Legislation and Administration

Section 1  Acts of Parliament and other regulations
 
Article 81
Acts of Parliament shall be passed jointly by the Government and the Parliament.
 
Article 82
(1) Bills may be presented by or on behalf of the King or by the Second Chamber of the Parliament.
(2) Bills which require consideration by a joint session of the Parliament may be presented by or on behalf of the King or by a joint session of the Parliament insofar as this is consistent with the relevant articles of Chapter 2.
(3) Bills to be presented by the Second Chamber or by a joint session of the Parliament shall be introduced in the Chamber or the joint session as the case may be by one or more members.
 
Article 83
Bills presented by or on behalf of the King shall be sent to the Second Chamber or to the joint session if consideration by a joint session of the Parliament is required.
 
Article 84
(1) A Bill presented by or on behalf of the King that has not yet been passed by the Second Chamber or by a joint session of the Parliament may be amended by the Chamber or the joint session as the case may be on the proposal of one or more members or by the Government.
(2) Any Bill being presented by the Second Chamber or a joint session of the Parliament that has not yet been passed may be amended by the Chamber or joint session as the case may be on the proposal of one or more members or by the member or members introducing the Bill.
 
Article 85
As soon as the Second Chamber passes a Bill or resolves to present a Bill, it shall send it to the First Chamber which shall consider the Bill as sent to it by the Second Chamber.  The Second Chamber may instruct one or more of its members to defend a Bill presented by it in the First Chamber.
 
Article 86
(1) A Bill may be withdrawn by or on behalf of the proposer until such time as it is passed by the Parliament.
(2) A Bill which is to be presented by the Second Chamber or by a joint session of the Parliament may be withdrawn by the member or members introducing it until such time as it is passed.
 
Article 87
(1) A Bill shall become an Act of Parliament once it has been passed by the Parliament and ratified by the King.
(2) The King and the Parliament shall inform each other of their decision on any Bill.
 
Article 88
The publication and entry into force of Acts of Parliament shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.  They shall not enter into force before they have been published.
 
Article 89
(1) General administrative orders shall be established by Royal Decree.
(2) Any regulations to which penalties are attached shall be embodied in such orders only in accordance with an Act of Parliament.  The penalties to be imposed shall be determined by Act of Parliament.
(3) Publication and entry into force of general administrative orders shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.  They shall not enter into force before they have been published.
(4) Paragraph (2) shall apply by analogy to other generally binding regulations laid down on behalf of the State for five years or until a time to be determined by or pursuant to Act of Parliament.  These regulations shall not enter into force until they have been published.
 
Section 2  Miscellaneous Provisions
 
Article 90
The Government shall promote the development of the international rule of law.
 
Article 91
(1) The Kingdom shall not be bound by treaties, nor shall such treaties be denounced without the prior approval of the Parliament.  The cases in which approval is not required shall be specified by Act of Parliament.
(2) The manner in which approval shall be granted shall be laid down by Act of Parliament, which may provide for the possibility of tacit approval.
(3) Any provisions of a treaty that conflict with the Constitution or which lead to conflicts with it may be approved by the Chambers of the Parliament only if at least two-thirds of the votes cast are in favor.
 
Article 92
Legislative, executive, and judicial powers may be conferred on international institutions by or pursuant to a treaty, subject, where necessary, to the provisions of Article 91 (3).
 
Article 93
Provisions of treaties and of resolutions by international institutions, which may be binding on all persons by virtue of their contents shall become binding after they have been published.
 
Article 94
Statutory regulations in force within the Kingdom shall not be applicable if such application is in conflict with provisions of treaties that are binding on all persons or of resolutions by international institutions.
 
Article 95
Rules regarding the publication of treaties and decisions by international institutions shall be laid down by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 96
(1) A declaration that the Kingdom is in a state of war shall not be made without the prior approval of the Parliament.
(2) Such approval shall not be required in cases where consultation with Parliament proves to be impossible as a consequence of the actual existence of a state of war.
(3) The two Chambers of the Parliament shall consider and decide upon the matter in joint session.
(4) The provisions of the first and third paragraphs shall apply by analogy to a declaration that a state of war has ceased.
 
