Repealed or Renumbered
If it appears by evidence to the satisfaction of the court that a partition cannot be made without great prejudice to the owners, it shall order a sale of the property.
Repealed or Renumbered
A mortgage of real property is not a conveyance that will enable the owner of the mortgage to recover possession of the real property without a foreclosure and sale.
A certified copy of the judgment shall be recorded, at the expense of the plaintiff or plaintiffs in the action, in the office of the recorder of the recording district in which the affected land is situated.
A person in possession of real property, or a tenant of that person, may bring an action against another who claims an adverse estate or interest in the property for the purpose of determining the claim.
When a part of the property only is ordered to be sold, if there is an estate for life or years in an undivided share of the property, the estate may be set off in a part of the property not ordered to be sold.
In an action to establish boundaries, the court shall appoint three disinterested referees, one of whom is a surveyor, to establish and mark the boundary lines as ascertained and determined by the court.
Persons having outstanding liens shall be notified to appear before the referee at a specified time and place to prove the amount due or to become due, contingently or absolutely.
Property sold upon a judgment of foreclosure may be redeemed in the manner and with the effect as real property sold on an execution issued upon a judgment for the payment of an unsecured debt.
The sale of the encumbered property shall be conducted in the same manner as the sale of real property on execution. A deficiency between the amount of the judgment and the sale price may be enforced by execution.
The report may be confirmed unless a party excepts to the report. Upon the hearing, the court may confirm, modify, or set aside the report, and, in the latter case, may appoint new referees or refer the matter to the same referees with appropriate instructions.
Repealed or Renumbered
Article 08. TRESPASS
The terms of sales of property shall be known at the time of sale, and, if the premises consist of distinct farms or lots, they shall be sold separately unless the court directs otherwise.
When a dispute exists between two or more owners of adjacent or contiguous lands concerning the boundary lines of their lands, an owner may bring an action for the purpose of having the dispute determined and the boundary lines ascertained and marked.
A person may not enter upon any land, tenement, or other real property except in cases where entry is given by law. In those cases the entry may not be made with force but only in a peaceable manner.
The court in which the action is pending may allow a party and the party's surveyors to go on the property to make a survey for the purposes of the action.
Before entering upon the discharge of their duties, the referees shall file a written oath to faithfully and impartially perform their duties. After designating the boundary lines by proper marks, they shall file with the court a report describing the location of the marks.
AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 do not apply to claims for personal injury, including death.
Separate mortgages and other securities may be taken for the whole or convenient portions of the purchase money of those parts of the property directed by the court to be sold on credit in the name of any known owner of full age, otherwise competent, or in the name of the clerk of the court as the court directs.
After the sale of property ordered to be sold, a report shall be made to the court, with a description of the different parcels of lands sold to each purchaser, the name of the purchaser, the price paid or secured, the terms and conditions of the sale, and any securities taken.
If the report of the referee is confirmed by the court, the order of confirmation is binding and conclusive on the parties to the action and upon the lien creditors who have been duly served with notice to appear before the referee.
Where a lien is on an undivided interest or estate of any of the parties and a partition is made, the lien is then only upon the share assigned to that party, but the share shall first be charged with its just proportion of the costs of the partition, in preference to the lien.
The notice required by Alaska Rule of Civil Procedure 4(e)(4) shall be published as provided in the rules and a copy of the notice shall be posted in a conspicuous place on each separate parcel of the entire real property described in the complaint within 20 days after the first publication of the notice.
The proceeds of sale and the securities taken by the referees, or a part of the proceeds shall be distributed to the persons entitled to them whenever the court directs. But if no direction is given, all the proceeds and securities shall be paid into court.
AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 may be cited as the Earthslide Relief Act.
Article 11. ACTION FOR DWELLING DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OR REMODELING CLAIMS
All sales of real property made by the referee shall be made at public auction to the highest bidder in the manner required for the sale of real property on execution. The notice must state the time, place, and terms of sale, and, if the property or a part of it is to be sold subject to a prior estate, charge, or lien, that shall be stated in the notice.
Repealed or Renumbered
When the share of an infant is sold, the proceeds of the sale may be paid to the general guardian of the infant or the special guardian appointed for the infant in the action upon the guardian's giving the security required by law or directed by order of the court.
In making the partition the referees shall divide the property and allot its several portions to the respective parties, quality and quantity relatively considered, according to the respective rights of the parties as determined by the court, and designating the several portions by proper landmarks. The referees may employ a surveyor with the necessary assistants to aid them.
If judgment is in favor of the plaintiff, an order may issue at any time within six months of the date of the judgment at plaintiff's request directing the issuance of a warrant to a peace officer to abate the nuisance. The expense of abating the nuisance is a part of the judgment and may be enforced by execution against the property of the defendant.
When the leasing or occupation is for the purpose of farming or agriculture, the tenant or person in possession shall, after the termination of the lease or occupancy, have free access to the premises to cultivate and harvest or gather any crop or produce of the soil planted or sown by the tenant or person before the service of the notice to quit.
If the persons entitled to the estate for life or years are unknown, the court shall provide for the protection of their rights in a similar manner, as far as possible, as if they were known and had appeared.
The judgment shall be conclusive with respect to land boundaries upon every person who at the commencement of the action had or claimed an estate, right, title, or interest in or to a part of the entire area of real property described in the complaint as intended to be affected by this action, and upon every person claiming under any such person by title subsequent to the commencement of the action.
When the heirs of a deceased person are proper parties defendant to an action relating to real property in this state, and when the names and residences of the heirs are unknown, the heirs may be proceeded against under the name and title of 'the unknown heirs' of the deceased.
If it appears that there are outstanding liens upon the property or a part of it and the persons holding the liens were not made parties to the action, the court may appoint a referee to ascertain whether or not those liens have been paid, and, if not paid, what amount remains due, and their order among the liens severally held by those persons and the parties to the action.
The remedies provided for by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 are cumulative and in addition to any other remedy provided by law for quieting or establishing title to real property or the boundaries of it.
In an action of the type authorized in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880, judgment shall not be given by default, but the court must require proof of the facts alleged in the complaint and other pleadings.
