Title Seven

                                               General Considerations

Article 124. The powers not expressly granted by this Constitution to federal officials are understood to be reserved to the States.

Article 125. No individual may fill two popularly elected federal offices at the same time, nor one federal and one state office, also by popular election; but an elected candidate may choose which of the two he desires to hold.

Article 126. No payment may be made that is not included in the budget or provided for by a subsequent law.

Article 127. The President of the Republic, the members of the Supreme Court of Justice, the deputies and senators, and other elective public officials of the Federation shall receive a compensation for their services that shall be specified by law and paid by the federal Treasury. This compensation cannot be refused and any law that increases or decreases it shall not take effect during the term in which an official holds office.

Article 128. Every public official, without exception of any kind, before taking possession of his office, shall take an affirmation to uphold the Constitution and the laws emanating therefrom.

Article 129. No military authority may, in time of peace, perform any functions other than those that are directly connected with military affairs. There shall be fixed and permanent military commands only in the castles, forts, and warehouses immediately subordinate to the Government of the Union; or in encampments, barracks, or arsenals established for the quartering of troops outside towns.

Article 130.The federal powers shall exercise the supervision required by law in matters relating to religious worship and outward ecclesiastical forms. Other authorities shall act as auxiliaries of the Federation.

Congress cannot enact laws establishing or prohibiting any religion.

Marriage is a civil contract. This and other acts of a civil nature concerning persons are within the exclusive competence of civil officials and authorities, in the manner prescribed by law, and shall have the force and validity defined by said law.

A simple promise to tell the truth and to fulfill obligations that are contracted is binding on the one who so promises, and in the event of failure to do so, he shall be subject to the penalties that the law prescribes for this purpose.

The law does not recognize any personality in religious groups called churches.

Ministers of denominations shall be considered as persons who practice a profession and shall be directly subject to the laws enacted on such matters.

Only the legislatures of the States shall have the power to determine the maximum number of ministers of denominations necessary for local needs.

To practice the ministry of any denomination in the United Mexican States it is necessary to be a Mexican by birth.

Ministers of denominations may never, in a public or private meeting constituting an assembly, or in acts of worship or religious propaganda, criticize the fundamental laws of the country or the authorities of the Government, specifically or generally. They shall not have an active or passive vote nor the right to form associations for religious purposes.

Permission to dedicate new places of worship open to the public must be obtained from the Secretariat of Government, with previous consent of the government of the State. There must be in every church building a representative who is responsible to the authorities for compliance with the laws on religious worship in such building, and for the objects pertaining to the worship.

The representative of each church building, jointly with ten other residents of the vicinity, shall inform the municipal authorities immediately who is the person in charge of the church in question. Any change of ministry must be reported by the departing minister in person, accompanied by the new incumbent and ten other residents. The municipal authority, under penalty of removal from office and a fine of up to one thousand pesos for each violation, shall see that this provision is complied with; under the same penalty, he shall keep one registry book of church buildings and another of the representatives in charge. The municipal authority shall give notice to the Secretariat of Government, through the governor of the State, of every permit to open a new church building to the public, or of any changes among representatives in charge. Donations in the form of movable objects shall be kept in the interior of church buildings.

No privilege shall be granted or confirmed, nor shall any other step be taken which has for its purpose the validation in official courses of study, of courses pursued in establishments devoted to the professional training of ministers of religion. Any authority who violates this provision shall be criminally liable, and the privilege or step referred to shall be void and shall thereby cause the voidance of the professional degree for the attainment of which the violation of this provision was made.

Periodical publications of a religious character, whether they be such because of their program, title, or merely because of their general tendencies, may not comment on national political matters or public information on acts of the authorities of the country or of private persons directly related to the functioning of public institutions .

The formation of any kind of political group, the name of which contains any word or indication whatever that it is related to any religious denomination, is strictly prohibited. Meetings of a political character may not be held in places of worship.

A minister of any denomination may not himself or through an intermediary inherit or receive any real property occupied by any association for religious propaganda or for religious or charitable purposes. Ministers of denominations are legally incapacitated as testamentary heirs of ministers of the same denomination or of any private person who is not related to them within the fourth degree.

The acquisition by private parties of personal or real property owned by the clergy or by religious organizations shall be governed by Article 27 of this Constitution.

Trials for violation of the above provisions shall never be heard before a jury.

Article 131. The Federation has exclusive power to levy duties on goods that are imported or exported or that pass in transit through the national territory, as well as to regulate at all times, and even to prohibit, for police or security reasons, the circulation in the interior of the Republic of all classes of goods, regardless of origin; however, the Federation itself may not establish or enact, in the Federal District and the Territories, those taxes and laws mentioned in sections VI and VII of Article 117.

The Executive may be empowered by the Congress of the Union to increase, decrease, or abolish tariff rates on imports and exports, that were imposed by the Congress itself, and to establish others; likewise to restrict and to prohibit the importation, exportation, or transit of articles, products, and goods, when he deems this expedient for the purpose of regulating foreign commerce, the economy of the country, the stability of domestic production, or for accomplishing any other purpose to the benefit of the country The Executive himself, in submitting the fiscal budget to Congress each year, shall submit for its approval the use that he has made of this power.

Article 132. The forts, barracks, storage warehouses, and other buildings used by the Government of the Union for public service or for common use, shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the federal powers in accordance with provisions to be established in a law enacted by the Congress of the Union; but, in order that property acquired in the future within the territory of any State shall likewise be under federal jurisdiction, the consent of the respective legislature shall be necessary.

Article 133. This Constitution, the laws of the Congress of the Union that emanate therefrom, and all treaties that have been made and shall be made in accordance therewith by the President of the Republic, with the approval of the Senate, shall be the supreme law of the whole Union. The judges of each State shall conform to the said Constitution, the laws, and treaties, in spite of any contradictory provisions that may appear in the constitutions or laws of the States.

Article 134. All contracts that the Government may negotiate for the execution of public works shall be awarded by auction, after a call for bids to be submitted under seal and opened in public meeting.