Legislative Department

Section V-1: Legislature - Authority and composition - Powers reserved to people.

  The Legislative authority of the State shall be vested in a
Legislature, consisting of a Senate and a House of
Representatives; but the people reserve to themselves the power
to propose laws and amendments to the Constitution and to enact
or reject the same at the polls independent of the Legislature,
and also reserve power at their own option to approve or reject
at the polls any act of the Legislature.

Section V-2: Designation and definition of reserved powers - Determination of percentages.

  The first power reserved by the people is the initiative, and
eight per centum of the legal voters shall have the right to
propose any legislative measure, and fifteen per centum of the
legal voters shall have the right to propose amendments to the
Constitution by petition, and every such petition shall include
the full text of the measure so proposed.  The second power is
the referendum, and it may be ordered (except as to laws
necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace,
health, or safety), either by petition signed by five per centum
of the legal voters or by the Legislature as other bills are
enacted.  The ratio and per centum of legal voters herein before
stated shall be based upon the total number of votes cast at the
last general election for the State office receiving the highest
number of votes at such election.

Section V-3: Petitions - Veto power - Elections - Time of taking effect - Style of bills - Duty of legislature.

  Referendum petitions shall be filed with the Secretary of State
not more than ninety (90) days after the final adjournment of the
session of the Legislature which passed the bill on which the
referendum is demanded.  The veto power of the Governor shall not extend to measures voted on by the people.  All elections on
measures referred to the people of the state shall be had at the
next election held throughout the state, except when the
Legislature or the Governor shall order a special election for
the express purpose of making such reference.  Any measure
referred to the people by the initiative or referendum shall take
effect and be in force when it shall have been approved by a
majority of the votes cast thereon and not otherwise.
  The style of all bills shall be:  "Be it Enacted By the People
of the State of Oklahoma."
  Petitions and orders for the initiative and for the referendum
shall be filed with the Secretary of State and addressed to the
Governor of the state, who shall submit the same to the people.
The Legislature shall make suitable provisions for carrying into
effect the provisions of this article.

Section V-4: Referendum against part of act.

  The referendum may be demanded by the people against one or
more items, sections, or parts of any act of the Legislature in
the same manner in which such power may be exercised against a
complete act.  The filing of a referendum petition against one or
more items, sections, or parts of an act shall not delay the
remainder of such act from becoming operative.

Section V-5: Reservation of powers to voters of counties and districts - Manner of exercising.

  The powers of the initiative and referendum reserved to the
people by this Constitution for the State at large, are hereby
further reserved to the legal voters of every county and district
therein, as to all local legislation, or action, in the administration of county and district government in and for their respective counties and districts.  The manner of exercising said powers shall be prescribed by general laws, except that Boards of County Commissioners may provide for the time of exercising the
initiative and referendum powers as to local legislation in their
respective counties and districts.
  The requisite number of petitioners for the invocation of the
initiative and referendum in counties and districts shall bear
twice, or double, the ratio to the whole number of legal voters
in such county or district, as herein provided therefor in the
State at large.

Section V-5a: Township organization or government - Abolition and restoration.

  Each county in the State of Oklahoma may by a majority of the
legal voters of such county voting upon the proposition, abolish
township organization or government.  The Board of County
Commissioners of such county, upon a petition signed by sixteen
per centum of the total number of votes cast at the last general
election for the county office receiving the highest number of
votes, praying that the question of abolishing township
organization or government be submitted to a vote of the county,
shall within thirty days after the regular meeting of such board
next convening after the filing of such petition, call a special
election for such purpose, or the board may in their discretion
submit such question at the next general election held after the
filing of such petition. If such question shall be carried, township organization or government shall cease in such county, and all the duties theretofore performed by the township officers shall be cast upon and be performed by such county officers having like duties to perform in relation to the county at large as such township officers performed in relation to the township at large.  At any general election after the abolition of township organization or government the question of returning to township government may be submitted as provided for the submission of the question of abolishing such government, and if a majority of the votes cast upon such question be in favor of township government the same shall thereupon be established, and the Board of County Commissioners shall appoint the full quota of township officers, who shall hold their offices and perform the duties thereof until their successors shall have been elected at the next general election and until they have been qualified.
Except as otherwise specifically provided by this section, the
law relating to carrying into effect the initiative and referendum provisions of the Constitution shall govern.  