(a) When a forcible entry is made upon a premises, or when an entry is made in a peaceable manner and the possession is held by force, the person entitled to the premises may maintain an action to recover the possession.
(b) [Repealed, Sec. 1 ch 73 SLA 1966].
When a party to an action or a person who holds a lien upon the property or a part of it has other securities for the payment of the amount of the lien, the court may order the securities to be exhausted before a distribution of the proceeds of sale, or may order a just deduction to be made from the amount of the lien on the property on that account.
In AS 09.45.230 - 09.45.255, 'nuisance' means a substantial and unreasonable interference with the use or enjoyment of real property, including water.
Article 06. PARTITION
Where the plaintiff shows a right to recover at the time the action was commenced, but it appears that the plaintiff's right has terminated during the pendency of the action, the plaintiff may only recover damages for the withholding of the property.
Repealed or Renumbered
An action for the recovery of the possession of the premises may be commenced on or after the date the tenant or person in possession unlawfully holds possession of the dwelling unit or rental premises by force, as determined under AS 09.45.090 .
Summons in actions for forcible entry and detainer shall be served not less than two days before the date of trial. A continuance may not be granted for a longer period than two days unless the defendant applying for the continuance gives an undertaking to the adverse party, with sureties approved by the court conditioned to the payment of the rent that may accrue if judgment is rendered against the defendant.
The judgment and partition shall not affect tenants for years or for life of the whole of the property that is the subject of partition, and shall not preclude any person except those specified in AS 09.45.310 from claiming title to the property in question or from contraverting the title of the parties between whom the partition was made.
When the security for the proceeds of sale is taken or when an investment of any proceeds is made, it shall be done, except as herein otherwise provided, in the name of the clerk of the court, who shall hold the same for the use and benefit of the parties interested, subject to the order of the court.
In an action to recover the possession on the land, tenement, or other real property where the entry is forcible or when the possession is unlawfully held by force, there shall be no inquiry into the merits of the title. Three years' quiet possession of the premises immediately preceding the commencement of the action by the party in possession or those under whom the party holds may be pleaded in bar thereof unless the estate of the party in the premises is ended.
Repealed or Renumbered
Article 10. EARTHSLIDE RELIEF ACT
The rights of the several parties may be determined in the action. If a party having a share or interest in or lien upon the property is unknown, or any of the known parties reside out of the state or cannot be found in the state, the summons may be served upon the absent or known party by publication as in other actions. Where a sale of the property is necessary, the title shall be ascertained by proof to the satisfaction of the court before the sale may be ordered.
A party to an action authorized by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 may record a notice of the pendency of the action in the form and at the place and with the effects specified in AS 09.45.940 .
In reaching the conclusions called for by AS 09.45.855 the court shall give effect to the changes in land boundaries caused by the earthslide, mitigated, however, so far as can equitably be done, by allocating to contiguous lots parts of the land released by a municipality by its voluntary vacation of areas formerly constituting public ways, which vacatings of streets shall be approved in this judgment.
An action for the recovery of the possession of real property against a person in possession cannot be prejudiced by an alienation made by that person either before or after the commencement of the action. If the alienation is made after the commencement of the action and the defendant does not satisfy the judgment recovered for damages for withholding the possession, the damages may be recovered by action against the purchaser.
If it appears that the property or a part of it is so situated that partition cannot be made without great prejudice to the owners, the court may order a sale of the property. Otherwise, upon the requisite proofs being made, the court shall order a partition according to the respective rights of the parties as ascertained by it, may appoint one or more referees to partition the property, and shall designate the portion to remain undivided for the owners whose interests remain unknown or are not ascertained.
When security is taken on a sale and the parties interested in the security agree on the shares and proportions to which they are respectively entitled, or when shares and proportions have been previously adjudged by the court, the securities shall be taken in the names of and payable to the parties respectively entitled to them, and shall be delivered to the parties.
Unless otherwise provided in the lease, a landlord has a right to re-enter leased premises when a tenant fails to pay rent, and may bring action to recover the possession of the premises and the action is equivalent to a demand of the rent. If, at any time before judgment, the lessee or a successor in interest pays the amount of rent in arrears with interest and costs of the action and performs the other covenants or agreements, the lessee or successor is entitled to continue in possession unless otherwise provided in the lease.
When several persons own real property as tenants in common, in which one or more of them have an estate of inheritance or for life or years, or when real property is subject to a life estate with remainder over, an action may be brought by one or more of those persons or by the life tenant for a portion of it according to the respective rights of the interested persons, and for a sale of the property or a part of it if it appears that a partition cannot be had without great prejudice to the parties.
If the judgment is set aside and a new trial granted as provided in AS 09.45.700, after the plaintiff has taken possession of the property, the plaintiff shall remain in possession. But if judgment is given for the defendant in the new trial, the defendant is entitled to restitution by execution as if the defendant were plaintiff.
Repealed or Renumbered
During or after the pendency of an action for the recovery of a debt secured by a lien mentioned in AS 09.45.170 , an action cannot be maintained for the foreclosure of the lien unless judgment is given in that action that the plaintiff recover the debt or a part of it, and an execution issued in the action against the property of the defendant is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part.
A person having a lien upon real property, other than that of a judgment, whether created by mortgage or otherwise, to secure a debt or other obligation may bring an action to foreclose the lien. In the action, the court may direct the sale of the encumbered property or a portion of it and the application of the proceeds of the sale to the payment of costs, expenses of sale, and the amount due the plaintiff. The judgment shall also determine the personal liability of a defendant for the payment of the debt secured by the lien and be entered accordingly.
In the order of sale, the court shall direct the terms of credit that may be allowed for the purchase money of a portion of the premises of which it may direct a sale on credit, and for that portion of which the purchase money is required, by the provisions contained in AS 09.45.260 - 09.45.620, to be invested for the benefit of unknown owners, infants, and parties out of the state.
Upon presenting an affidavit to the court or judge showing to the satisfaction of the court or judge that the heirs of the deceased person are proper parties to the action and that their names and residences cannot with the use of reasonable diligence be ascertained, the court or judge may grant an order that service of the summons in the action may be made on the 'unknown heirs' by publication of the summons in the same manner as in actions against nonresident defendants.
