General Provisions


In order to facilitate a peaceful political transition to a constitutional state, establish a multi-party system, parliamentary democracy and a social market economy, the Parliament of the Republic of Hungary hereby establishes the following text as the Constitution of the Republic of Hungary, until the country's new Constitution is adopted.

Article 1
Hungary is a Republic.

Article 2
(1) The Republic of Hungary is an independent and democratic constitutional state.

(2) In the Republic of Hungary all power belongs to the people. The people exercise their sovereignty through elected representatives or directly.

(3) In this country no activity, whether of a social or state organization, and no endeavour of any citizen, may be aimed at securing or exercising power by means of force, or at the exclusive possession of power. Anyone has the right and the duty to take action against such endeavours in any lawful manner.

Article 3
(1) In the Republic of Hungary, political parties may be freely founded and may act in freedom provided they show respect for the Constitution and the statutes of constitutional law.

(2) The parties are involved in registering and expressing the will of the people.

(3) The parties may not exercise public power directly. Accordingly, no party may control or direct any State organ. In order to ensure the effective separation of the parties from State power, the law determines the social and public offices that cannot be filled by any member or officer of any party.

Article 4
The trade unions and other interest organizations protect and represent the interests of employees, cooperative members, and of entrepreneurs.

Article 5
The State of the Republic of Hungary safeguards the freedom and power of the people, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country, and the boundaries registered in international treaties.

Article 6
(1) The Republic of Hungary repudiates war as a means of dealing with conflicts between nations and refrains from the use of force against the independence or territorial integrity of other states. It also refrains from making threats implying recourse to force.

(2) The Republic of Hungary is working for cooperation with all the peoples and countries of the world.

(3) The Republic of Hungary bears a sense of responsibility for what happens to Hungarians living outside of its borders and promotes the fostering of their relations with Hungary.

Article 7
(1) The legal system of the Republic of Hungary accepts the universally recognized rules and regulations of international law, and harmonizes the internal laws and statutes of the country with the obligations assumed under international law.

(2) The law regulates legislative procedures. The votes of two thirds of the Members of Parliament present are required for passing new legislation.

Article 8
(1) The Republic of Hungary recognizes the inviolable and inalianable rights of persons. Ensuring respect and protection for these rights is a primary obligation of the State.

(2) In the Republic of Hungary the law contains rules on fundamental rights and obligations, but must not impose any limitations on the essential contents and meaning of fundamental rights.

(3) Repealed

(4) In times of emergency, national crises, or extreme danger, the observation of fundamental rights may be suspended or their exercise curtailed - except for the fundamental rights specified in Articles 54 through 56, paragraphs (2) through (4) in Article 57, Articles 60, 66 through 69, and Article 70/E.

Article 9
(1) Hungary has a market economy in which public and private property are to receive equal consideration and protection under the law.

(2) The Republic of Hungary recognizes and supports the right to enterprise and the freedom of economic competition.

Article 10
(1) Any property of the Hungarian State is part of the country's national wealth.

(2) The full range of exclusive ownership by, and of the exclusive economic activities of, the State is determined by the law.

Article 11
State-owned companies and economic units operate independently in the manner and with the responsibility defined by the law.

Article 12
(1) The State supports cooperatives based on voluntary association and recognizes their autonomy.

(2) The State respects the assets and property of local governments.

Article 13
(1) The Republic of Hungary guarantees the right to property.

(2) Property may be expropriated only exceptionally when this is a matter of public interest, and only in the cases and in the manner regulated by law, unde r terms of full, unconditional and immediate indemnification.

Article 14
The Constitution guarantees the right of inheritance.

Article 15
The Republic of Hungary protects the institution of marriage and the family.

Article 16
The Republic of Hungary pays special attention to the secure existence, education and training of young people and protects the interests of youth.

Article 17
The Republic of Hungary sees to the wants of the needy through a long line of social measures.

Article 18
The Republic of Hungary recognizes and implements everyone's right to a healthy environment.