The National Assembly

Article 40  [Parliament]
The legislative power is vested in the National Assembly
 
Article 41  [Election]
(1) The National Assembly is composed of members elected by universal, equal, direct, and secret ballot by the citizens.
(2) The number of members of the National Assembly is determined by law, but the number may not be less than 200.
(3) The constituencies of members of the National Assembly, proportional representation, and other matters pertaining to National Assembly elections are determined by law.
 
Article 42  [Term]
The term of office of members of the National Assembly is four years.
 
Article 43  [Incompatibility]
Members of the National Assembly may not concurrently hold any other office prescribed by law.
 
Article 44  [Immunity]
(1) During the sessions of the National Assembly, no member of the National Assembly may be arrested or detained without the consent of the National Assembly except in case of flagrante delicto.
(2) In case of apprehension or detention of a member of the National Assembly prior to the opening of a session, such member must be released during the session upon the request of the National Assembly, except in case of flagrante delicto.
 
Article 45  [Indemnity]
No member of the National Assembly can be held responsible outside the National Assembly for opinions officially expressed or votes cast in the Assembly.
 
Article 46  [Duties of Members]
(1) Members of the National Assembly have the duty to maintain high standards of integrity.
(2) Members of the National Assembly must give preference to National interests and perform their duties in accordance with conscience.
(3) Members of the National Assembly may not acquire, through abuse of their positions, rights, and interests in property or positions, or assist other persons to acquire the same, by means of contracts with or dispositions by the State, public organizations, or industries.
 
Article 47  [Sessions]
(1) A regular session of the National Assembly is convened once every year under the conditions prescribed by law, and extraordinary sessions of the National Assembly can be convened upon the request of the President or at least one-fourth of the members.
(2) The period of regular sessions cannot exceed a hundred days, and that of extraordinary sessions, thirty days.
(3) If the President requests the convening of an extraordinary session, the period of the session and the reasons for the request must be clearly specified.
 
Article 48  [Speakers]
The National Assembly elects one Speaker and two Vice-Speakers.
 
Article 49  [Quorum, Majority]
Except as otherwise provided in the Constitution or by law, the attendance of a majority of the total members, and the concurrent vote of a majority of the members present, are necessary for decisions of the National Assembly.  In case of a tie vote, the matter is regarded as rejected.
 
Article 50  [Publicity]
(1) Sessions of the National Assembly are open to the public: Provided, that when it is decided so by a majority of the members present, when the Speaker deems it necessary to do so for the sake of national security, they may be closed to the public.
(2) The public disclosure of the proceedings of sessions which were not open to the public is determined by law.
 
Article 51  [Pending Bills]
Bills and other matters submitted to the National Assembly for deliberation cannot be abandoned on the ground that they were not acted upon during the session in which they were introduced, except in a case where the term of the members of the National Assembly has expired.
 
Article 52  [Initiative]
Bills may be introduced by members of the National Assembly or by the Executive.
 
Article 53  [Passing Bills]
(1) Each bill passed by the National Assembly shall be sent to the Executive, and the President shall promulgate it within fifteen days.
(2) In case of objection to the bill, the President may, within the period referred to in Paragraph (1), return it to the National Assembly with written explanation of his objection, and request it be reconsidered.  The President may do the same during adjournment of the National Assembly.
(3) The President may not request the National Assembly to reconsider the bill in part, or with proposed amendments.
(4) In case there is a request for reconsideration of a bill, the National Assembly reconsiders it, and if the National Assembly repasses the bill in the original form with the attendance of more than one half of the total members, and with a concurrent vote of two-thirds or more of the members present, it becomes law.
(5) If the President does not promulgate the bill, or does not request the National Assembly to reconsider it within the period referred to in Paragraph (1) it becomes law.
(6) The President promulgate without delay the law as finalized under Paragraphs (4) and (5).  If the President does not promulgate a law within five days after it has become law under Paragraph (5), or after it has been returned to the Executive under Paragraph (4), the Speaker promulgates it.
(7) Except as provided otherwise, a law takes effect twenty days after the date of promulgation.
 