The clerk in whose name a security is taken or by whom an investment is made shall receive the interest and principal as it becomes due, and apply and invest it as the court may direct. The clerk shall deposit in the clerk's office all securities taken, and keep an account in a book provided and kept for that purpose in the clerk's office, free for inspection by all persons, of investments and money received by the clerk from the investments, and their disposition.
A person entitled to an estate for life or years in an undivided part of the property, whose estate has been sold, is entitled to receive a sum as reasonable satisfaction for the estate, the sum being based on principles of law applicable to annuities. The person so entitled shall consent to accept the sum for the person's estate by an instrument duly acknowledged or proved in the same manner as deeds for the purpose of record and filed with the clerk of court.
When the proceeds of the sale of a share or parcel belonging to persons who are parties to the action are paid into court, the action may be continued as between the parties for the determination of their respective claims to the proceeds, which shall be ascertained and adjudged by the court. Further testimony may be taken in court or by a referee at the discretion of the court, and the court may, if necessary, require the parties to present the facts or law in controversy by pleadings as in an original action.
When the estate of a tenant for life or years in a undivided part of the property in question is admitted by the parties or ascertained by the court to be existing at the time of the order of sale, and the person entitled to that estate is a party to the action, the estate may be first set off out of a part of the property and a sale made of that part, subject to the estate of that tenant in that part. But, if in the judgment of the court a due regard to the interest of all the parties requires the sale of that estate also, the sale may be ordered.
At any time before the order is made, the defendant may apply to the court for an order to stay the issuance of the warrant for a period not exceeding six months to allow the defendant to abate the nuisance. The court may grant the stay if the defendant gives an undertaking to the plaintiff in a sufficient amount and with satisfactory sureties that the issuance will be abated within the time and in the manner specified in the order. If the defendant fails to abate the nuisance within the time specified, an order directing the issuance of the warrant for the abatement of the nuisance may be made.
Except as otherwise provided in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880, the court rules of civil procedure shall apply to actions authorized by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880.
When it appears that partition cannot be made equal between the parties according to their respective rights, without prejudice to the rights and interests of some of them, and a partition is ordered, the court may adjudge compensation to be made by one party to another on account of the inequality. However, the compensation shall not be required to be made to others by owners unknown or by infants unless it appears that the infant has personal property sufficient for that purpose and that the infant's interest will be promoted by giving compensation.
A person who has a legal estate in real property and has a present right to the possession of the property may bring an action to recover the possession of the property with damages for withholding it; however, recovery of possession from a tenant shall be made under AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160.
A person who trespasses upon the land of another to gather geotechnical data or take mineral resources is liable to the owner of the land for treble the amount of damages that may be assessed in a civil action. If the trespass is unintentional or involuntary or the defendant had probable cause to believe that the land on which the trespass was committed was the defendant's own or that of the person in whose service or by whose direction the act was done, only actual damages may be recovered.
Article 09. WASTE
When there are proceeds of a sale belonging to an unknown owner or to a person outside the state who has no legal representatives inside it, or where there are proceeds arising from the sale of an estate subject to the prior estate of a tenant for life or years that are paid into the court or otherwise deposited by order of the court, the court may order the proceeds to be invested in securities bearing interest for the benefit of the persons entitled to the proceeds.
If the consent is not given under AS 09.45.460 , before the report of sale, the court shall determine what proportion of the proceeds of the sale, after deducting expenses, is a just and reasonable sum to be invested for the benefit of the person entitled to the estate for life or years, and shall order the sum to be deposited in court for investment.
If a claimant elects to allow the construction professional to make an inspection under AS 09.45.882 (b)(1), the claimant shall provide the construction professional and its contractors or other agents reasonable access to the claimant's dwelling during normal working hours to inspect the dwelling and the alleged defect to determine the nature and cause of the alleged defect and the nature and extent of any repairs necessary to repair the alleged defect.
The service of a notice to quit upon a tenant or person in possession does not authorize an action to be maintained against the tenant or person for the possession of the premises until the expiration of the period for which that tenant or person may have paid rent for the premises in advance. To authorize an action against a tenant or person in possession who has paid rent in advance, a notice must be given at least 10 days before the date the rent is due again in case of a month-to-month tenancy or at least three days before in the case of a week-to-week tenancy.
Unless there is good cause for the failure, a construction professional may not assert that the claimant did not comply with AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 if the construction professional fails to respond in good faith to the claimant's notice of claim made under AS 09.45.881 .
If a guardian, tenant for life or years, or tenant in common of real property commits waste on the property, a person injured by the waste may bring an action for damages for the injury. In an action for waste there may be judgment for treble damages. Where the plaintiff has a reversionary interest and the injury due to waste equals or exceeds the value of the interest held by the one committing the waste, or the waste is committed with malice, judgment may be for forfeiture of the estate and eviction.
The proceeds of the sale of the encumbered property shall be applied under the direction of the court as follows:
(1) to pay its just proportion of the general cost of the action;
(2) to pay the costs of the reference;
(3) to satisfy the several liens in their order of priority by payment of the sums due and to become due;
(4) the residue among the owners of the property sold according to their respective shares, as found by the court.
In cases of sales in partition, when it appears that a person has a vested or contingent future right or estate in any of the property sold, the court shall determine the proportional value of the contingent or vested right or estate according to the principles of law applicable to annuities and survivorship, and shall direct that portion of the proceeds of the sale to be invested, secured, or paid over in a manner that will protect the rights and interests of the parties.
The costs of partition, including fees or referees and other disbursements, shall be paid by the parties respectively entitled to share in the lands divided in proportion to their respective interests in the property, and may be included and specified in the judgment. In that case they are a lien on the several shares, and the judgment may be enforced by execution against the parties separately. When, however, a litigation arises between some of the parties only, the court may require the expenses of the litigation to be paid by any or all of the parties to the litigation.
Article 07. RECOVERY OF POSSESSION
The guardian who may be entitled to the custody and management of the estate of an insane person or other person adjudged incapable of conducting one's own affairs whose interest in real property has been sold may receive in behalf of that person that person's share of the proceeds of the real property on executing an undertaking, with sufficient sureties and approved by the judge of the court, that the guardian will faithfully discharge the trust reposed in the guardian and will render a true and just account to the person entitled or to the legal representatives of that person.