Section V-6: Subsequent proposal of rejected measure.

  Any measure rejected by the people, through the powers of the
initiative and referendum, cannot be again proposed by the
initiative within three years thereafter by less than twenty-five
per centum of the legal voters.

Section V-7: Powers of Legislature not affected.

  The reservation of the powers of the initiative and referendum
in this article shall not deprive the Legislature of the right to
repeal any law, propose or pass any measure, which may be
consistent with the Constitution of the State and the
Constitution of the United States.

Section V-8: Prevention of corruption.

  Laws shall be provided to prevent corruption in making,
procuring, and submitting initiative and referendum petitions.

Section V-9A: Senatorial districts - Tenure.

  The state shall be apportioned into forty-eight senatorial
districts in the following manner:  the nineteen most populous
counties, as determined by the most recent Federal Decennial
Census, shall constitute nineteen senatorial districts with one
senator to be nominated and elected from each district; the
fifty-eight less populous counties shall be joined into twenty-nine two-county districts with one senator to be nominated and elected from each of the two-county districts.  In apportioning the State Senate, consideration shall be given to population, compactness, area, political units, historical precedents, economic and political interests, contiguous territory, and other major factors, to the extent feasible.
  Each senatorial district, whether single county or multi-county, shall be entitled to one senator, who shall hold office for four years; provided that any senator, serving at the time of the adoption of this amendment, shall serve the full time for which he was elected.  Vitalization of senatorial districts shall provide for one-half of the senators to be elected at each general election.  

Section V-10A: House of Representatives - Number of members - Formula - Tenure.

  The House of Representatives shall consist of the number of
Representatives as determined by the formula and procedure set
forth herein.  The number of members of the House of
Representatives to which each county shall be entitled shall be
determined according to the following formula:
  a.  The total population of the state as ascertained by the
most recent Federal Decennial Census shall be divided by the
number one hundred and the quotient shall be the ratio of
representation in the House of Representatives, except as
otherwise provided in this Article.
  b.  Every county having a population less than one full ratio
shall be assigned one Representative; every county containing an
entire ratio but less than two ratios shall be assigned two
Representatives; every county containing a population of two
entire ratios but less than three ratios shall be assigned three
Representatives; and every county containing a population of
three entire ratios but less than four ratios shall be assigned
four Representatives.
  After the first four Representatives, a county shall qualify
for additional representation on the basis of two whole ratios of
population for each additional Representative. Each Representative nominated and elected shall hold office for two years.  

Section V-11A: Legislature to apportion Legislature - Failure to make apportionment - Apportionment Commission.

  The apportionment of the Legislature shall be accomplished by
the Legislature according to the provisions of this article,
within ninety (90) legislative days after the convening of the
first regular session of the Legislature following each Federal
Decennial Census.  If the Legislature shall fail or refuse to
make such apportionment within the time provided herein, then
such apportionment shall be accomplished by an Apportionment
Commission composed of the Attorney General, Superintendent of
Public Instruction and the State Treasurer of the State of
Oklahoma according to the provisions of this article.

Section V-11B: Order of apportionment rendered by Commission.

  Each order of apportionment rendered by the Apportionment
Commission shall be in writing and shall be filed with the
Secretary of State and shall be signed by at least two members of
the Commission.

Section V-11C: Review of apportionment orders - Failure to seek review.

