PART THREE ORGANISATION OF THE STATE AUTHORITIES
Chapter I The Legislative Authority
The House of RepresentativesArticle 61
The House of Representatives is the legislative authority of the state. It shall enact laws, sanction general state policy and the socio-economic plan, and approve government budgets and final accounts. It shall also direct and monitor the activities of the Executive Authority as stipulated in this constitution.Article 62
The House of Representatives consists of 301 members, who shall be elected in a secret, free and equal vote directly by the people. The Republic shall be divided into constituencies equal in number of population with a variation of not more than 5% plus or minus. Each constituency shall elect a member to the House of Representatives.Article 63
- A voter must meet the following two conditions:
- must be a Yemeni citizen.
- must be at least 18 years old.
- A candidate for the House of Representatives must meet the following conditions:
- must be a Yemeni.
- must be at least 25 years old.
- must be able to read and write (literate).
- must be of good character and conduct, fulfill his religious duties and have no court convictions against him for committing crimes that contradict the rules of honour and honesty, unless he was pardoned /reprieved.
The term of the House of Representatives is four calendar years starting from the date of its first session. The Speaker shall call the voters to elect a new House at least sixty days before the expiry date of the existing House. If in extraordinary circumstances, elections cannot be held, the existing House continues to function until such circumstances are overcome and elections can be held.Article 65
The House of Representatives is to be located in Sana'a, the capital. Internal regulations determine the conditions under which the House may hold meetings outside the capital city.Article 66
The House of Representatives issues its internal regulations, stipulating the procedures of its working committees, its prerogatives and constitutional powers. Such regulations, enacted and amended by law, may not contradict or amend any clause in the Constitution.Article 67
The House shall be competent to determine the legitimacy of its membership. Any appeal shall be submitted to the Supreme Court within 15 days of its delivery to the House. The Court's findings and verdict must be submitted to the House, which will judge the validity of the appeal within 60 days of receiving the verdict of the court. Membership of the House may not be nullified except by a resolution taken by two thirds of the House. The investigation must be completed within 90 days from the date of the submission of the appeal to the Supreme Court.Article 68
The House of Representatives alone shall have the exclusive right to maintain order and security within the premises of the House. The Speaker of the House shall take charge of such responsibility through a special guard force under his command. No other armed force may enter the House premises or take positions near its entrances except at the request of the Speaker.Article 69
The House of Representatives shall, on an invitation from the President of the Republic, hold its first meeting no later than two weeks after the announcement of the results of the elections. If no such invitation is made, the House shall meet on the morning following the date of expiration of the said two weeks.Article 70
At its first meeting, the House of Representatives shall elect from among its members, a chairman and three Deputies to form the Presiding Board of the House. The oldest member shall chair the House during the election of the Speaker and the House's internal regulations shall specify all the procedures for electing the Presiding Board of the House, its duration and its other functions. The House shall include a General Secretariat, presided over by a Secretary General, the internal regulations of the House shall specify the rules that relate to its formation and other rules connected to it.Article 71
For the meetings of the House of Representatives to be valid, it is necessary for more than half of its members to attend, excluding those whose seats were declared vacant. Decisions shall be taken by an absolute majority of the attending members except in cases where the Constitution or House regulations demand a specific majority. If the results of voting are equally divided, further deliberations must be rejected within the same session, but shall be given priority if submitted in another session.Article 72
Meetings of the House of Representatives shall be open to the public but the House may hold closed meetings at the request of the Speaker, the President, the Government, or at the request of at least twenty members of the House. The House shall then decide whether the discussion of the subject should be conducted openly or in closed meetings.Article 73
The House shall annually hold two ordinary sessions. It may be called to hold extraordinary sessions. The internal regulations of the House shall specify the dates of the ordinary sessions and their duration. In times of necessity, the House may call for extraordinary sessions by Presidential decree, a decision by the Presiding Board of the House, or a written request from one third of the members. The House session shall not be adjourned during the last quarter of the year before the endorsement of the General Budget of the state.Article 74