Article 97
(1) All Dutch nationals who are capable of doing so shall have a duty to cooperate in maintaining the independence of the State and defending its territory.
(2) This duty may also be imposed on residents of the Netherlands who are not Dutch nationals.
 
Article 98
(1) To protect its interests, the State shall maintain Armed Forces consisting of volunteers and conscripts.
(2) The Government shall have supreme authority over the armed forces.
(3) Compulsory service in the armed forces shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.  The obligations which may be imposedon persons not belonging to the armed forces in relation to the defence of the country shall also be regulated by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 99
The conditions on which exemption is granted from military service because of serious conscientious objections shall be specified by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 100
Foreign troops shall not be employed other than pursuant to an Act of Parliament.
 
Article 101
If all or any of the persons liable for compulsory military service but not actually serving in the armed forces at the time are called up by Royal Decree in time of war or threat of war or in other exceptional circumstances, a Bill shall be presented to the Parliament forthwith to regulate where necessary their continued service in the armed forces.
 
Article 102
(1) All expenses in connection with the armies of the State shall be met from central government funds.
(2) No inhabitant or municipality may be required to assist with the billeting or maintenance of troops, or with transports or supplies of any description whatsoever requisitioned by the State for the armies or defenses of the country, other than in accordance with general rules laid down by Act of Parliament and upon payment of compensation.
(3) Exceptions to the general rules shall be laid down by Act of Parliament for application in time of war or threat of war or in other exceptional circumstances.
 
Article 103
(1) The cases in which a state of emergency, as defined by Act of Parliament, may be declared by Royal Decree in order to maintain internal or external security shall be specified by Act of Parliament.  The consequences of such a declaration shall be governed by Act of Parliament.
(2) Such a declaration may depart from the provisions of the Constitution relating to the powers of the executive bodies of the provinces, municipalities, and water control boards, the basic rights laid down in Article 6, insofar as the exercise of the right contained in this article other than in buildings and enclosed places is concerned, Articles 7, 8, 9, 12 (2), 13 and 113 (1) and (3).
(3) Immediately after the declaration of a state of emergency and whenever it considers it necessary, until such time as the state of emergency is terminated by Royal Decree, the Parliament shall decide the duration of the state of emergency.  The two Chambers of the Parliament shall consider and decide upon the matter in joint session.
 
Article 104
Taxes imposed by the State shall be levied pursuant to Act of Parliament.  Other levies imposed by the State shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 105
(1) The estimates of the State's revenues and expenditures shall be laid down by Act of Parliament.
(2) Bills containing general estimates shall be presented by or on behalf of the King every year on the date specified in Article 65.
(3) A statement of the State's revenues and expenditures shallbe presented to the Parliament in accordance with the provisions of the relevant Act of Parliament.  The balance sheet approved by the General Chamber of Audit shall be presented to the Parliament.
(4) Rules relating to the management of the State's finances shall be prescribed by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 106
The monetary system shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 107
(1) Civil law, criminal law and civil and criminal procedure shall be regulated by Act of Parliament in general legal codes without prejudice to the power to regulate certain matters in separate Acts of Parliament.
(2) The general rules of administrative law shall be laid down by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 108
(1) The establishment, powers and procedures of any general independent bodies for investigating complaints relating to actions of the authorities shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.
(2) Appointment to such bodies shall be made by the Second Chamber of the Parliament if their jurisdiction covers the actions of the central authorities.  Members may be dismissed in cases prescribed by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 109
The legal status of public servants shall be regulated by Act of Parliament.  Rules regarding employment protection and co-determination for public servants shall also be laid down by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 110
In the exercise of their duties government bodies shall observe the right of public access to information in accordance with rules to be prescribed by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 111
Honors shall be established by Act of Parliament.