  Any qualified elector may seek a review of any apportionment
order of the Commission, or apportionment law of the legislature,
within sixty days from the filing thereof, by filing in the Supreme Court of Oklahoma a petition which must set forth a proposed apportionment more nearly in accordance with this Article.  Any apportionment of either the Senate or the House of Representatives, as ordered by the Commission, or apportionment
law of the legislature, from which review is not sought within
such time, shall become final.  The court shall give all cases
involving apportionment precedence over all other cases and
proceedings; and if said court be not in session, it shall
convene promptly for the disposal of the same.  

Section V-11D: Determination by Supreme Court.

  Upon review, the Supreme Court shall determine whether or not
the apportionment order of the Commission or act of the
legislature is in compliance with the formula as set forth in
this Article and, if so, it shall require the same to be filed or
refiled as the case may be with the Secretary of State forthwith,
and such apportionment shall become final on the date of said
writ.  In the event the Supreme Court shall determine that the
apportionment order of said Commission or legislative act is not
in compliance with the formula for either the Senate or the House
of Representatives as set forth in this Article, it will remand
the matter to the Commission with directions to modify its order
to achieve conformity with the provisions of this Article.  

Section V-11E: Compelling Commission to act - Consolidation of proceedings.

  The Supreme Court, upon petition of any qualified elector
alleging failure of the Commission to timely act, is hereby vested with original jurisdiction to compel, and shall compel, the Commission to make the apportionment as herein provided.  It
shall also have exclusive jurisdiction of any review hereunder.
If more than one petition be filed, the court shall consolidate
such proceedings for hearing and disposition, and shall file its
opinion and issue its writ within sixty days from the timely filing of such last petition.  In the event any action filed hereunder shall be abandoned or dismissed, any other qualified elector shall be allowed to intervene within ten days thereof.

Section V-17: Age - Qualified electors - Residents.

  Members of the Senate shall be at least twenty-five years of
age, and members of the House of Representatives twenty-one years of age at the time of their election.  They shall be qualified
electors in their respective counties or districts and shall reside in their respective counties or districts during their term of office.

Section V-17A: Limitation of time served in the Legislature.

    Any member of the Legislature who is elected to office after the
effective date of this amendment shall be eligible to serve no more
than 12 years in the Oklahoma State Legislature.  Years in Legislative office need not be consecutive and years of service in both the Senate and the House of Representatives shall be added together and included in determining the total number of Legislative years in office.  The years served by any member elected or appointed to serve less than a full Legislative term to fill a vacancy in office shall not be included in the 12-year limitation set forth herein; but no member who has completed 12 years in office shall thereafter be eligible to serve a partial term.  Any member who is serving a Legislative term in office or who has been elected or appointed to serve a term in office on the effective date hereof shall be entitled to complete his or her term and shall be eligible to serve an additional 12 years thereafter. This amendment shall be effective on the 1st day of the year following its adoption.

Section V-18: Ineligibility - Federal and state officers - Conviction of felony.

  No person shall serve as a member of the Legislature who is, at
the time of such service, an officer of the United States or
State government, or is receiving compensation as such; nor shall
any person be eligible to election to the Legislature, who has
been adjudged guilty of a felony.

Section V-19: Expelled member ineligible - Punishment not to bar indictment.

  A member of the Legislature expelled for corruption shall not
thereafter be eligible to membership in either House.  Punishment
for contempt or disorderly conduct, or for any other cause, shall
not bar an indictment for the same offense.

Section V-20: Vacancies.

  The Governor shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in the Legislature.

Section V-21: Conflict of interests prohibited - Board on Legislative Compensation.