A member of the House of Representatives represents the whole nation, guards the public interest and his representation may not be subjected to any restriction or special condition.Article 75
A member of the House of Representatives shall, prior to his assumption of membership duties, swear the Constitutional oath before the House in an open session.Article 76
The Speaker and members of the House of Representatives, the Presidency Board and other members of the House shall receive a fair remuneration specified by law. The Chairman of the Councilor Ministers, his deputies and ministers shall not be entitled to such remuneration if they happen to be members of the House of Representatives.Article 77
If a seat of a member of the House of Representatives becomes vacant for more than a year before the expiry of the House's tenure, a replacement shall be elected within sixty days of the House's declaration of the vacancy and this membership ends when the existing House duration comes to an end.Article 78
A member of the House of Representatives shall not interfere with the work of the Executive or the Judicial authorities. Article (79) Membership of the House of Representative may not be combined with membership of a local council or with any public employment. Membership of the Council of Ministers may concur with membership of the House of Representatives.Article 80
A member of the House of Representatives shall not be held responsible for facts he comes across or matters he raises in the House or any of its committees, or for his voting pattern in open or closed meetings. This does not apply to cases of slander or defamation by members.Article 81
A member of the House of Representatives may not be subject to procedures of investigation, inspection, arrest, imprisonment, or punishment except with the permission of the House of Representatives save in the case his being caught in the act, and in such a case, the House shall be notified forthwith. The House shall make sure of the rectitude of the procedures followed in such cases. If the House is in recess, permission shall be sought from the Presidency Board of the House, and the House of Representatives shall be notified at the first meeting following the procedures taken.Article 82
Members of the House of Representatives submit their resignations to the House, which has the exclusive right to accept them.Article 83
The membership of a member of the House of Representatives may not be nullified unless any of the membership conditions stipulated in this Constitution cease to apply, or if the member commits a grave violation of the membership duties according to the specifications of the internal regulations of the House.Article 84
A member of the House of Representatives and the government have the right to propose bills for laws, and their amendments. In the case of financial laws that aim at increasing or abolishing an existing tax, or decrease or give exemption from part of it, or aim at allocating part of the state funds for a certain project, these may only be proposed by the government or by at least 20% of the representatives. All the proposed laws presented by a member or additional members of the House shall not be referred to one of the committees of the House before being studied by a special committee which will determine whether the proposal meets the requirements for action by the House. If the House decides to discuss any of these it can be transferred to the committee responsible for examining and reporting thereon. Any proposed law submitted by others than the government may not be submitted again during the same session.Article 85
Within a maximum of twenty-five days of the Formation of the new government, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers shall present his governments programme to the House of Representatives in order to win a vote of confidence by the majority of the members of the House. If the House of Representatives is in recess, it is to be recalled for an extraordinary session. The members of the House and the House as a whole has the right to comment on the government's program. The failure of the government to win the required majority is to be considered a with-holding of confidence.Article 86
The House of Representatives shall approve comprehensive social and economic development plans. A law shall be enacted to stipulate the process of the preparation of such plans, their submission to the House and the approval thereof.Article 87
- The proposed general budget shall be submitted to the House of Representatives at least two months before the beginning of the fiscal year. A vote shall be taken on each part of the budget. It shall be enacted by a law. The House may not change the proposed budget without the approval of the government. No allocation of revenue for a specific purpose may be authorized except by a law. If the budget law is not enacted before the beginning of the fiscal year, the previous year's budget shall be followed until the new budget is approved.
- The law shall specify the way to prepare and categorize the general budget as well as specifying the fiscal year.
The transfer of any amount from one section to another of the general budget must be approved by the House of Representatives. Every expenditure not provided for in the budget or any additional revenue shall only be authorized by law.
The law shall specify the rules of the budgets of public authorities, corporations and companies, their accounts, the autonomous and supplementary budgets, and their final accounts. With he exception of the above, these budgets shall be subject.
