Fundamental Principles of the Constitution

Chapter Two Fundamental Principles of the Constitution

Article 8: Sovereignty of the people

1. All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.

2. This Constitution is an expression of their sovereignty.

3. Their sovereignty shall be expressed through their representatives elected in accordance with this Constitution and through their direct democratic participation

Article 9: Supremacy of the Constitution

1. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Any law, customary practice or a decision of an organ of state or a public official which contravenes this Constitution shall be of no effect.

2. All citizens, organs of state, political organizations, other associations as well as their officials have the duty to ensure observance of the Constitution and to obey it.

3. It is prohibited to assume state power in any manner other than that provided under the Constitution.

4. All international agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land.

Article 10: Human and Democratic Rights

1. Human rights and freedoms, emanating from the nature of mankind, are inviolable and inalienable.

2. Human and democratic rights of citizens and peoples shall be respected.

Article 11: Separation of State and Religion

1. State and religion are separate.

2. There shall be no state religion.

3. The state shall not interfere in religious matters and religion shall not interfere in state affairs.

Article 12: Conduct and Accountability of Government
1. The conduct of affairs of government shall be transparent.

2. Any public official or an elected representative is accountable for any failure in official duties.

3. In case of loss of confidence, the people may recall an elected representative. The particulars of recall shall be determined by law.