peoples Assembly may form an ad hoc Committee or entrust any of its committees with the inspection of the activities of any of the administrative departments or the general establishments or any executive or administrative organ or any of the public projects, for the purpose of fact - finding and informing the Assembly as to the actual financial, or administrative or economic situation thereof, or for conducting investigations into a subject related to one of the said activities.

In the course of its work, such a committee shall be entitled to collect whatever evidence it deems necessary and to subpoena all those it needs. All executive and administrative bodies shall answer the demands of the committee and put under its disposal all the documents and evidence it demands for this purpose.

Article 132:

At the inaugural meeting of the ordinary session of the Peoples Assembly, the President of the Republic shall deliver a statement of the general policy of the State. He may also make other statements before the Assembly.
The Assembly is entitled to discuss the statement of the President of the Republic.

Article 133:

After the formation of the Cabinet and at the inaugural meeting of the ordinary session of the Peoples Assembly, the Prime Minister shall submit the program me of his Government.
The Peoples Assembly is entitled to discuss such a program me.

Article 134:

The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies may become members of the Peoples Assembly. Those of them who are not members may attend the sessions and committee meetings of the Assembly.

Article 135:

The Prime Minister and the Ministers shall have the right to be heard in the Assembly sessions and committee meetings whenever they ask for the floor. They may ask for the assistance of the high ranking officials of their choice. When taking votes a minister shall have no counted vote unless he is a member.

Article 136:

The President of the Republic shall not dissolve the Peoples Assembly unless it is necessary and after a referendum of the People. In such a case, the President of the Republic shall issue a decision terminating the sessions of the Assembly and conducting a referendum within thirty days. If the total majority of the voters approve the dissolution of the Assembly, the President of the Republic shall issue the decision of dissolution.

The decision dissolving the Assembly shall comprise an invitation to the electors to conduct new elections for the Peoples Assembly within a period not exceeding sixty days from the date of the declaration of the referendum results.
The new Assembly shall convene during a period of ten days following the completion of elections.

CHAPTER III The Executive

SECTION I The President of the Republic

Article 137:

The President of the Republic shall assume executive power and shall exercise it in the manner stipulated in the Constitution.

Article 138:

The President of the Republic, in conjunction with the cabinet, shall lay down the general policy of the state and shall supervise its implementation in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.

Article 139:

The President of the Republic may appoint one or more Vice-Presidents define their jurisdiction and relieve them of their posts.
The rules relating to the calling to account of the President of the Republic shall be applicable to the Vice-Presidents.

Article 140:

Before exercising his functions the Vice-President of the Republic shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:

I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyalty to respect the Constitution and the Law, to look after the interests of the People in full and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland."

Article 141:

The President of the Republic shall appoint the Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies and relieve them of their posts.

Article 142:

The President of the Republic shall have the right to convoke the Cabinet and to attend its meetings. He shall also preside over the meetings he attends and is entitled to demand reports from the Ministers.

Article 143:

The President of the Republic shall appoint the civil and military officials and the diplomatic representatives and dismiss them in the manner prescribed by the law. He shall also accredit the diplomatic representatives of foreign states.

Article 144:

The President of the Republic shall issue the necessary regulations for the implementation of the laws in the manner that would not modify, delay, or exempt them from execution. He shall have the right to vest others with authority to issue them. The law may determine whoever issues the decision requisite for its implementation.

Article 145:

The President of the Republic shall issue control regulations.

Article 146:

The President of the Republic shall issue the decisions necessary for establishing and organizing public services and administrations.

Article 147:

In case it becomes necessary during the absence of the Peoples Assembly, to take measures which cannot suffer delay, the President of the Republic shall issue decisions in this respect which have the force of law.

Such decisions must be submitted to the Peoples Assembly, within fifteen days from the date of issuance if the Assembly is standing or at its first meeting in case of the dissolution or recess of the Assembly. If they are not submitted, their force of law disappears with retroactive effect without having to take a decision to this effect. If they are submitted to the Assembly and are not ratified, their force of law disappears with retroactive effect, unless the Assembly has ratified their validity in the previous period or settled their effects in another way.