The final accounts of the Government's annual budget shall be submitted to the House within a period that does not exceed nine months from the end of the fiscal year. Voting on the Bill shall be made on a section by section basis and shall be approved by an enactment of law. Also the annual report of the organization concerned with the auditing and control of government accounts shall be submitted to the House, together with its comments thereon. The House of Representatives has the right to ask the Organization to submit any supplementary documents or reports.
The House of Representatives shall ratify international political and economic treaties and conventions of a general nature, of whatsoever form or level, and in particular those connected to defense, alliance, truce, peace or border alterations, and those, which involve financial commitments on the slate or for which their execution needs the enactment of a law.
The House of Representatives has the right to present instructions and recommendations to the government regarding general issues. If the government failed to execute these instructions and recommendations it has to justify such action to the House.
At least twenty per cent of the members of the House may move a motion to discuss a public issue, request explanation of government policies and exchange views concerning that issue.
Upon a request signed by at least ten of its members, the House of Representatives may create a special committee or instruct one of its committees to investigate any issue which is contrary to public interest or to investigate the actions of any ministry, government agency, board, public/mixed corporation, or local councils. To carry out such investigations, the committee may gather proof and hold hearings by seeking testimony from any party/person it deems necessary. All executive and special authorities shall comply by laying all information or documentation they possess at the disposal of the relevant committee.
The responsibility of the Council of Ministers is both collective and individual. Every member of the House of Representatives may pose questions to the Prime Minister, any of his deputies, ministers or deputy ministers on any matter falling within their responsibilities and they are under obligation to provide answers accordingly. The questioning may not be converted into an interpolation during the same sitting.
Every member of the House has the right to direct an interpolation to the Prime Minister, his deputies and ministers to hold them accountable for matters under their charge. Responses to and discussions of such interpolations shall take place after at least one week, except in cases which the House deems urgent, and to which the government agrees.
The House of Representatives may withdraw confidence from the government. The House may not withdraw confidence from the government before an interpolation directed at the Prime Minister or he who is acting on his behalf. The request for interpolation must by signed by a third of the members of the House. The House cannot vote on the issue of no-confidence in the government without seven days' notification of such a vote. A majority is necessary to pass a vote of no-confidence.
The Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers, and their deputies are given the floor whenever they ask to clarify any points in the deliberations of the House of Representatives. They may also bring along any senior officials to assist in such deliberations. However, such representatives of governments may not participate in the votes of the House unless they are members thereof. The government or any of its members must comply with the request of the House of Representatives to attend any of its meetings.
Voting on bills is done on an Article by Article basis. The final vote must be on the bill as a whole. The internal regulations of the House explain the procedures in this respect.
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the House of Representatives except in urgent circumstances and only after a nation-wide referendum on the reasons for the dissolution. The President of the Republic shall issue a decree that suspends the sessions of the House and calls for the referendum within thirty days. If an absolute majority of the voters are in favour of the dissolution, the President shall issue a decree of dissolution. The decree shall simultaneously call voters to elect a new House of Representatives within a date that does not exceed sixty days from the date of the announcement of the results of the referendum. If the dissolution decree does not include the above-mentioned call, or elections did not take-place, the dissolution is considered void and null and the House shall meet by under the power of the Constitution. The House shall also meet under the power of the Constitution if a referendum does not take place within thirty days or does not gain the required majority. If elections are held, the new House must hold its first session within ten days following the completion of elections. If the House is not called to meet, it must hold its first session by the end of the said ten days in accordance with the rules of the Constitution. Once the House of Representatives is dissolved, the new House of Representatives may not be dissolved again for the same reason. In all cases, the House of Representatives may not be dissolved in its first session.
The President of the Republic has the right to request a review of any bill which is approved by the House. Based on a reasoned decision, he must then return the bill to the House of Representatives within thirty days of its submission. If he does not return the bill to the House within this period, or if the requested review is not heeded the Bill is then approved once again by the majority of the House, it shall be considered a law, and the President shall issue it within two weeks. If the President does not issue the law, it comes into effect under the power of the Constitution, and is, at once, published in the Official Gazette and come into operation two weeks later.