  The Legislature shall enact laws to prohibit members of the
Legislature from engaging in activities or having interests which
conflict with the proper discharge of their duties and
responsibilities.  The Board on Legislative Compensation is
hereby created.  Said Board shall be composed of five members
appointed by the Governor, two members appointed by the President.
Pro Tempore of the Senate, and two members appointed by the
Speaker of the House of Representatives.  The members appointed
by the Governor shall be from religious organizations,
communications media, non state-supported educational
institutions, labor organizations, and retail business;  the
members appointed by the President Pro Temp ore of the Senate
shall be from agricultural and civic organizations; and the
members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall be from manufacturing and from professional fields not otherwise specified.  No member of the Legislature may be appointed to or serve on the Board.  In addition to the members
above provided for, the Chairman of the Tax Commission and the
Director of State Finance shall serve as ex official nonvoting
members of said Board.  The Chairman of said Board shall be
designated by the Governor.  Members of the Legislature shall
receive such compensation as shall be fixed by the Board on
Legislative Compensation.  Said Board shall each two years review
the compensation paid to the members of the Legislature and shall
be empowered to change such compensation; such change to become effective on the fifteenth day following the succeeding general election.  The members of the Board shall serve without
compensation, but shall be entitled to receive necessary travel
and subsistence expense as provided by law for other state
officers.

Section V-22: Privileges - Arrest - Speeches or debates.

  Senators and Representatives shall, except for treason, felony,
or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the
session of the Legislature, and in going to and returning from
the same, and, for any speech or debate in either House, shall
not be questioned in any other place.

Section V-23: Ineligibility to appointment to office - Interest in contracts.

  No member of the Legislature shall, during the term for which
he was elected, be appointed or elected to any office or
commission in the State, which shall have been created, or the
emoluments of which shall have been increased, during his term of
office, nor shall any member receive any appointment from the
Governor, the Governor and Senate, or from the Legislature,
during the term for which he shall have been elected, nor shall
any member, during the term for which he shall have been elected,
or within two years thereafter, be interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with the State, or any county or other subdivision thereof, authorized by law passed during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Section V-24: Disclosure of personal or private interest.

  A member of the Legislature, who has a personal or private
interest in any measure or bill, proposed or pending before the
Legislature, shall disclose the fact to the House of which he is
a member, and shall not vote thereon.

Section V-25: Duration of first session.

  The first session of the Legislature, held by virtue of this
Constitution, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty days.

Section V-26: Regular sessions.

    The Legislature shall meet in regular session at the seat of
government at twelve o'clock noon on the first Monday in February of each year and the regular session shall be finally adjourned sine die not later than five o'clock p.m. on the last Friday in May of each
year.
    The Legislature shall also meet in regular session at the seat of
government on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January of each odd numbered year, beginning at twelve o'clock noon for the purposes only of performing the duties as required by Section 5 of Article VI of the Constitution and organizing pursuant to the
provisions of this Article and shall recess not later than five
o'clock p.m. of that same day until the following first Monday in
February of the same year, beginning at twelve o'clock noon.

Section V-27: Special sessions.

  The Legislature shall hold regular annual sessions as herein
provided, but this shall not prevent the calling of special sessions of the Legislature by the Governor.  

Section V-27A: Special sessions.

  (1) The Legislature may be called into special session by a
written call for such purposes as may be specifically set out in
the call, signed by two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the Senate
and two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the House of
Representatives when it is filed with the President Pro Tempore
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives who shall issue jointly an order for the convening of the special
session.
  (2) Nothing in this section shall prevent the calling of a special session of the Legislature by the Governor, as provided by the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma.

Section V-28: Senate - President pro tempore - Standing committees.

  The Senate shall, at the beginning of each regular session and
at such other times as may be necessary, elect one of its members
President pro tempore, who shall preside over its deliberations
in the absence or place of the Lieutenant Governor; and the
Senate shall provide for all its standing committees and, by a
majority vote, elect the members thereof.

Section V-29: Speaker of House of Representatives.

  The House of Representatives shall, at the beginning of each
regular session and at such other times as may be necessary,
elect one of its members Speaker.

Section V-30: Judges of election of members - Quorum - Rules - Disorderly behavior - Journal.

  Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may
adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the
attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such
penalty as each House may provide.
  Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of
two-thirds, expel a member.
  Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same.  The yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question, at the desire of one-fifteenth of those present shall be entered upon its journal.
  Neither House, during the session of the Legislature, shall,
without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three
days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses
shall be sitting.

Section V-31: Elections by Legislature - Voting and entry in journal.