Article 148:

The President of the Republic shall proclaim a state of emergency in the manner prescribed by the law. Such proclamation must be submitted to the Peoples Assembly within the subsequent fifteen days to take a decision upon it.

In case the Peoples Assembly, is dissolved the matter shall be submitted to the new Assembly at its first meeting.
The state of emergency in all cases, shall be for a limited period, which may not be extended unless by approval of the Assembly.

Article 149:

The President of the Republic shall have the right of granting amnesty or commuting a sentence. General Amnesty can only be granted by virtue of a law.

Article 150:

The President of the Republic shall be Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. He shall have the authority to declare war after the approval of the Peoples Assembly.

Article 151:

The President of the Republic shall conclude treaties and communicate them to the People�s Assembly, accompanied with suitable clarifications. They shall have the force of law after their conclusion, ratification and publication according to the established procedure.

However, peace treaties, alliance pacts, commercial and maritime treaties and all other treaties involving modifications in the territory of the State or having connection with the rights of sovereignty, or which lay upon the treasury of the State certain charges not included in the budget, must acquire the approval of the People�s Assembly.

Article 152:

The President of the Republic may call a referendum of the People on important matters related to the supreme interests of the country.

SECTION II The Government

Article 153:

The Government shall be the supreme executive and administrative organ of the State. It shall be composed of the Prime Minister, his Deputies, the Ministers and their Deputies. The Prime Minister shall supervise the work of the Government.

Article 154:

Whoever is appointed Minister or Deputy Minister must be an Egyptian, no less than 35 Gregorian years of age, and enjoying full civil and political rights.

Article 155:

Before exercising their functions, the members of the cabinet shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:

I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law to look after the interests of the People in full and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland."

Article 156:

The Cabinet shall exercise in particular the following functions:-
  1. Laying down the general policy of the State in collaboration with the President of the Republic and controlling its implementation in accordance with the laws and republican decrees.
  2. Directing, coordinating and following up the work of the ministries and their different administrations as well as public organizations and institutions.
  3. Issuing administrative and executive decisions in accordance with the laws and decrees and supervising their implementation.
  4. Preparing draft laws and decrees.
  5. Preparing the draft of the general budget of the State.
  6. Preparing the draft of the States overall plan.
  7. Contracting and granting loans in accordance with the rules of the Constitution.
  8. Supervising the implementation of law, maintaining State security and protecting the rights of the citizens and the interests of the State.
Article 157:

The Minister shall be the administrative supreme chief of his ministry. He shall undertake the laying down of the Ministry policy within the limits of the States General Policy and shall undertake its implementation.

Article 158:

During the term of his office, the Minister shall not practice any free profession, a commercial, or financial or industrial occupation, buy or rent any State property or lease or sell to or barter with the State any of his own property.

Article 159:

The President of the Republic and the Peoples Assembly shall have the right to bring a Minister to trial for crimes committed by him in the performance of his duties or due to them.

The decision of the Peoples Assembly to charge a Minister shall be adopted upon a proposal submitted by at least one-fifth of its members. No indictment shall be issued except by a majority of two-thirds of the members of the Assembly.

Article 160:

Any minister indicted shall be suspended from his duties until his case is decided.
The termination of his services shall not prevent legal action being taken or pursued against him.
The trial of minister, the procedures and guarantees of the trial, and the indictment shall be in accordance with the manner prescribed by the law.
These rules shall be applicable to Deputy Ministers.

SECTION III The Local Administration

Article 161:

The Arab Republic of Egypt shall be divided into administrative units, enjoying legal person among which shall be govern orates, cities and villages. Other administrative units may be established having legal person when required by common interest.

Article 162:

Local Peoples Councils shall be gradually formed, on the level of administrative units by direct election half the members of whom must be farmers or workers. The law shall provide for the gradual transfer of authority to the local Peoples Councils.
Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Councils shall be elected from among their members.