(a) To accept an offer of a construction professional to repair a defect under AS 09.45.886 (1), a claimant shall serve the construction professional with a written notice of acceptance within a reasonable period of time, not to exceed 30 days, after receiving the offer.
(b) A claimant who accepts an offer under (a) of this section shall provide the construction professional and its contractors or other agents reasonable access to the claimant's dwelling during normal working hours to perform the repairs by the time stated in the offer.
If, before a judgment is given, the amount then due, with the costs of action, is brought into court and paid to the clerk, the action shall be dismissed, and, if the same be done after judgment and before sale, the effect of the judgment as to the amount then due and paid shall be terminated and the execution, if any have issued, be recalled by the clerk. When an installment not due is adjudged to be paid, the court shall determine and specify in the judgment what sum shall be received in satisfaction thereof, which sum may be equal to the installment or otherwise, according to the present value thereof.
Article 05. NUISANCES
When an action is commenced to foreclose a lien by which a debt is secured, which debt is payable in installments either of interest or principal, and any of the installments is not then due, the court shall adjudge a foreclosure of the lien, and may also adjudge a sale of the property for the satisfaction of the whole of the debt or so much of it as may be necessary to satisfy the installment then due, with costs of action. In the latter case the judgment of foreclosure as to the remainder of the property may be enforced by an order of sale, in whole or in part, whenever default is made in the payment of the installments not then due.
An entity that is a permissible plaintiff under AS 09.45.805 , may, in its discretion, bring a separate action under AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 with respect to each separate slide area located within its boundaries and its decision regarding the desirability of the separate action, and regarding the area to be dealt with in each action is final.
The judgment in an action to recover the possession of real property is conclusive as to the estate in the property and the right to the possession so far as it is determined upon the party against whom it is given and against all persons claiming from, through, or under that party after the commencement of the action. However, when service of the summons is by publication and judgment is given for failure of a party to answer, that party or a successor in interest is at any time within two years from the entry of the judgment, upon application to the court, entitled to an order vacating the judgment and granting that party or a successor a new trial upon the payment of the costs of the action.
If a claimant fails to allow a construction professional to make a reasonable inspection requested by the construction professional under AS 09.45.882 (b)(1), or fails to provide a good faith written response to a construction professional's offer under AS 09.45.882 (b)(2) or 09.45.886(1) or (2), the failure establishes a rebuttable presumption that the claimant's damages could have been mitigated.
In an action affecting the title to or the right of possession of real property, the plaintiff at the time of filing the complaint, or afterwards, and the defendant, when affirmative relief is claimed, at the time of filing the answer, or afterwards, may record in the office of the recorder of the recording district in which the property is situated a notice of the pendency of the action, containing the names of the parties, and the object of the action or defense, and a description of the property affected in that district. From the time of recording the notice, a purchaser, holder of a contract or option to purchase, or encumbrancer of the property affected has constructive notice of the pendency of the action and of its pendency against parties designated by their real names.
(a) The proportion of the proceeds of the sale to be invested under AS 09.45.470 shall be determined as follows:
(1) [Repealed, Sec. 1 ch 89 SLA 1984].
(2) if an estate for life or years be included in the order of sale, its proportion shall be the whole proceeds of the sale of the property, or of the sale of the undivided share in which that estate may be.
(b) In all cases, the proportion of the expenses of the proceeding shall be deducted from the proceeds of the sale.
(a) A conveyance of land after April 7, 1958, that, at the time the conveyance was made, adjoined a highway reservation listed in section 1 of Public Land Order 1613 of the Secretary of the Interior (April 7, 1958), is presumed to have conveyed land up to the center-line of the highway subject to any highway reservation created by Public Land Order 601 and any highway easement created by Public Land Order 1613.
(b) The burden of proof in litigation involving land adjoining a highway reservation created by Public Land Order 601 or a highway easement created by Public Land Order 1613 is on the person who claims that the conveyance did not convey an interest in land up to the center-line of the highway.
When property is recovered from a defendant who, in good faith, holds the property under color of title adversely to the claim of the plaintiff, the value of any permanent improvements that the defendant or those under whom the defendant claims have made to the property shall be allowed as a setoff against damages allowed for the withholding of the property. The plaintiff may recover damages for withholding the property for a term of six years before the commencement of the action and for the period from the commencement to the verdict, both excluding the use of permanent improvements made by the defendant.
In an action under AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160 against a tenant or person in possession of premises for which an order of abatement has been entered under AS 09.50.210 (a), a certified copy of the order of abatement is prima facie evidence of unlawful holding of the premises by force by a person who remains on the premises.
In any action brought to determine an adverse claim, estate, lien, or interest in real property or to quiet title to real property, the plaintiff may include as a defendant in the action and insert in the title of the action, in addition to the names of the persons or parties that appear of record to have, and other persons or parties who are known to have some title, claim, estate, lien, or interest in the lands in controversy, the following: 'Also all other persons or parties unknown claiming a right, title, estate, lien, or interest in the real estate described in the complaint in this action.' Service of summons may be had upon all unknown persons or parties defendant by publication as provided by law in cases of nonresident defendants.
If the construction professional disputes the claim in the notice under AS 09.45.882 (b)(3) or does not respond to the claimant's notice of claim within the time required by AS 09.45.882 (a), the claimant may bring an action against the construction professional for the claim described in the notice of the claim made under AS 09.45.881 without further notice.
A nonprofit housing corporation may designate an officer or employee of the corporation who is not an attorney to commence and maintain an action under AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160 on behalf of the corporation against a tenant or person in possession. When, under this section, a nonprofit corporation appears by an officer or employee of the corporation who is not an attorney, the written proceedings shall be in the name of the person representing the corporation and that person is the sole representative of the corporation as between the corporation and the adverse party.
If a nonconsensual common law lien is recorded or filed against the property of a public servant based upon the performance or nonperformance of the public servant's duties or having no stated basis and the nonconsensual common law lien was not accompanied by a specific order from a court of competent jurisdiction recognized under state or federal law authorizing the filing of the lien and recorded or filed with the lien, an attorney representing the public servant
(1) may sign, submit for recording or filing, and record or file a notice of invalid lien; and
(2) shall mail a copy of the notice of invalid lien submitted for recording or filing under (1) of this section to the person who recorded or filed the lien at the person's last known address.
