General Provisions


Unwavering in their faith and with an unswerving will to safeguard and develop a state which is established on the inextinguishable right of the Estonian people to national self-determination and which was proclaimed on February 24, 1918, which is founded on liberty, justice and law, which shall serve to protect internal and external peace and provide security for the social progress and general benefit of present and future generations, which shall guarantee the preservation of the Estonian nation and its culture throughout the ages, the Estonian people adopted, on the basis of Article 1 of the Constitution which entered into force in 1938, by Referendum held on June 28, 1992 the following Constitution:

Chapter I General Provisions

Article 1: Sovereignty

1. Estonia is an independent and sovereign democratic republic wherein the supreme power of the state is held by the people.

2. Estonian independence and sovereignty is interminable and inalienable.

Article 2: Territory

1. The land area, territorial waters and airspace of Estonia are an inseparable and indivisible whole.

2. Estonia is politically a unitary state wherein the division of its territory into administrative units shall be determined by law.

Article 3: Rule of Law, International Law

1. Governmental power shall be exercised solely on the basis of this Constitution and such laws, which are in accordance with the Constitution. Universally recognized principles and norms of international law shall be an inseparable part of the Estonian legal system.

2. Laws shall be published in the prescribed manner. Only laws, which have been published, shall have obligatory force.

Article 4: Separation of Powers

The work of the Parliament, the President of the Republic, the Government of the Republic, and the courts shall be organized on the principle of separate and balanced powers.

Article 5: Natural Resources

The natural wealth and resources of Estonia are national assets, which shall be used sparingly.

Article 6: Language

The official language of Estonia is Estonian.

Article 7: Symbols

The national colors of Estonia are blue, black and white. The dimensions of the national flag and the national coat-of-arms shall be determined by law.