  In all elections made by the Legislature, except for officers
and employees thereof, the members thereof shall vote yea or nay, and each vote shall be entered upon the journal.

Section V-32: Special and local laws - Notice of intended introduction.

  No special or local law shall be considered by the Legislature
until notice of the intended introduction of such bill or bills
shall first have been published for four consecutive weeks in
some weekly newspaper published or of general circulation in the
city or county affected by such law, stating in substance the
contents thereof, and verified proof of such publication filed
with the Secretary of State.

Section V-33: Revenue bills - Origination - Amendment - Limitations on passage - Effective date - Submission to voters.

    A.  All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives.  The Senate may propose amendments to revenue bills.
    B.  No revenue bill shall be passed during the five last days of
the session.
    C.  Any revenue bill originating in the House of Representatives
shall not become effective until it has been referred to the people
of the state at the next general election held throughout the state
and shall become effective and be in force when it has been approved by a majority of the votes cast on the measure at such election and not otherwise, except as otherwise provided in subsection D of this section.
    D.  Any revenue bill originating in the House of Representatives
may become law without being submitted to a vote of the people of the state if such bill receives the approval of three-fourths (3/4) of
the membership of the House of Representatives and three-fourths
(3/4) of the membership of the Senate and is submitted to the
Governor for appropriate action.  Any such revenue bill shall not be
subject to the emergency measure provision authorized in Section 58 of this Article and shall not become effective and be in force until ninety days after it has been approved by the Legislature, and acted on by the Governor.

Section V-34: Reading and passage of bills - Yeas and nays entered on journal.

  Every bill shall be read on three different days in each House,
and no bill shall become a law unless, on its final passage, it
be read at length, and no law shall be passed unless upon a vote
of a majority of all the members elected to each House in favor
of such law; and the question, upon final passage, shall be taken
upon its last reading, and the yeas and nays shall be entered
upon the journal.

Section V-35: Signing bills and resolutions - Entry on journal.

  The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of
the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint
resolutions passed by the Legislature, immediately after the same
shall have been publicly read at length, and the fact of reading
and signing shall be entered upon the journal, but the reading at
length may be dispensed with by a two-thirds vote of a quorum
present, which vote, by yeas and nays, shall also be entered upon
the journal.

Section V-36: Extent of legislative authority - Specific grants not limitations.

  The authority of the Legislature shall extend to all rightful
subjects of legislation, and any specific grant of authority in
this Constitution, upon any subject whatsoever, shall not work a
restriction, limitation, or exclusion of such authority upon the
same or any other subject or subjects whatsoever.

Section V-37: Printing plant and state printer.

  The Legislature shall have the power to establish a state
printing plant, and to provide for the election or appointment of
a State Printer.

Section V-38: Geological and Economic Survey.

  The Legislature shall provide for the establishment of a State
Geological and Economic Survey.

Section V-39: Boards of Health, Dentistry and Pharmacy - Pure food commission - Present practitioners.

  The Legislature shall create a Board of Health, Board of
Dentistry, Board of Pharmacy, and Pure Food Commission, and
prescribe the duties of each.  All physicians, dentists and
pharmacists now legally registered and practicing in Oklahoma and
Indian Territory shall be eligible to registration in the State
of Oklahoma without examination or cost.

Section V-40: Militia.

  The Legislature shall provide for organizing, disciplining,
arming, maintaining, and equipping the Militia of the State.

Section V-41: Firemen pensions.

  The Legislature may enact laws authorizing cities to pension
meritorious and disabled firemen.

Section V-42: Contempt, disobedience of process and disorderly conduct.

  In any legislative investigation, either House of the
Legislature, or any committee thereof, duly authorized by the
House creating the same, shall have power to punish as for
contempt, disobedience of process, or contumacious or disorderly
conduct, and this provision shall also apply to joint sessions of
the Legislature, and also to joint committees thereof, when
authorized by joint resolution of both Houses.

Section V-43: Decennial revision of laws.

