The Guiding Principles of the State


In the name of God, the creator of man and people, the grantor of life and freedom, and the guiding legislator of all society.

We, the people of Sudan, with the help of God, cognisant of the lessons of history, and with the help of the revolution of National Salvation, have made this Constitution to establish a public order, which we undertake to respect and protect, so help us God.

Article 1
Nature of the State
The State of Sudan is a country of racial and cultural harmony and religious tolerance. Islam is the religion of the majority of the population and Christianity and traditional religions have a large following.

Article 2
Federal State
Sudan is a Federal Republic governed at its highest level of authority in accordance with a federal system of government based on the Constitution and at the local level it is governed by local councils acting in accordance with the law. The government shall ensure participation, (consultation) shura and mobilization, respect for justice in the division of power and wealth.

Article 3
Arabic is the official language in the Republic of Sudan. The State permits the development of local languages and other international languages.

Article 4
Supremacy and Sovereignty
God, the creator of all people, is supreme over the State and sovereignty is delegated to the people of Sudan by succession, to be practiced as worship to God, performing his trust, developing the homeland, and spreading justice, freedom and shura in accordance with the Constitution and laws.

Article 5
Flag, Emblem, Medals, Feasts
The State flag, emblem, medals and feast days are determined by law.

Article 6
National Unity
Sudan is united by the spirit of loyalty and compromise among its citizens, cooperation in the fair and just distribution of authority and of national resources. The State and society shall work together to foster the spirit of reconciliation and national unity among all Sudanese people, to guard against religious parties, political sectarianism and to eliminate ethnic prejudices.

Article 7
Defence of Sudan
Defense of the motherland is an honor and Jihad is a duty. The State is responsible for the popular armed forces and their defense of the political and territorial integrity of Sudan and the State shall care for the wounded in war and martyrs' families.

Article 8
National Economy
The State directs the growth of the national economy guided by planning on the basis of work, production and free market to prevent monopoly, usury, cheating, and to ensure national self-sufficiency, abundance, blessings and the aims of justice among states and regions.

Article 9
Natural Resources
All natural resources under the ground, on its surface or within the territorial waters of Sudan are public property and shall be in governed by law. The State shall prepare plans and prompt the appropriate conditions for procuring the financial and human resources necessary to exploit these resources.

Article 10
Zakat and Other Financial Obligations
Zakat is a financial obligations collected by the State and its collection, expenditure and administration shall be in accordance with law. Inheritance (waqf), donations and self-help are voluntary, but encouraged by the State in accordance with law. Taxes, financial transaction fees and other financial obligations are subject to law.

Article 11
Justice and Social Solidarity
The Republic of Sudan shall guard justice and prompt social solidarity to establish a basic structure of society that provides the highest standard of living for every citizen and fairly distributes the national income, curtailing excesses and preventing the exploitation of the vulnerable, elderly and handicapped.

Article 12
Science, Arts and Culture
The State mobilizes its official resources and the popular institutions for combating illiteracy and ignorance, strengthening educational systems, and promoting science, research, scientific cooperation and facilitating access to education and research. It also encourages all forms of arts and seeks to encourage society to adopt religious values, piety, and activities beneficial to social development.

Article 13
Public Health, Sport and Environment
The State shall promote public health, encourage sports and protect the natural environment, its purity and its natural balance, to ensure safe, sustainable development for the benefit of all future generations.

Article 14
Children and Youth
The State shall care for children and youth, protect them from physical and spiritual exploitation and neglect, and shall implement policies for moral care and national education and religious values to ensure good future generations.

Article 15
Family and Women
The State shall care for the family, facilitate marriages, develop population policies, provide child care, care for pregnant women, liberate women from injustices in all aspects of life, encourage women's role in the family and public life.

Article 16
Social Morals and Unity
The State will seek by laws and directive policies to purge society from corruption, crime, delinquency and the consumption of alcohol by Muslims. The State shall also encourage society to adopt good customs, noble traditions, righteous manners, encourage the individual to participate effectively in the social life, and protect the unity of the country, the stability of government and the development of its civilization in conformity with admirable ideals.

Article 17
Foreign Policy
The Republic of Sudan's foreign policy is conducted with pride, independence, openness and cooperation for the purpose of advocating the message of admirable principles to benefit the whole country and all humanity. This shall be achieved especially through the promotion of international peace and security; the promotion of the peaceful settlement of international disputes; enhancing cooperation with all countries in all aspects of life; observing the principles of good neighbourliness; non-interference in the internal affairs of others; respect for the basic rights, freedoms, duties and religious freedom for all people; ecumenical and cross-cultural dialogue to exchange benefits; and the strengthening of "international systems" based on justice, shura, good principles and the unity of humanity.

Article 18
Those working for the state and those in public life should worship God in their daily lives, for Muslims this is through observing the Holy Quran and the ways of the Prophet, and all people shall preserve the principles of religion and reflect this in their planning, laws, policies, and official work or duties in the fields of politics, economics, and social and cultural activities; with the end of striving towards the societal aim of justice and righteousness, and towards achieving the salvation of the kingdom of God.

Article 19
Directive Principles
The directive principles are the general goals that the institutions and employees of government shall observe in all their undertakings and in the desire to achieve a government directed by them. No court or law can limit or enforce these principles. They are to be observed in all projects and policies of the executive branch of government and to be developed by the legislative branch in its laws, advice, investigations. All servants of the State shall work to implement them.