Rights and Duties of Citizens

Title I  Civil Rights
Article 13  Personal Liberty
(1) Personal liberty is inviolable.
(2) No one may be detained, inspected, or searched nor otherwise restricted in personal liberty except by order of the judiciary stating a reason and only in such cases and in such manner as provided by law.
(3) As an exception, under the conditions of necessity and urgency strictly defined by law, the police may take provisional measures that must be reported within 48 hours to the judiciary and, if they are not ratified within another 48 hours, are considered revoked and remain without effect.
(4) Acts of physical and moral violence against persons subjected to restrictions of personal liberty are to be punished.
(5) The law establishes the maximum duration of preventive detention.
Article 14  Personal Domicile
(1) Personal domicile is inviolable.
(2) No one's domicile may be inspected, searched, or seized save in cases and in the manner laid down by law conforming to the guarantee of personal liberty.
(3) Verifications and inspections for public health and safety, or for economic and fiscal purposes are defined by law.
Article 15  Freedom of Correspondence
(1) Liberty and secrecy of correspondence and other forms of communication are inviolable.
(2) Limitations may only be imposed by judicial decision stating the reasons and in accordance with guarantees defined by law.
Article 16  Freedom of Movement
(1) Every citizen has the right to reside and travel freely in any part of the national territory except for limitations provided by general laws protecting health or security.  No restriction may be imposed for political reasons.
(2) Every citizen is free to leave the territory of the republic and return to it except for obligations defined by law.
Article 17  Right of Assembly
(1) All citizens have the right to assemble peaceably and unarmed.
(2) For meetings, including those held in places to which the general public has access, no previous notice is required.
(3) For meetings held in public places previous notice must be given to the authorities, who may prohibit them only on the ground of proven risks to security or public safety.
Article 18  Freedom of Association
(1) Citizens have the right freely and without authorization to form associations for those aims not forbidden by criminal law.
(2) Secret associations and associations pursuing political aims by military organization, even if only indirectly, are forbidden.
Article 19  Freedom of Religion
Everyone is entitled to freely profess religious beliefs in any form, individually or with others, to promote them, and to celebrate rites in public or in private, provided they are not offensive to public morality.
Article 20  Religious Associations
For associations or institutions, their religious character or religious or confessional aims do not justify special limitations or fiscal burdens regarding their establishment, legal capacity, or activities.
Article 21  Freedom of Communication
(1) Everyone has the right to freely express thoughts in speech, writing, and by other communication.
(2) The press may not be controlled by authorization or submitted to censorship.
(3) Seizure is permitted only by judicial order stating the reason and only for offences expressly determined by the press law or for violation of the obligation to identify the persons responsible for such offences.
(4) In cases of absolute urgency where immediate judicial intervention is impossible, periodicals may be seized by the judicial police, who must immediately and in no case later than 24 hours report the matter to the judiciary.  If the measure is not validated by the judiciary within another 24 hours, it is considered revoked and has no effect.
(5) The law may, by general provision, order the disclosure of financial sources of periodical publications.
(6) Publications, performances, and other exhibits offensive to public morality are prohibited.  Measures of prevention and repression against violations are provided by law.
Article 22  Citizenship and Name
Nobody may be deprived of legal capacity, citizenship, or name for political reasons.
Article 23  Personal Services
Nobody may be forced to perform personal service or payment without legal provision.
Article 24  Right to be Heard in Court
(1) Everyone may bring cases before a court of law in order to protect their rights under civil and administrative law.
(2) Defense is an inviolable right at every stage and instance of legal proceedings.
(3) The poor are entitled by law to proper means for action or defense in all courts.
(4) The law defines the conditions and forms for reparation in the case of judicial errors.
Article 25  Defendant's Rights
(1) No case may be removed from a court, but must be heard as provided by law.
(2) No punishment is allowed except provided by a law already in force when the offence has been committed.
(3) Security measures against persons are only allowed as provided by law.
Article 26  Extradition
(1) A citizen may be extradited only as expressly provided by international conventions.
(2) In any case, extradition may not be permitted for political offences.
Article 27  Rights of the Accused
(1) Criminal responsibility is personal.
(2) The defendant may not be considered guilty until sentenced.