A court action for a defect that is discovered after a claimant has provided a construction professional with a notice of claim required in AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 may not be commenced until the claimant has complied with the provisions of AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899.
(a) A person who offers a claim of nonconsensual common law lien for recording or filing that is not accompanied by a specific order from a court of competent jurisdiction recognized under state or federal law authorizing the recording or filing of the lien is liable to the owner of the property affected by the lien for actual and punitive damages, as well as costs and actual reasonable attorney fees.
(b) A grantee or other person purportedly benefited by a claim of nonconsensual common law lien that has been recorded or filed who refuses to release the lien upon request of the owner of the property affected by the lien is liable to the owner for actual and punitive damages, as well as costs and actual reasonable attorney fees.
(a) If the claimant rejects an offer made by the construction professional under AS 09.45.886 (1) or (2), the claimant shall serve written notice of the claimant's rejection on the construction professional that includes the basis for the claimant's rejection of the construction professional's offer.
(b) After service of the notice under (a) of this section, the claimant may bring an action against the construction professional for the claim described in the notice of claim made under AS 09.45.881 without further notice.
(a) In an action brought on a claim against a construction professional, the claimant shall, at least 90 days before filing the action, serve written notice of the claim on the construction professional.
(b) The notice of the claim in (a) of this section must state that the claimant asserts a claim against the construction professional for a defect in the design, construction, or remodeling of a dwelling and must describe the claim in reasonable detail sufficient to determine the general nature of the alleged defect and the results of the defect if known.
(c) At the request of the construction professional, the claimant shall provide to the construction professional any evidence that the claimant possesses that depicts the nature and cause of the defect and the nature and extent of the repairs necessary to repair the defect, including expert reports, photographs, and videotapes.
(a) After the filing of the report, a party entitled to a share of the proceeds may move the court to confirm or set aside the sale or sales reported. If the sale is set aside, the court may order a new sale. If the sale is confirmed, the court shall enter an order directing conveyances to be executed and securities to be taken under the sale.
(b) The order confirming the sale discharges the property of the estate or interest of every person mentioned in AS 09.45.310 and of tenants for life or years of the property sold, and is binding and conclusive on all those persons in the same manner as a judgment of partition. The order is conclusive evidence as to the regularity of the proceedings relating to the sale.
Upon hearing and confirmation of the report, the court shall give judgment that the partition be effectual forever, which judgment is binding and conclusive on
(1) all parties named as parties to the action, and their legal representatives, who have at the time an interest in the property divided or a part of it as owners in fee or as tenants for life or for years or as entitled to the reversion, remainder, or inheritance of the property or a part of it, after the termination of a particular estate, and who by any contingency may be entitled to a beneficial interest in the property or who have an interest in an undivided share of it as tenants for years or for life;
(2) persons interested in the property, who may be unknown, to whom notice was given of the action for partition by publication;
(3) other persons claiming from the parties or persons or either of them.
Within 14 days after completion of an inspection made under AS 09.45.885, the construction professional shall serve on the claimant a written
(1) offer to repair the defect without charge to the claimant; the offer must include a report of the scope of the inspection, the findings and results of the inspection, a description of any repairs necessary to repair the defect, and a schedule for the completion of the repairs;
(2) offer to compromise and settle the claim by a payment of money under AS 09.45.882 (b)(2); or
(3) statement that the construction professional will not repair the defect.
The judgment shall
(1) determine the land boundaries of each parcel of land located within the entire area of real property sought to be affected by the action, whether owned publicly or privately after judicial equitable allocation of lands voluntarily vacated by a municipality under AS 09.45.845;
(2) determine the person or persons having estates, rights, titles, interests, and claims in and to each parcel, whether legal or equitable, present or future, vested or contingent, or whether they consist of mortgages or liens of any description;
(3) approve and direct the proper filing of a new plat map covering the entire area of real property sought to be affected by the action, as a substitute for the plat maps previously filed, but rendered inaccurate by the act of God consisting of an earthslide.
In an action to recover the possession of real property as provided in AS 09.45.630 , notice to quit, when necessary, may be given as prescribed in AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160, and nothing in AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160 shall be construed so as to prevent such an action being maintained for the recovery of the possession.
Article 03. ACTIONS RELATING TO NONCONSENSUAL COMMON LAW LIENS
If the construction professional does not respond within the time required by AS 09.45.886 , does not repair the defect to the satisfaction of the claimant within the time agreed under AS 09.45.886(1), does not provide an offer under AS 09.45.886 (2), or serves a statement under AS 09.45.886 (3), the claimant may bring an action against the construction professional for the claim described in the notice of claim without further notice.
(a) Within 21 days after service of the notice under AS 09.45.881 , the construction professional shall serve a written response on the claimant.
(b) The written response under (a) of this section must state that the construction professional
(1) offers to inspect the dwelling that is the subject of the claim within a specified time to determine if the construction professional will offer to repair the defect, will compromise and settle the claim by payment of money, or will dispute the claim;
(2) offers to compromise and settle the claim by a payment of money without inspection; or
(3) disputes the claim and will not repair the alleged defect or compromise and settle the claim by a payment of money.
All the unknown heirs of deceased persons and all the unknown persons or parties served by publication as provided in AS 09.45.920 have the same rights as are provided by law in the case of all other defendants upon whom service is made by publication, and the action shall proceed against the unknown heirs or unknown persons or parties in the same manner as against defendants who are named and upon whom service is made by publication, and with the same effect. The unknown heirs or unknown persons or parties who have or claim an interest, right, estate, or lien in the said real property in controversy at the time of the commencement of the action and who are served as aforesaid shall be bound and concluded by the judgment or decree in the action as effectually as if the action was brought against the defendant by name and constructive service of summons obtained.
Upon the completion of the service, publication and posting of the summons, as may be required by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 and the court rules of civil procedure, the court has complete jurisdiction over the parties plaintiff or plaintiffs and the entire real property described in the complaint as intended to be affected by the action and over the person of everyone having or claiming an estate, right, title, or interest in or to, or lien upon, all or any part of the property and shall be considered to have obtained the possession and control of the property for the purposes of the action with complete jurisdiction to render the judgment provided for in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880.
