Freedoms, Rights and Responsibilities

Chapter One Individual Rights

Article 20
Liberty and Life
Everyone has the right to life and liberty and security of person in accordance with the law. Everyone shall be free and no one shall be held in slavery or servitude or degraded or tortured.

Article 21
Liberty and Right of Equality
All persons are equal before the law. Sudanese are equal in the rights and duties of public life without discrimination based on race, sex or religion. All persons are equal in eligibility for public office and civil service positions without preference due to wealth.

Article 22
Everyone born of a Sudanese mother or father has the inalienable right to Sudanese nationality, its duties, and obligations. Everyone who has lived in Sudan during their youth or who has been resident in Sudan for several years has the right to Sudanese nationality in accordance with law.

Article 23
Freedom of Movement
Every citizen has the right to freedom of movement and residence in the country, to leave and return to the country, and these rights shall not be restricted except in accordance with law.

Article 24
Right to Religion or Conscience
Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience and religion and the right to manifest and disseminate his religion or belief in teaching, practice or observance. No one shall be coerced to profess a faith in which he does not believe or perform rituals or worship that he does not voluntarily accept. This right shall be exercised in a manner that does not harm public order or the feelings of others, and in accordance with law.

Article 25
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Every citizen has the right to seek any knowledge or adopt any faith, in opinion or thought, without being coerced by the authorities. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression, to receive information, to publish and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to restrictions necessary to security, public order, public safety, public morals and in accordance with law.

Article 26
Freedom of Succession and Organization [Association]
1. All citizens have the right to freedom of succession and organization for cultural, social, economic, professional or trade union purposes, without restriction except in accordance with law.

2. All citizens have the right to organize political succession. This right may only be limited by the conditions of shura, democracy in the leadership of the organization and the duty to campaign non-violently for their organization without using material wealth and bound by the provisions of the constitution and in accordance with law.

Article 27
Minorities and Cultural Rights
Every sect or group of citizens have the right to keep their particular culture, language or religion, and to voluntarily bring up their children within the framework of these traditions. It is prohibited to impose one's traditions on children by coercion.

Article 28
Right to Property
1. Every one has the right to monetary earnings and to his ideas, and retains ownership over his earnings. The state may not confiscate his money, land, invention, production or scientific or literary products, except by law to enforce public sharing, for the public interest and only in exchange for just compensation.

2. There may be no taxes or fees or other financial impositions except in accordance with law.

Article 29
Privacy of Residence and Communication
1. All citizens are allowed freedom of communication and correspondence. Confidentiality is guaranteed and no communication or correspondence may be observed or recorded except as provided by law.

2. Personal privacy of residence, living quarters, households and family are sacred and they may not be investigated except by permission or as provided by law.

Article 30
Security of Person
Everyone is free and shall not be arrested, detained or imprisoned except in accordance with law which shall prescribe the charge, the maximum time limit that one may be held without charge, the means of release and the conditions of treatment while in detention.

Article 31
Effective Remedies and Liberty
All persons have a right to an effective remedy and no person may be subjected to criminal proceedings or deprived of the right to bring a claim at law, except in accordance with law.

Article 32
Rights of Defendants
A suspect of a crime is innocent until convicted and has the right to a speedy and just trial and the right to defend himself.

Article 33
Death Penalty
1. The death penalty may not be imposed except as chastisement or punishment for the most serious very serious crimes in accordance with law.

2. A sentence of death shall not be imposed by crimes committed by persons below eighteen years-of-age and shall not be carried out on pregnant or lactating women, except two years after the birth, or on those above the age of seventy except when they have committed crimes of qisas or hadud.

Article 34
Protection of Constitutional Rights
Every injured or harmed person who has exhausted all his executive and administrative remedies has the right to appeal to the Constitutional Court to protect the sacred liberties and rights contained in this Part.
The Constitutional Court in exercise of its authority may annul any law or order that is not in accordance with the Constitution and order compensation for damages.

Chapter Two Responsibilities of Citizens

Article 35
Public Duties (and their Supervision)
1. Every citizen has the duty:
  1. to be loyal to the Republic of Sudan and not to support its enemies;
  2. to defend the country and respond to the Jihad call and national service;
  3. to respect the Constitution and law and to respect and obey legitimate legal institutions and the legal, financial and practical obligations they impose;
  4. to protect public funds, property, utilities and combat corruption and sabotage;
  5. to participate by opinions and public advice and to encourage others to do good deeds and to forbid others from doing bad deeds;
  6. to show respect for the sacredness of society and its public interests and to preserve a righteous environment, morality and justice;
  7. to participate in economic activities, public development, and to cooperate in charity, and to participate in national obligations concerning production;
  8. to practice the rights and duties granted to him to improve public work, society and state leadership.
2. The duties of the citizens are general obligations governed by conscience and the supervising society. They are the source of policies and legislation, which may provide for penalties for non-compliance.