Article 163:

The law shall determine the way of forming the local Peoples Councils, their competences, their financial resources, the guarantees for their members their relation to the Peoples Assembly and to the Government as well as their role in preparing and implementing the development plan in controlling various activities.

SECTION IV National Specialized Councils

Article 164:

National Specialized Councils shall be established on a national level, to assist in planning the general policy of the State in all the domains of national activities. These Councils shall be under the President of the Republic.
The formation and functions of each council shall be defined by a presidential decree.

CHAPTER IV The Judiciary Authority

Article 165:

The Judiciary Authority shall be independent. It shall be exercised by courts of justice of different sorts and competences. They shall issue their judgments in accordance with the law.

Article 166:

Judges shall be independent, subject to no other authority but the law.
No authority may intervene in judiciary cases or in the affairs of justice.

Article 167:

The law shall determine the judiciary organization and their competences, and shall organize the way of their formation and prescribe the conditions and measures for the appointment and transfer of their members.

Article 168:

The status of judges shall be irrevocable. The law shall regulate the disciplinary actions with regard to them.

Article 169:

The sessions of courts shall be public, unless a court decides to hold them in camera for considerations of public order or morality. In all cases, judgments shall be pronounced in public sessions.

Article 170:

The people shall contribute to maintaining justice in accordance with the manner and within the limits prescribed by law.

Article 171:

The law shall regulate the organization of the State Security Courts and shall prescribe their competences and the conditions to be fulfilled by those who occupy the office of judge in them.

Article 172:

The State Council shall be an independent judiciary organization competent to take decisions in administrative disputes and disciplinary cases. The law shall determine its other competences.

Article 173:

A Supreme Council, presided over by the President of the Republic shall supervise the affairs of the judiciary organizations. The law shall prescribe its formation, it competences and its rules of action. It shall be consulted with regard to the draft laws organizing the affairs of the judiciary organizations.

CHAPTER V The Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 174:

The Supreme Constitutional Court shall be an independent judiciary body in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and having its seat in Cairo.

Article 175:

The Supreme Constitutional Court alone shall undertake the judicial control in respect of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations and shall undertake the interpretation of the legislative texts in the manner prescribed by law.
The law shall prescribe the other competences of the court, and regulate the procedures to be followed before it.

Article 176:

The law shall organize the way of formation of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and prescribe the conditions to be fulfilled by its members, their rights and immunities.

Article 177:

The status of the members of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be irrevocable. The Court shall call to account its members, in the manner prescribed by law.

Article 178:

The judgments issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court in constitutional cases, and its decisions concerning the interpretation of legislative texts shall be published in the Official Gazette. The law shall organize the effects subsequent to a decision concerning the unconstitutionality of a legislative text.

CHAPTER VI The Socialist Public Prosecutor

Article 179:

The Socialist Public Prosecutor shall be responsible for taking the measures which secure the peoples rights, the safety of the society and its political regime, the preservation of the socialist achievements and commitment to socialist behavior. The law shall prescribe his other competences. He shall be subject to the control of the Peoples Assembly in accordance with what is prescribed by law.

CHAPTER VII The Armed Forces and The National De fence Council

Article 180:

The State alone shall establish the Armed Forces, which shall belong to the people. Their task shall be to protect the country, safeguard its territory and security, and protect the socialist achievements of popular struggle.

No organization or group may establish military or semi military formations.
The law shall prescribe the conditions of service and promotion for the armed forces.

Article 181:

General mobilization shall be organized in accordance with the law.

Article 182:

A Council named "The National Defense Council " shall be established and presided over by the President of the Republic. It shall undertake the examination of matters pertaining to the methods ensuring the safety and security of the country. The law shall establish its other competences.

Article 183:

The law shall organize military judicature, prescribe its competences within the limits of the principles prescribed by the Constitution.

CHAPTER VIII The Police

Article 184:

Police authority shall be a civil disciplinary body. Its Supreme Chief shall be the President of the Republic.

Police Authority shall perform its duty in the service of the people maintain peace and security for the citizens, preserve order, public security and morality, and undertake the implementation of the duties imposed upon it by laws and regulations, in the manner prescribed by the law.