A person who without lawful authority cuts down, girdles, or otherwise injures or removes a tree, timber, or a shrub on (1) the land of another person or on the street or highway in front of a person's house, or (2) a village or municipal lot, or cultivated grounds, or the commons or public land of a village or municipality, or (3) the street or highway in front of land described in (2) of this section, is liable to the owner of that land, or to the village or municipality for treble the amount of damages that may be assessed in a civil action. However, if the trespass was unintentional or involuntary, or the defendant had probable cause to believe that the land on which the trespass was committed was the defendant's own or that of the person in whose service or by whose direction the act was done, or where the timber was taken from unenclosed woodland for the purpose of repairing a public highway or bridge on or adjoining the land, only actual damages may be recovered.
The vacating of streets in whole or in part by the voluntary action of a municipality, for the purpose of making it possible for the court to mitigate the hardships suffered by individuals because of the change in land boundaries caused by the act of God, consisting of an earthslide, can be accomplished by the offer of the municipality expressed in the complaint followed by the court's approval of it in the action authorized in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880, without other formalities. This provision is a special emergency substitute for the provisions contained in AS 29.40.120 - 29.40.160.
(a) If the claimant rejects the inspection offer under AS 09.45.882(b)(1) or the settlement offer under AS 09.45.882 (b)(2), the claimant shall serve written notice of the claimant's rejection on the construction professional.
(b) The notice under (a) of this section must include the basis for the claimant's rejection of the construction professional's offer.
(c) After service of the rejection notice required by (a) of this section, the claimant may bring an action against the construction professional for the claim described in the notice of claim made under AS 09.45.881 without further notice.
Notice to quit served upon the tenant or person in possession must
(A) the nature of the breach or violation of the lease or rental agreement or other reason for termination of the tenancy of the tenant or person in possession;
(B) in circumstances in which the breach or violation described in (A) of this paragraph may be corrected by the tenant or person in possession to avoid the termination of the tenancy, the nature of the remedial action to be taken, and the date and time by which the corrective actions must be completed in order to avoid termination of the tenancy;
(C) the date and time when the tenancy of the tenant or person in possession under the lease or rental agreement will terminate;
(2) direct the tenant or person in possession to quit the premises not later than the date and time of the termination of the tenancy; and
(3) give notice to the tenant or person in possession that, if the tenancy terminates and the tenant or person in possession continues to occupy the premises, the landlord may commence a civil action to remove the tenant or person and recover possession.
(a) An answer to the complaint must be served within 90 days after the first publication of the notice, or such further time not exceeding 30 days, as the court for good cause may grant.
(b) An answer must
(1) specifically set out the particulars in which the claimant's estate, right, title, or interest in or to, or lien upon all or any part of the property is different from, or greater than, the interest of the claimant as it is described in the complaint;
(2) be confined to rights based on events occurring at the time of, or since the time of the act of God, consisting of the earthslide.
(c) To whatever extent, if at all, the answering party has rights against anyone whatsoever, based upon facts or events that occurred before the earthslide, the claims shall remain unaffected by the action brought under AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 and shall be assertable subsequent to the conclusion of the action at any time and in any manner permitted by law, notwithstanding the judgment granted in this action, recognizing however the finality of this judgment as to the consequences, with respect to land boundaries, of the earthslide.
If the boundaries of land, owned either by public or by private persons have been moved by an act of God, consisting of an earthslide, so that they are in a location different from that at which, by solar survey, they were located before the earthslide, an action in rem to recognize the boundaries as they presently exist and to quiet title within the boundaries in the persons judicially found entitled to title under AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880, is authorized, maintainable by the persons and with the procedures in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 for the handling of the emergencies dealt with in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880.
The complaint must substantially include
(1) a statement of the facts making the provisions in AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 applicable;
(2) a description of the entire real property sought to be affected by the action;
(3) a specification of the estate, title, and interest owned, and in the actual possession of the plaintiff or plaintiffs in described parts of the entire real property sought to be affected by the action;
(4) a specification of the estate, title, and interest, so far as they are known to the plaintiffs or either of them, and so far as they are capable of being discovered by reasonably diligent search by the plaintiff or plaintiffs, in each separate part of the entire real property sought to be affected by the action;
(5) a specification of the street areas offered by the plaintiff, or plaintiffs, to be vacated in whole or in part for judicial equitable allocation to landowners for the mitigation of the losses inflicted upon the landowners by the act of God consisting of the earthslide;
(6) a proposed replatting of the entire real property sought to be affected by the action, embodying the land boundaries as fixed by the act of God, except as these have been liberalized by judicially directed use of the vacated lands.
(a) A person whose real or personal property is subject to a claim of nonconsensual common law lien that has been recorded or filed may submit to a court of competent jurisdiction a request that the court order the release of the claim of the nonconsensual common law lien. The request must state the grounds upon which relief is sought and must be supported by the affidavit of the person making the request or that person's attorney setting out a concise statement of the facts upon which the request is based.
(b) If facts alleging the need for an expedited decision are averred, the request may ask the court to order the person claiming the nonconsensual common law lien to appear at a hearing within 20 days of the service of the request and order on the lien claimant. The order may be granted ex parte and shall state that, if the lien claimant fails to appear at the time and place specified, the claim of nonconsensual common law lien shall be released, and the lien claimant shall be ordered to pay the costs and actual reasonable attorney fees incurred by the party making the request.
(c) If the court determines that the claim of nonconsensual common law lien is invalid, the court shall issue an order releasing the claim of lien and awarding costs and actual reasonable attorney fees to the party making the request. If the court determines that the claim of nonconsensual common law lien is valid, the court shall issue an order stating the claim of the lien is valid and shall award costs and actual reasonable attorney fees to the lien claimant.
(a) If a claimant unreasonably rejects an offer made under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 or does not give the construction professional a reasonable opportunity to repair the defect under an accepted offer of settlement, the claimant may not recover an amount that exceeds
(1) the reasonable cost of the repairs offered under AS 09.45.886 (1) that are necessary to cure the defect and that are the responsibility of the construction professional; or
(2) the amount of a reasonable settlement offer of money that was made under AS 09.45.886 (2).