  The Legislature shall, in the year nineteen hundred and nine
and each ten years thereafter, make provision by law for
revising, digesting, and promulgating the statutes of the State.

Section V-44: Unlawful restraints of trade.

  The Legislature shall define what is an unlawful combination,
monopoly, trust, act, or agreement, in restraint of trade, and
enact laws to punish persons engaged in any unlawful combination,
monopoly, trust, act, or agreement, in restraint of trade, or
composing any such monopoly, trust, or combination.

Section V-45: Carrying constitution into effect.

  The Legislature shall pass such laws as are necessary for
carrying into effect the provisions of this Constitution.

Section V-46: Local and special laws on certain subjects prohibited.

  The Legislature shall not, except as otherwise provided in this
Constitution, pass any local or special law authorizing:
  The creation, extension, or impairing of liens; Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, towns, wards, or school districts;
  Changing the names of persons or places; Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, or maintaining of roads, highways, streets, or alleys; Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or
bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing
streams which form boundaries between this and any other state;
  Vacating roads, town plats, streets, or alleys;Relating to cemeteries, graveyards, or public grounds not owned by the State;  Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children; Locating or changing county seats; Incorporating cities, towns, or villages, or changing their charters; For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the places of voting;Granting divorces; Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of
officers, in counties, cities, towns, election or school districts;
Changing the law of descent or succession;
Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in judicial proceedings or inquiry before the courts, justices of the peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, or other tribunals, or providing or changing the methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcement of judgments or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate;
Regulating the fees, or extending the powers and duties of
aldermen, justices of the peace, or constables;
Regulating the management of public schools, the building or
repairing of school houses, and the raising of money for such
purposes; Fixing the rate of interest; Affecting the estates of minors, or persons under disability; Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, and refunding moneys legally paid into the treasury;
Exempting property from taxation; Declaring any named person of age;  Extending the time for the assessment or collection of taxes,
or otherwise relieving any assessor or collector of taxes from due performance of his official duties, or his securities from liability;
Giving effect to informal or invalid wills or deeds; Summoning or impaneling grand or petit juries; For limitation of civil or criminal actions; For incorporating railroads or other works of internal
improvements; Providing for change of venue in civil and criminal cases.

Section V-47: Retirement of officers.

  The Legislature shall not retire any officer on pay or part pay, or make any grant to such retiring officer.

Section V-48: Bureau of immigration.

  The Legislature shall have no power to appropriate any of the
public money for the establishment and maintenance of a Bureau of Immigration in this State.

Section V-49: Legislative employees - Number and emoluments.

  The Legislature shall not increase the number or emolument of
its employees, or the employees of either House, except by
general law, which shall not take effect during the term at which
such increase was made.

Section V-50: Exemption of property from taxation.

  The Legislature shall pass no law exempting any property with is
this State from taxation, except as otherwise provided in this
Constitution.

Section V-51: Exclusive rights, privileges or immunities.

  The Legislature shall pass no law granting to any association,
corporation, or individual any exclusive rights, privileges, or
immunities within this State.

Section V-52: Revival of rights or remedies - Taking away cause of action or defense.

  The Legislature shall have no power to revive any right or
remedy which may have become barred by lapse of time, or by any
statute of this State.  After suit has been commenced on any
cause of action, the Legislature shall have no power to take away
such cause of action, or destroy any existing defense to such
suit.

Section V-53: Release or extinguishable of debts or liabilities to state, county or municipality.

  Except as to tax and assessment charges against real property
remaining delinquent and unpaid for a period of time as long or
longer than that provided by law to authorize the taking title to
real property by prescription, the Legislature shall have no
power to release or extinguish, or to authorize the releasing or
extinguishing, in whole or in part, the indebtedness, liabilities, or obligations of any corporation or individual, to this State, or any county or other municipal corporation thereof.

Section V-54: Repeal of statute - Effect.

  The repeal of a statute shall not revive a statute previously
repealed by such statute, nor shall such repeal affect any accrued right, or penalty incurred, or proceedings begun by virtue of such repealed statute.

