Sovereignty Of Mongolia


We, the people of Mongolia:
  • Strengthening the independence and sovereignty of the nation,
  • Cherishing human rights and freedoms, justice and national unity,
  • Inheriting the traditions of national statehood, history and culture,
  • Respecting the accomplishments of human civilization, and
  • spiring toward the supreme objective of developing a human, civil, democratic society in the country.
Article 1
1. Mongolia is an independent, sovereign republic.
2. The supreme principles of the activities of the State shall be ensuranse of democracy, justice, freedom, equality and national unit and respect of law.

Article 2
1. By its state structure, Mongolia is a unitary State.
2. The territory of Mongolia shall be divided into administrative units only.

Article 3
1. State power shall be vested in the people of Mongolia. The people shall exercise state power through their direct participation in State affairs as well as through the representative bodies of State power elected by them.
2. Illegal seizure of State power or attempt to do so shall be prohibited.

Article 4
1. The territorial integrity and frontiers of Mongolia shall be inviolable.
2. The frontiers of Mongolia shall be safeguarded by law.
3. Stationing of foreign troops in the territory of Mongolia, allowing them to cross the State borders for the purpose of passing through the country's territory shall be prohibited unless an appropriate law is adopted.

Article 5
1. Mongolia shall have an economy based on different forms of property which takes into account universal trends of world economic development and national specifics.
2. The State recognizes all forms of both public and private property and shall protect the rights of the owner by law.
3. The owner's rights shall be limited exclusively by due process of law.
4. The State shall regulated the economy of the country with a view to ensure the nation's economic security, the development of all modes of production and social development of the population. 5. The livestock is national wealth and be protected by the State.

Article 6
1. The land, its subsoil, forests, water, fauna and flora and other natural resources in Mongolia shall belong exclusively to the people and be under the State protection.
2. The land, except those given to the citizen of Mongolia for private possession, as well as the subsoil with its mineral wealth, forest, water resources and game shall be the property of the State.
3. The State may give for private ownership plots of land, except pastures and areas under public utilization and special use, only to the citizens of Mongolia. This provision shall not apply to the ownership of the subsoil thereof. Citizens shall be prohibited to transfer the land in their possession to foreign nationals and stateless persons by way of selling, bartering, donating or pledging as well as transferring to others for exploitation without permission from competent State authorities.
4. The State shall have the right to hold responsible the land owners in connection with the manner the land is used, to exchange or take it over with compensation on the grounds of special public need, or confiscate the land if it is used in a manner adverse to the health of the population, the interests of environmental protection and national security.
5. The State may allow foreign nationals, legal persons and stateless persons to lease land for a specified period of time under conditions and procedures as provided for by law.

Article 7
1. Historical, cultural, scientific and intellectual heritages of the Mongolian people shall be under State protection.
2. Intellectual values produced by the citizens are the property of their authors and the national wealth of Mongolia.

Article 8
1. The Mongolian language is the official language of the State.
2. Section 1 of this Article shall not affect the right of national minorities of other tongues to use their native languages in education and communication and in the pursuit of cultural, artistic and scientific activities.

Article 9
1. The State shall respect religions and religions shall honor the State.
2. State institutions shall not engage in religious activities and the Religions institutions shall not pursue political activities.
3. The relationship between the State and the Religion institutions shall be regulated by law.

Article 10
1. Mongolia shall adhere to the universally recognized norms and principles of international law and pursue a peaceful foreign policy.
2. Mongolia shall fulfill in good faith its obligations under international treaties to which it is a Party.
3. The international treaties to which Mongolia is a Party, shall become effective as domestic legislation upon the entry into force of the laws on their ratification or accession.
4. Mongolia shall not abide by any international treaty or other instruments incompatible with its Constitution.

Article 11
1. The duty of the State is to secure the country's independence, ensure national security and public order.
2. Mongolia shall have armed forces for self-defense. The structure and organization of the armed forces and the rules of military service shall be determined by law.

Article 12
1. The symbols of the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia are the State Emblem, Banner, Flag, Seal and the Anthem.
2. The State Emblem, Banner, Flag and the Anthem shall express the historical tradition, aspiration, unity, justice and the spirit of the people of Mongolia.
3. The State Emblem shall be of circular shape with the white lotus serving as its base and the "never-ending Tumen Nasan" pattern forming its outer frame. The main background is of blue color signifying the eternal blue sky, the Mongols traditional sanctity. In the center of the Emblem a combination of the Precious Steed and the Golden Soyombo sign is depicted as an expression of the independence, sovereignty and spirit of Mongolia. In the upper part of the Emblem, the Chandmani ( Wish-granting Jewel ) sign symbolizes the past, the present and the future. In the lower part of the Emblem, the sign of the Wheel entwined with the silk scarf Hadag in an expression of reverence and respect, symbolizes continued prosperity. It is placed against the background of a "hill" pattern conveying the notion of "mother earth."
4. The traditional Great White Banner of the unified Mongolian State is a state ceremonial attribute.
5. The State Flag shall be a rectangle divided vertically into three equal parts colored red, blue, and red. The blue color of the center of the flag, symbolizes "the eternal blue sky" and the red color on both sides symbolizes progress and prosperity. The Golden Soyombo sign shall be depicted on the red stripe nearest to the flag pole. The ration of the width and length of the Flag shall be 1:2.
6. The State Seal having a lion-shaped handle, shall be of a square form with the State Emblem in the center and the words "Mongol Uls" (Mongolia) inscribed on both sides. The President shall be the holder of the State Seal.
7. The procedure for the ceremonial use of the State symbols and the text and melody of the State Anthem shall be prescribed by the law.

Article 13
1. The capital of the State shall be the city where the State Supreme bodies permanently sit. The capital city of Mongolia is the city of Ulaanbaatar.
2. The legal status of the capital city shall be defined by law.