All laws are published in the official gazette, and are announced within two weeks of issuance, and shall come into force within thirty days of their publication. This period may be shortened or extended by specific provision in the law.
Laws shall only apply to cases occurring after they become operative. No laws may be applied in a retroactive manner. However, in matters other than taxes and penal measures, specific stipulations in the law may determine otherwise. In such case, the approval of two thirds majority is needed in the House of Representatives.
Chapter II The Executive Authority
Executive authority shall be exercised, on behalf of the people, by the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers within the limits stated in the Constitution.
The First Branch: The Presidency of the Republic
- The President of the Republic is the President of the state and shall be elected according to the Constitution.
- The President shall have a Vice President to be appointed by the President. The rules of Articles 106, 116, 117 and 126 shall be applied to the Vice President.
Every Yemeni who meets the following specified conditions may become a candidate for the post of the President of the Republic:
- To be at least forty years old.
- To be a descendant of Yemeni parents.
- To be at liberty to practise his political and civil rights.
- To be of good character, practise his Islamic duties and have no dishonorable criminal record and if so, he has been reprieved.
- Not to be married to a foreign spouse or to enter into such a marriage during his term of office.
Nomination and election of the President shall be as follows:
- Election of the President of the Republic shall be by the people and in a competitive elections.
- Proposals must be submitted to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
- Candidatures must be studied by the Presiding Board of the House of Representatives to ensure that the candidates meet the constitutional conditions.
- Names of candidates who meet the conditions shall be presented to the House for approval.
- A candidate who wins the recommendation of 10% of the members is considered a candidate for the post of the President of the Republic.
- The House of Representatives is bound to recommend at least two persons for the post of the President of the Republic before submitting the candidates to the people in competitive elections.
- The person who wins an absolute majority of those who participated in the elections is considered the President of the Republic. If none of the candidates win this majority, elections shall be repeated according to the above procedures for the two candidates who got the highest number of votes.
The President of the Republic must perform. the constitutional oath in front of the House of Representatives before assuming his responsibilities.Article 109
The President of the Republic shall materialize the will of the people, respect the Constitution and Law, protect national unity and the principles and objectives of the revolution. He shall adhere to the principle of a peaceful transition of power, supervise the sovereign tasks concerning the defence of the Republic and foreign policy, and exercise his authority according to the Constitution.Article 110
The President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.Article 111
The term of the President of the Republic is five calendar years from the date of performing the constitutional oath. No person may assume the post of President of the Republic for more than two five-year terms, in accordance with the previous rules of the Articles of this section.Article 112
If the term of the House of Representatives expires in the same month as the term of the President of the Republic, then the Presidential term is prolonged until Parliamentary elections are held. Within sixty days of the first meeting of the new House of Representatives, the new President shall be elected.Article 113
Within ninety days prior to the expiry of the term of the President, procedures must be initiated to elect the new President. The election thereof must be completed at least one week before the expiry date. If such elections cannot take place for any reason, the old President continues his functions for a maximum of ninety days based on an authorization from the House of Representatives. The prolongation of the term for more than ninety days can only take place if the country is in a state of war, or suffering a natural disaster or another emergency situation, under which electing the President becomes impossible.Article 114
The President may submit his resignation, stating his reasons, to the House of Representatives which may accept it by an absolute majority vote of all his members. If the resignation is not accepted, the President may submit a further resignation within three months, and this time the House of Representatives is obliged to accept it.Article 115
If the post of the President of the Republic becomes vacant or should the President become permanently disabled, the Vice President temporarily takes over the presidential functions for a period that does not exceed sixty days, during which new elections for the President of the Republic shall take place. If the posts of the President of the Republic and Vice President become vacant at the same time, the Presiding Board of the House shall temporarily take over the functions of the President. If the House of Representatives is under dissolution, the government shall replace the Presiding Board of the House in carrying out the functions of the Presidency, and in this case election of the President of the Republic shall take place within a period that does not exceed sixty days from the first session of the new House of Representatives.Article 116
The law determines the salaries and appropriations of the President of the Republic, and he is not entitled to any other emolument or remuneration.Article 117
The President of the Republic may not during his term, directly or indirectly, engage in any private business of any kind whether commercial, financial, or industrial. He is not allowed to buy or rent government property, not even through an open auction and he is not allowed to lease, sell, or barter any of his property to the state.Article 118
The responsibilities of the President of the Republic are as follows:
- To represent the Republic internally and externally.