(b) If a claimant unreasonably rejects a construction professional's offer made under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 or does not give the construction professional a reasonable opportunity to repair the defect under an accepted offer of settlement, the court may deny the claimant an award of attorney fees and costs and may award attorney fees and costs to the construction professional.
(a) Except where service of written notice is made under AS 09.45.090(a)(1) or (b)(1), or except when notice to quit is not required by AS 09.45.090 (a)(3) or (b)(3), a person entitled to the premises who seeks to recover possession of the premises may not commence and maintain an action to recover possession of premises under AS 09.45.060 - 09.45.160 unless the person first gives a notice to quit to the person in possession.
(b) To recover possession of premises after a tenant or person in possession has failed or refused to pay rent due, service of the written notice required by AS 34.03.220 (b) or of a demand in writing for possession of the premises
(1) constitutes notice to quit, and service of a separate notice to quit is not required; and
(2) satisfies the requirements of (c) of this section and AS 34.03.310(c).
(c) A notice to quit shall be in writing and shall be served upon the tenant or person in possession by being
(1) delivered to the tenant or person;
(2) left at the premises in case of absence from the premises; or
(3) sent by registered or certified mail.
(a) An action authorized by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 may be commenced by
(1) a borough with the joinder of a city or cities included in the borough;
(2) a city not included within the boundaries of a borough, if the earthslide has affected land in the city, or land outside the city as to which outside land the city has statutory power to approve a land map;
(3) a school district that has statutory power to approve a land map; or
(4) any other entity or person, granted permission by the court to bring the action.
(b) In an action authorized by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 every person in actual and peaceable possession of, or having an estate or interest in any of the land affected by the action, whose possession or evidence of estate or interest is either recorded or known to the plaintiffs, must be designated in the complaint of the action, and given notice in the manner required by AS 09.45.800 - 09.45.880 and the court rules of civil procedure.
(c) All unknown parties, including owners, claimants, heirs, devisees, legatees, or assigns, may be described in the caption and complaint as 'all persons claiming any interest in or lien upon, the real property herein described or any part of it.'
(a) The uninterrupted adverse notorious possession of real property under color and claim of title for seven years or more, or the uninterrupted adverse notorious possession of real property for 10 years or more because of a good faith but mistaken belief that the real property lies within the boundaries of adjacent real property owned by the adverse claimant, is conclusively presumed to give title to the property except as against the state or the United States. For the purpose of this section, land that is in the trust established by the Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act of 1956, P.L. 84-830, 70 Stat. 709, is land owned by the state.
(b) Except for an easement created by Public Land Order 1613, adverse possession will lie against property that is held by a person who holds equitable title from the United States under paragraphs 7 and 8 of Public Land Order 1613 of the Secretary of the Interior (April 7, 1958).
(c) Notwithstanding AS 09.10.030 , the uninterrupted adverse notorious use of real property by a public utility for utility purposes for a period of 10 years or more vests in that utility an easement in that property for that purpose.
(d) Notwithstanding AS 09.10.030 , the uninterrupted adverse notorious use, including construction, management, operation, or maintenance, of private land for public transportation or public access purposes, including highways, streets, roads, or trails, by the public, the state, or a political subdivision of the state, for a period of 10 years or more, vests an appropriate interest in that land in the state or a political subdivision of the state. This subsection does not limit or expand the rights of a state or political subdivision under adverse possession or prescription as the law existed on July 17, 2003.
Article 02. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER
(a) Except as provided in (c) of this section, in an action covered under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899, a claimant may recover only the following damages caused by a defect:
(1) the reasonable cost of repairs necessary to cure a defect, or actual damages that result from the construction defect, including reasonable and necessary engineering or consulting fees required to evaluate and cure the defect, that the construction professional is responsible for repairing;
(2) the reasonable expenses of temporary housing reasonably necessary during the repair period;
(3) the reduction in market value, if any, to the extent that the reduction is due to the defect; and
(4) reasonable and necessary attorney fees and costs.
(b) In an action under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899, a court shall deduct from the compensation awarded to a claimant any compensation paid to the claimant under a homeowner's warranty contract or a homeowner's insurance policy as compensation for the defects that are the subject of the action. The amount of this deduction does not include any compensation paid by the construction professional to the claimant to satisfy the claim, any compensation paid under an insurance policy issued to the construction professional to satisfy the claim, or any amount the claimant is required to repay under the terms of the homeowner's warranty contract or homeowner's insurance policy.
(c) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not apply if the defect was caused by gross negligence or reckless or intentional misconduct by the construction professional.
(1) 'action' means a civil action or an arbitration proceeding for damages or indemnification;
(2) 'claim' means a claim against a construction professional concerning a defect in the design, construction, or remodel of a dwelling;
(3) 'claimant' means a person who owns or is purchasing a dwelling and who asserts a claim;
(4) 'construction professional' means a registered contractor, architect, or engineer who is engaged in the business of designing, constructing, or remodeling a dwelling; in this paragraph, 'contractor' has the meaning given in AS 08.18.171 ;
(5) 'dwelling' means a single-family house, a duplex, or a multi-family housing unit, and the mechanical and other systems, the other components, and all improvements that are part of the house, duplex, or housing unit when the dwelling is constructed or remodeled; for purposes of this paragraph, 'multi-family housing unit' means
(A) an individual housing unit in a multi-family housing facility; and
(B) the interest of the owner of an individual housing unit in the common areas and improvements of a multi-family housing facility;
(6) 'multi-family housing facility' means a residential horizontal property regime organized under AS 34.07, a residential condominium organized under AS 34.08, and a residential cooperative organized under AS 10.15;
(7) 'remodel' means a change to a dwelling if the change has a value that is more than 25 percent of the value of the structure being changed;
(8) 'serve' means to deliver by personal service or by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the last known address of the addressee.
Article 12. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
(a) In order to take advantage of any rights of a construction professional under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899, when a construction professional enters into a contract with another person to design, construct, or remodel a dwelling, the construction professional shall give the person a notice of the construction professional's right to offer to cure a defect before the person may file an action in court against the construction professional.