(3) Punishments may not contradict humanity and must aim at re-educating the convicted.
(4) Death penalty is prohibited except by military law in time of war.
Article 28  Responsibility of  Public Officials
State officials and employees of other public bodies are directly responsible under criminal, civil, and administrative law for acts committed in violation of rights.  Civil liability extends to the state and public bodies.
Title II  Ethical and Social Relations
Article 29  Marriage
(1) The familty is recognized by the republic as a natural association founded on marriage.
(2) Marriage entails moral and legal equality of the spouses within legally defined limits to protect the unity of the family.
Article 30  Parental Duties and Rights
(1) Parents have the duty and right to support, instruct, and educate their children, including those born out of wedlock.
(2) The law provides for the fulfillment of those duties should the parents prove incapable.
(3) Full legal and social protection for children born out of  wedlock is guaranteed by law, consistent with the rights of other family members.
(4) Rules and limits to determine paternity are set by law.
Article 31  Family
(1) The republic furthers family formation and the fulfillment of related tasks by means of economic and other provisions with special regard to large families.
(2) The republic protects maternity, infancy, and youth; it supports and encourages institutions needed for this purpose.
Article 32  Health
(1) The republic protects individual health as a basic right and in the public interest; it provides free medical care to the poor.
(2) Nobody may be forcefully submitted to medical treatment except as regulated by law.  That law may in no case violate the limits imposed by the respect for the human being.
Article 33  Freedom of Arts, Science and Teaching
(1) The arts and sciences as well as their teaching are free.
(2) The republic adopts general norms for education and establishes public schools of all kinds and grades
(3) Public and private bodies have the right to establish schools and educational institutes without financial obligations to the state.
(4) The law defining rights and obligations of those private schools requesting recognition has to guarantee full liberty to them and equal treatment with pupils of  public schools.
(5) Exams are defined for admission to various types and grades of schools, as final course exams, and for professional qualification.
(6) Institutions of higher learning, universities, and academies have the autonomy to establish by-laws within the limits of state law.
Article 34  Education
(1) Schools are open to everyone.
(2) Primary education, given for at least eight years, is compulsory and free of tuition.
(3) Pupils of ability and merit, even if lacking financial resources, have the right to attain the highest grades of studies.
(4) The republic furthers the realization of this right by scholarships, allowances to families, and other provisions, to be assigned through competitive examinations.
Title III  Economic Relations
Article 35  Labor
(1) The republic protects labor in all its forms.
(2) It provides for the training and professional enhancement of workers.
(3) It promotes and encourages international treaties and institutions aiming to assert and regulate labor rights.
(4) It recognizes the freedom to emigrate, except for legal limitations for the common good, and protects italian labor abroad.
Article 36  Wages
(1) Workers are entitled to remuneration commensurate with the quantity and quality of their work, and in any case sufficient to ensure to them and their families a free and honorable existence.
(2) The law establishes limits to the length of the working day.
(3) Workers are entitled to a weekly day of rest and to annual paid holidays; they cannot relinquish this right.
Article 37  Equality of Women at Work
(1) Working women are entitled to equal rights and, for comparable jobs, equal pay as men.  Working conditions habe to be such as to allow women to fulfill their essential family duties and ensure an adequate protection of mothers and children.
(2) The law defines a minimal age for paid labor.
(3) The republic establishes special measures protecting juvenile labor and guarantees equal pay for comparable work.
Article 38  Welfare
(1) All citizens unable to work and lacking the resources necessary for their existence are entitled to private and social assistance.
(2) Workers are entitled to adequate insurance for their needs in case of accident, illness, disability, old age, and involuntary unemployment.
(3) Disabled and handicapped persons are entitled to education and vocational training.
(4) These responsibilities are entrusted to public bodies and institutions established or supplemented by the state.
(5) Private welfare work is free.
Article 39  Trade Unions
(1) The organization of trade unions is free.
(2) No obligation may be imposed on trade unions except the duty to register at local or central offices as provided by law.
(3) Trade unions are only registered on condition that their by-laws lead to internal organization of democratic character.
(4) Registered trade unions are legal persons.  Being represented in proportion to their registered members, they may jointly enter into collective labor contracts which are mandatory for all who belong to the respective industry of these contracts.