- To call the voters, at the specified time, to elect the House of Representatives.
- To call for national referenda.
- To name the person who will form the government, and to issue a republican decree with the names of the cabinet members.
- To lay down the general policy of the state jointly implementation as stipulated in the Constitution.
- To call the cabinet to a joint meeting with the President, as the need arises.
- To name the members of the National Defense Council according to the Law.
- To promulgate the laws passed by the House of Representatives and their publication, and to issue the decrees that execute them.
- To appoint and dismiss senior government officials and military/police officers according to the law.
- To establish military ranks according to the Law.
- To award badges, medals and decorations stipulated by Law, or to permit the wearing of badges and honours awarded by other states.
- To issue decrees endorsing Treaties and Conventions approved by the House of Representatives.
- To ratify agreements that do not require the approval of the House of Representatives if approved by the Cabinet.
- To establish diplomatic delegations abroad and to appoint and recall ambassadors according to the law.
- To accredit diplomatic representatives of foreign countries and organizations in Yemen.
- To grant political asylum.
- To proclaim states of emergency and general mobilization according to the Law.
- Any other functions stipulated in the Constitution and Law.
If, while the House of Representatives is in recess or under dissolution, urgent decisions are required, then the President of the Republic can issue decrees which have the power of law, provided such decrees do not contradict the Constitution or the budgetary estimates. Such decrees have to be presented to the first meeting of the House of Representatives If they are not presented, the House may discuss them and take appropriate decisions thereon. If the House of Representatives rejects those decrees, they become null and void from the date the House decides and the House of Representatives determines how the consequences are to be settled.Article 120
The President of the Republic, following a proposal by the relevant minister and approval from the Council of Ministers, shall issue resolutions and regulations to implement laws and to regulate and organize general administration and government departments. These regulations may not obstruct any Law and may not have the effect of exempting any one from abiding by them. The President may authorize others to issue such regulations. The law may designate who issues such regulations.Article 121
The President declares a state of emergency by a republican decree according to the law. The House of Representatives shall be called to session within one week and be presented with the declaration of emergency. If the House of Representatives is dissolved, then the old House of Representatives is called to session by the Constitution. If the House is not called to session, or the declaration of the state of emergency has not been presented to it, then the state of emergency shall cease to exist according to the Constitution. In all cases, a state of emergency is only declared in circumstances of war, internal discord, or natural disasters. Declaring the state of emergency shall only be for a limited time, and may not be extended, except with the approval of the House of Representatives.Article 122
The President of the Republic has the right to demand reports from the Prime Minister concerning the implementation of the duties of the Council of Ministers.Article 123
A Death sentence shall not be executed unless endorsed by the President of the Republic.Article 124
The Vice President assists the President in his duties. The President may delegate some functions of his to the Vice President.Article 125
A decree by the President of the Republic shall form a Consultative Council from experienced and qualified specialists in order to expand the base of participation through consultation and to make use of national expertise and qualifications available in different areas of Yemen. The law shall clarify the special rules that concern the Council.Article 126
The President of the Republic may be charged with grand treason, violation of the Constitution, or any other action that prejudices the independence and sovereignty of the country. Such a charge requires the petitioning of half of the House of Representatives. The indictment decision on this matter requires the support of two thirds of the House of Representatives and the law stipulates the procedures of the trial. If the charge is directed at the President and his deputy, then the Presidency Board of the House of Representatives temporarily assumes the duties of the President and until the giving of the court's verdict on the charges brought against the President. The House of Representatives shall pass the above mentioned law in the first regular round of its sessions once this Constitution takes effect. If the court's verdict finds either of the two guilty, then he is relieved of his post by the Constitution, and is then subject to the normal penalties of the law. In all cases, Prescription shall not be applied to crimes stipulated in this article.