Article 54  [Budget]
(1) The National Assembly deliberates and decides upon the national budget bill.
(2) The Executive formulates the budget bill for each fiscal year and submits it to the National Assembly within ninety days before the beginning of a fiscal year.  The National Assembly decides upon it within thirty days before the beginning of the fiscal year.
(3) If the budget bill is not passed by the beginning of the fiscal year, the Executive may, in conformity with the budget of the previous fiscal year, disburse funds for the following purposes until the budget bill is passed by the National Assembly:
1) The maintenance and operation of agencies and facilities established by the Constitution or law;
2) Execution of the obligatory expenditures as prescribed by law; and
3) Continuation of projects previously approved in the budget.
 
Article 55  [Reserve Fund]
(1) In a case where it is necessary to make continuing disbursements for a period longer than one fiscal year, the Executive obtains the approval of the National Assembly for a specified period of time.
(2) A reserve fund is to be approved by the National Assembly in total.  The disbursement of the reserve fund shall be approved during the next session of the National Assembly.
 
Article 56  [Budget Amendment]
When it is necessary to amend the budget, the Executive may formulate a supplementary revised budget bill and submit it to the National Assembly.
 
Article 57  [Changes of Budget Bill]
The National Assembly shall, without the consent of the Executive, neither increase the sum of any item of expenditure nor create any new items of expenditure in the budget submitted by the Executive.
 
Article 58  [Issuing National Bonds]
When the Executive plans to issue national bonds or to conclude contracts which may incur financial obligations on the State outside the budget, it needs the prior concurrence of the National Assembly.
 
Article 59  [Taxes]
Types and rates of taxes are determined by law.
 
Article 60  [Consent to Treaties]
(1) The National Assembly has the right to consent to the conclusion and ratification of
treaties pertaining to mutual assistance or mutual security;
treaties concerning important international organizations;
treaties of friendship, trade and navigation;
treaties pertaining to any restriction in sovereignty;
peace treaties;
treaties which will burden the State or people with an important financial obligation; and
treaties related to legislative matters.
(2) The National Assembly also has the right to consent to the declaration of war, the dispatch of armed forces to foreign states, and the stationing of alien forces in the territory of the Republic of Korea.
 
Article 61  [Investigations]
(1) The National Assembly may inspect affairs of state or investigate specific matters of state affairs, and may demand the production of documents directly related thereto, the appearance of a witness in person, and the furnishing of testimony or statements of opinion.
(2) The procedures and other necessary matters concerning theinspection and investigation of state administration are determined by law.
 
Article 62  [Government in Parliament]
(1) The Prime Minister, members of the State Council, or government delegates may attend meetings of the National Assembly or its committees and report on the state administration or deliver opinions and answer questions.
(2) When requested by the National Assembly or its committees, the Prime Minister, members of the State Council, or government delegates have to attend any meeting of the National Assembly and answer questions.  If the Prime Minister or State Council members are requested to attend, the Prime Minister or State Council members may have State Council members or government delegates attend any meeting of the National Assembly and answer questions.
 
Article 63  [Recommendation for Removal]
(1) The National Assembly may pass a recommendation for the removal of the Prime Minister or a State Council member from office.
(2) A recommendation for removal as referred to in Paragraph (1) may be introduced by one third or more of the total members of the National Assembly, and passed with the concurrent vote of a majority of the total members of the National Assembly.
 
Article 64  [Proceedings, Disciplinary Actions]
(1) The National Assembly may establish the rules of its proceedings and internal regulations, provided that they are not in conflict with law.
(2) The National Assembly may review the qualifications of its members and may take disciplinary actions against its members.
(3) The concurrent vote of two-thirds or more of the total members of the National Assembly are required for the expulsion of any member.
(4) No action may be brought to court with regard to decisions taken under Paragraphs (2) and (3).
 
Article 65  [Impeachment]
(1) In case the President, the Prime Minister, members of the State Council, heads of Executive Ministries, judges of the Constitutional Court, judges, members of the Central Election Management Committee, members of the Board of Audit and Inspection, and other public officials designated by law have violated the Constitution or other laws in the performance of official duties, the National Assembly may pass motions for their impeachment.
(2) A motion for impeachment prescribed in Paragraph (1) may be proposed by one-third or more of the total members of the National Assembly, and requires a concurrent vote of a majority of the total members of the National Assembly for passage: Provided, that a motion for the impeachment of the President shall be proposed by a majority of the total members of the National Assembly and approved by two-thirds or more of the total members of the National Assembly.
(3) Any person against whom a motion for impeachment has been passed is suspended from exercising his power until the impeachment has been adjudicated.
(4) A decision on impeachment does not extend further than removal from public office.  However, it does not exempt the person impeached from civil or criminal liability.