Article 40  [Right to Strike]
The right to strike is exercised according to the law.
Article 41  [Freedom of Enterprise]
(1) Private economic enterprise is free.
(2) It may not be carried out against the common good or in a way that may harm public security, liberty, or human dignity.
(3) The law determines appropriate planning and controls so that public and private economic activities may be directed and coordinated towards social ends.
Article 42  Property
(1) Property is public or private. Economic goods may belong to the state, to public bodies, or to private persons.
(2) Private ownership is recognized and guaranteed by laws determining the manner of acquisition and enjoymend and its limits, in order to ensure its social function and to make it accessible to all.
(3) Private property, in cases determined by law and with compensation, may be expropriated for reasons of common interest.
(4) The law establishes the rules of legitimate and testamentary succession and its limits and the state's right to the heritage.
Article 43  Expropriation
To the end of the general good, the law may reserve establishment or transfer, by expropriation with compensation, to the state, public bodies, or workers or consumer communities, specific enterprises or categories of enterprises of primary common interest for essential public services or energy sources, or act as monopolies in the preeminate public interest.
Article 44  Land
(1) For the purpose of ensuring rational utilization of land and establishing equitable social relations, the law imposes obligations on and limitations to private ownership of land, defines its limits depending on the regions and the various agricultural areas, encourages and imposes land cultivation, transformation of large estates, and the reorganization of productive units; it assists small and medium sized farms.
(2) The law favors mountainous areas.
Article 45  Cooperatives and Handicrafts
(1) The republic recognizes the social function of cooperation for mutual benefit free of private speculation.  The law promotes and encourages its implementation with suitable provisions and ensures its character and purposes through proper controls.
(2) The law protects and promotes the development of handicrafts.
Article 46  Workers' Participation
In order to achieve the economic and social enhancement of labor and in accordance with the requirements of production, the republic recognizes the right of workers to collaborate, within the forms and limits defined by law, in the management of companies.
Article 47  Savings
(1) The republic encourages and protects savings in all its forms, regulates, coordinates and controls the provision of credit.
(2) It favors access savings for the purchase of homes, for worker-owned farms, and for direct or indirect investment in shares of the country's large productive enterprises.
Title IV  Political Rights
Article 48  Voting Rights
(1) All citizens, men or women, who have attained their majority are entitled to vote.
(2) Voting is personal, equal, free, and secret. Its exercise is a civic duty.
(3) The law defines the conditions under which the citizens residing abroad effectively exercise their electoral right. To this end, a constituency of italians abroad is established for the election of the Chambers, to which a fixed number of seats is assigned by constitutional law in accordance with criteria determined by law.
(4) The right to vote may not be limited except for incapacity, as a consequence of an irrevocable criminal sentence, or in cases of moral unworthiness established by law.
Article 49  Political Parties
All citizens have the right to freely associate in political parties in order to contribute by democratic methods to determine national policy.
Article 50  Petitions
All citizens may address petitions to the Chambers demanding legislative measures or presenting general needs.
Article 51  Public Offices
(1) Citizens of one or the other sex are eligible for public office and for elective positions under equal conditions, according to the rules established by law.  To this end, the republic adopts specific measures in order to promote equal chances for men and women.
(2) The law may, regarding their right to be selected for public positions and elective offices, grant to those italians who do not belong to the republic the same opportunities as citizens.
(3) Anyone elected to public office is entitled to the time necessary for the fulfillment of the respective duties while keeping his or her job.
Article 52  Military Service
(1) The defense of the fatherland is the sacred duty of every citizen.
(2) Military service is compulsory within the limits and under the terms of the law.  The fulfillment of military duties may not prejudice a citizen's position as an employee, nor the exercise of his political rights.
(3) The rules about armed forces must conform to the democratic spirit of the republic.
Article 53  Taxation
(1) Everyone has to contribute to public expenditure in proportion to their capacity.
(2) The tax system has to conform to the principle of progression.
Article 54  Loyalty to the Constitution
(1) All citizens have the duty to be loyal to the republic and to observe the constitution and the laws.
(2) Citizens entrusted with public functions must perform them with discipline and honor, and take an oath of office where required by law.