The Second Branch: The Council of MinistersArticle 127
The Council of Ministers is the government of the Republic of Yemen, and it is the highest executive and administrative authority of the state. All state administrative organizations, agencies, corporations, without exception, are under the directives of the Council of Ministers.Article 128
The government is composed of the Prime Minister and his deputies and Ministers who together shall form the Council of Ministers. The law defines the general basis for organizing ministries and the various authorities/agencies of the state.Article 129
The Prime Minister, his deputies and the Ministers shall meet the same conditions as must be met by a member of the House of Representatives, in addition, his age must not be less than thirty years, excepting the Prime Minister who must not be less than forty years old.Article 130
In consultation with the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister chooses the members of his cabinet, and seeks the confidence of the House of Representatives on the basis of a program he submits to the House.Article 131
The Prime Minister and the ministers are collectively responsible for the actions of the government before the President of the Republic and the House of Representatives.Article 132
Before the Prime Minister and the ministers can assume their responsibilities, they shall perform the constitutional oath before the President of the Republic.Article 133
The law stipulates the salaries of the Prime Minister, his deputies, the ministers and vice-ministers.Article 134
During their term of office, the Prime Minister and Ministers may not engage in any other public office, or in any private, commercial, financial or industrial activities, even if indirectly. They may not participate in any undertakings the government (or any of its corporations) contracts, and they may not combine the posts of minister with membership of the board of directors of any company. During their term, they may not purchase, rent or barter government property, even through an open bid. They may not lease, sell, or barter any of their property to the government.Article 135
The Council of Ministers is responsible for the execution of overall state policies in the political, economic, social, cultural, and defense fields, according to the laws and regulations. In particular, it shall exercise the following:
- To participate, in conjugation with the President of the Republic, in preparing broad outlines of internal and external policies.
- To prepare drafts of the national economic plan, and the annual budget, to organize and execute them, and to prepare the government's final statement of accounts.
- To prepare drafts of laws and resolutions and present them to the House of Representatives or the President of the Republic according to the jurisdiction of each.
- To approve Treaties and Conventions before presenting them to the House of Representatives or the President of the Republic according to the responsibilities of each.
- To take the necessary measures to guard the internal and external security of the state, and to protect the rights of citizens.
- To guide, coordinate and review the activities of the ministries, the administrative apparatus, corporations and boards and the public and mixed sectors according to the law.
- To appoint and dismiss senior government officials according to the law, and to set and execute the policies that technically intend to develop manpower in government organizations, and to train/qualify personnel according to the needs of the country within the framework of the economic plan.
- To follow up the execution of laws, and to protect state funds.
- To supervise the organization and administration of the monetary, credit and insurance systems.
- To contract and award loans within the overall policies of the state, and within the limits of the provisions of the Constitution.
The Prime Minister shall manage the affairs of the Council of Ministers and shall head its meetings. He shall represent the Council in the implementation of the state's general policies and shall supervise the execution of Council decisions and overall state policies in a unified and coordinated manner. He may demand from any members of the cabinet, reports on any matter pertaining to their ministries and the duties assigned to them, and they must comply with such demands.Article 137
- The President of the Republic and the House of Representatives has the right to place the Prime Minister, or his deputies or ministers under investigation and trial for any crimes committed by them in discharging their duties or as a consequence thereof. A decision of the House of Representatives to take such a measure shall be based on a proposal presented by at least fifth of its members. The accusation may not be issued without the support of two thirds of the House.
- Those accused according to paragraph 1 mentioned-above shall be suspended from work until judgment is passed. Their dismissal may not stop the charge against him or the course of the charge.
- The investigation and trial of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, his deputies and ministers and the trial procedures and guarantees [of fairness] shall be as stipulated by law.
- The rules of the previous items are applicable to Vice ministers.