Section V-55: Appropriations - Necessity and requisites.

  No money shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this State,
nor any of its funds, nor any of the funds under its management,
except in pursuance of an appropriation by law, nor unless such
payments be made within two and one-half years after the passage
of such appropriation act, and every such law making a new
appropriation, or continuing or reviving an appropriation, shall
distinctly specify the sum appropriated and the object to which
it is to be applied, and it shall not be sufficient for such law
to refer to any other law to fix such sum.

Section V-56: General appropriation bills - Salaries - Separate appropriation bills.

  The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but
appropriations for the expenses of the executive, legislative,
and judicial departments of the State, and for interest on the
public debt.  The salary of no officer or employee of the State,
or any subdivision thereof, shall be increased in such bill, nor
shall any appropriation be made therein for any such officer or
employee, unless his employment and the amount of his salary,
shall have been already provided for by law.  All other
appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing
but one subject.

Section V-57: Subjects and titles - Revival or amendment by reference - Extent of invalidity.

  Every act of the Legislature shall embrace but one subject,
which shall be clearly expressed in its title, except general
appropriation bills, general revenue bills, and bills adopting a
code, digest, or revision of statutes; and no law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred, by reference to its title only; but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended, or conferred shall be re-enacted and published at length:  Provided, That if any subject be embraced in any act contrary to the provisions of this section, such act shall be void only as to so much of the law as may not be expressed in the title thereof.

Section V-58: Time of taking effect of statutes - Emergency measures.

    No act shall take effect until ninety days after the adjournment
of the session at which it was passed, except enactments for carrying into effect provisions relating to the initiative and referendum, or a general appropriation bill, unless, in case of emergency, to be expressed in the act, the Legislature, by a vote of two-thirds of all members elected to each House, so directs.  An emergency measure shall include only such measures as are immediately necessary for the preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, and shall not include the granting of franchises or license to a corporation or individual, to extend longer than one year, nor provision for the purchase or sale of real estate, nor the renting or encumbrance of real property for a longer term than one year.  Emergency measures may be vetoed by the Governor, but such measures so vetoed may be passed by a three-fourths vote of each House, to be duly entered on the journal.

Section V-59: Uniform operation of general laws - Special laws when general law applicable.

  Laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation
throughout the State, and where a general law can be made
applicable, no special law shall be enacted.

Section V-60: System of checks and balances.

  The Legislature shall provide by law for the establishment and
maintenance of an efficient system of checks and balances between
the officers of the Executive Department, and all commissioners
and superintendents, and boards of control of State institutions,
and all other officers entrusted with the collection, receipt, custody, or disbursement of the revenue or moneys of the State whatsoever.

Section V-61: Pensions to police officers.

  The legislature may enact laws authorizing cities to pension
meritorious and disabled police officers.  

Section V-62: Retirement benefits for teachers and school employees.

  The Legislature may enact laws to provide for the retirement
for meritorious service of teachers and other employees in the
public schools, colleges and universities in this State supported
wholly or in part by public funds, and may provide for payments
to be made and accumulated from public funds, either of the State
or of the several school districts.  Payments from public funds
shall be made in conformity to equality and uniformity within the
same classifications according to duration of service and
remuneration received during such service.  

Section V-63: Continuity of governmental operations in periods of emergency.

  The Legislature, in order to insure continuity of State and
local governmental operations in periods of emergency resulting
from disasters caused by enemy attack or in periods of emergency
resulting from the imminent threat of such disasters, shall have
the power and the immediate duty (1) to provide for prompt and
temporary succession to the powers and duties of public offices,
of whatever nature and whether filled by election or appointment,
the incumbents of which may become unavailable for carrying on
the powers and duties of such offices; and (2) to adopt such
other measures as may be necessary and proper for so insuring the
continuity of governmental operations.  In the exercise of the
powers hereby conferred, the Legislature shall in all respects
conform to the requirements of this Constitution.