ARTICLE 99. Judicial authority in Turkmenistan is vested solely with the courts. The judiciary is designed to protect citizens’ rights and freedoms and the law-protected interests of state and society.

ARTICLE 100. Judicial authority is exercised by the Supreme Court of Turkmenistan and other courts as provided in the law. No extraordinary courts or other entities with the authority of a court are allowed.

ARTICLE 101. The judges are independent, bound only by the law and guided by internal conviction. Intervention in the work of any judge by anybody is inadmissible and entails responsibility under the law. The inviolability of the judge is guaranteed by the law.

ARTICLE 102. Judges of all courts are appointed by the President. The law defines the procedure of appointing and dismissing judges, as well as the term of their service. A judge may be dismissed from office prior to expiration of his term only based on criteria stipulated in the law.

ARTICLE 103. A judge may not hold any other paid job, except for teaching, art and science.

ARTICLE 104. Cases are examined in courts collectively, and in instances envisaged by the law, singly by the judge.

ARTICLE 105. All courts examine cases openly. A case hearing in closed sitting is admitted only in instances envisaged by the law and with the observance of all rules governing legal proceedings.

ARTICLE 106. Legal proceedings are conducted in the state language. Persons involved in a case who do not speak the language in which the legal proceedings are conducted have the right to study the case and participate in court proceedings with the help of an interpreter, and also the right to address the court in their native languages.

ARTICLE 107. Justice is administered on the basis of competition and equality of the parties. The parties have the right to appeal against decisions, sentences and other rulings of all courts of Turkmenistan.

ARTICLE 108. The right to qualified legal support is recognized in any stage of the legal proceedings.

Legal support to citizens and organizations is provided by lawyers and other persons and organizations.

ARTICLE 109. The laws define the competence and the formation and operation procedures of the courts.