If the Council of Ministers resigns, or is dismissed, or confidence is withdrawn, it remains as a caretaker government responsible for day to day administration until a new government is formed. A caretaker government may not appoint or dismiss officials.Article 139
The Prime Minister, if it becomes clear that his cooperation with one of the members of the cabinet has become impossible, may request from the President the dismissal of the said member.Article 140
If the Prime Minister becomes unable to carry out his responsibilities, or if the House of Representatives bars! withholds! withdraws confidence from the Council of Ministers, or a general election for the House of Representatives is undertaken, the Prime Minister is obliged to tender the resignation of his government to the President of the Republic.Article 141
If the majority of the members of the Council of Ministers submit their resignations, the Prime Minister has to tender the resignation of the whole government.Article 142
Each minister is in charge of the supervision and direction of his ministry and its branches throughout the Republic. He is responsible for the execution of the government's overall policies in his ministry. The law specifies the resolutions and regulations that the Minister may issue to implement the laws.
The Third Branch: Bodies of Local AuthorityArticle 143
The territory of the Republic of Yemen is divided into administrative Units. The law shall identify their number, borders, divisions and the objective criteria for the administrative divisions. Also the law shall show the way for nominating, electing and selecting their chairpersons, and shall specify their functions and duties within their areas.Article 144
The administrative districts enjoy a nominal personality and shall have councils which must be freely and fairly elected, both at the local and governorate level, which shall exercise their functions within the borders of the administrative area. They shall propose programmers, plans and investment budgets for the administrative district as well as supervise, monitor and audit the agencies of the local authority according to law. The law shall specify the means for nomination and election of the local authority, its administration and financial resources, the rights and duties of its members, its role in the execution of development plans and programmes and all other rules, through considering the adoption of the principle of administrative and financial decentralization as the foundation of local administration system.Article 145
All the administrative units and the local councils are an inseparable part of the power of the state. The governors shall be responsible before the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers, whose decisions are obligatory to the districts and councils which must execute them in all cases. The law defines the methods of control over the actions of the local councils.Article 146
The state shall encourage and sponsor the local cooperative administrations as they are one of the most important means of local development.
Chapter III The Judicial AuthorityArticle 147
The Judiciary authority is an autonomous authority in its judicial, financial and administrative aspects and the General Prosecution is one of its sub-bodies. The courts shall judge all disputes and crimes. The judges are independent and not subject to any authority, except the law. No other body may interfere in any way in the affairs and procedures of justice. Such interference shall be considered a crime that must be punished by law. A charge regarding such interference cannot be nullified with the passing of time.Article 148
The judiciary is an integrated system. The law organizes this system in terms of ranks, responsibilities, the terms and procedures of appointment, transfer and promotion of judges, and their other privileges and guarantees. Exceptional courts may not be established under any conditions.Article 149
Members of the judiciary and public Prosecution office shall not be dismissed except under the conditions stipulated by the law. They may not be transferred to non-judicial posts except with their own consent, the approval of the relevant judicial council, unless that was taken as a disciplinary measure. The law shall regulate the disciplinary trial of the judiciary and it organizes legal profession/practice.Article 150
The judiciary shall set up the Supreme Judicial Council. The law shall organize it, clarify its functions and system of nominating and appointing its members. The Supreme Judiciary Council shall execute these guarantees for the judiciary in the fields of appointment, promotion, discharge and dismissal according to the law. The Council shall study and approve the judicial budget in preparation for inserting it as one item within the overall budget of the state.Article 151
The Supreme Court of the Republic is the highest judicial authority. The law shall specify how it can be formed, clarify its functions and the procedures to be followed before it. It shall undertake to do the following:
- Judge cases and pleas that laws, regulations, bylaws and decisions are not constitutional.
- Judge disputes over conflict of jurisdiction.
- Investigate and give opinions regarding appeals referred by the House of Representatives which relate to its membership.
- Rule on appeals of final judgments in civilian, commercial, criminal, personal and administrative disputes and disciplinary cases according to the law.
- To try the President of the Republic, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, his deputies, the ministers and their deputies according to the law.
Court sittings are open to the public unless a court determines, for reasons of security or general morals, to hold sessions behind closed doors. In all cases, verdicts are announced in an open session.