(b) The notice required by (a) of this section must be included on a separate page attached to the contract and must contain a title at the top of the page that reads 'Notice of Potential Claims Must Be Provided within One Year.' This form shall be signed by the purchaser or purchaser's authorized representative. The signature of either spouse to a design, construction, or remodeling contract shall be considered to be the authorization of both spouses.
(c) The notice required by (a) of this section must be conspicuous and must be in substantially the following form:
ALASKA LAW AT AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 CONTAINS IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS THAT YOU MUST FOLLOW BEFORE YOU MAY FILE A COURT ACTION FOR DEFECTIVE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OR REMODELING AGAINST THE DESIGNER, BUILDER, OR REMODELER OF YOUR HOME. WITHIN ONE YEAR OF THE DISCOVERY OF A DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OR REMODELING DEFECT, BEFORE YOU FILE A COURT ACTION, YOU MUST DELIVER TO THE DESIGNER, BUILDER, OR REMODELER A WRITTEN NOTICE OF ANY DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OR REMODELING CONDITIONS YOU ALLEGE ARE DEFECTIVE IN ORDER TO PROVIDE YOUR DESIGNER, BUILDER, OR REMODELER WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE AN OFFER TO REPAIR OR PAY FOR THE DEFECTS. YOU ARE NOT OBLIGATED TO ACCEPT ANY OFFER MADE BY THE DESIGNER, BUILDER, OR REMODELER. THERE ARE STRICT DEADLINES AND PROCEDURES UNDER STATE LAW, AND FAILURE TO FOLLOW THEM MAY AFFECT YOUR RIGHT TO FILE A COURT ACTION. ALASKA LAW AT AS 09.45.895 CONTAINS LIMITATIONS TO THE AMOUNT OF DAMAGES THAT MAY BE RECOVERED IN A COURT ACTION FOR DEFECTIVE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OR REMODELING.
(1) 'filed' means the acceptance of a document by a department or person having responsibility for the receipt and filing of documents that may be filed and that are presented for filing in the place of filing designated by law, whether or not under applicable law the department or person is directed to file the document;
(2) 'nonconsensual common law lien' means a lien on real or personal property that
(A) is not provided for by a specific state or federal statute;
(B) does not depend on the consent of the owner of the property affected for its existence; and
(C) is not an equitable, constructive, or other lien imposed by a court recognized under state or federal law;
(3) 'public servant' means each of the following, whether compensated or not:
(A) an officer or employee of the state, a municipality or other political subdivision of the state, or a governmental instrumentality of the state;
(B) a person who serves as a member of a board or commission created by statute or by legislative, judicial, or administrative action by the state, a municipality or other political subdivision of the state, or a governmental instrumentality;
(C) an officer or employee of a federal agency, a member of the military or naval forces of the United States, a member of the National Guard while engaged in training or duty, or a person acting on behalf of a federal agency in an official capacity, temporarily or permanently in the service of the United States, whether with or without compensation; or
(D) a person nominated, elected, appointed, employed, or designated to act in a capacity defined in (A) - (C) of this paragraph, but who does not occupy the position;
(4) 'record' means the acceptance of a document by the recorder that the recorder has determined is recordable under AS 40.17 and that is presented for recording in the place of recording designated for the recording district where affected property is located whether or not the place of recording is in that district and whether or not under applicable law the recorder is directed to record the document;
(5) 'recorder' means the commissioner of natural resources or the person designated by the commissioner of natural resources to perform the duties set out in AS 40.17.
Article 04. FORECLOSURE OF LIENS
(a) An agricultural facility or an agricultural operation at an agricultural facility is not and does not become a private nuisance as a result of a changed condition that exists in the area of the agricultural facility if the agricultural facility was not a nuisance at the time the agricultural facility began agricultural operations. For purposes of this subsection, the time an agricultural facility began agricultural operations refers to the date on which any type of agricultural operation began on that site regardless of any subsequent expansion of the agricultural facility or adoption of new technology. An agricultural facility or an agricultural operation at an agricultural facility is not a private nuisance if the governing body of the local soil and water conservation district advises the commissioner in writing that the facility or operation is consistent with a soil conservation plan developed and implemented in cooperation with the district.
(b) The provisions of (a) of this section do not apply to
(1) liability resulting from improper, illegal, or negligent conduct of agricultural operations; or
(2) flooding caused by the agricultural operation.
(c) The provisions of (a) of this section supersede a municipal ordinance, resolution, or regulation to the contrary.
(d) In this section,
(1) 'agricultural facility' means any land, building, structure, pond, impoundment, appurtenance, machinery, or equipment that is used or is intended for use in the commercial production or processing of crops, livestock, or livestock products, or that is used in aquatic farming;
(2) 'agricultural operation' means
(A) any agricultural and farming activity such as
(i) the preparation, plowing, cultivation, conserving, and tillage of the soil;
(iii) the operation of greenhouses;
(iv) the production, cultivation, rotation, fertilization, growing, and harvesting of an agricultural, floricultural, apicultural, or horticultural crop or commodity;
(v) the breeding, hatching, raising, producing, feeding, keeping, slaughtering, or processing of livestock;
(vi) forestry or timber harvesting, manufacturing, or processing operations;
(vii) the application and storage of pesticides, herbicides, animal manure, treated sewage sludge or chemicals, compounds, or substances to crops, or in connection with the production of crops or livestock;
(viii) the manufacturing of feed for poultry or livestock;
(ix) aquatic farming;
(x) the operation of roadside markets; and
(B) any practice conducted on the agricultural facility as an incident to or in conjunction with activities described in (A) of this paragraph, including the application of existing, changed, or new technology, practices, processes, or procedures;
(3) 'livestock' means horses, cattle, sheep, bees, goats, swine, poultry, reindeer, elk, bison, musk oxen, and other animals kept for use or profit.
(a) A person may bring a civil action to enjoin or abate a private nuisance. Damages may be awarded in the action.
(b) A person may not maintain an action under this section based upon an air emission or water or solid waste discharge, other than the placement of nuclear waste, where the emission or discharge was expressly authorized by and is not in violation of a term or condition of
(1) a statute or regulation;
(2) a license, permit, or order that is
(A) issued after public hearing by the state or federal government; and
(B) subject to
(i) continuing compliance monitoring;
(ii) periodic review by the issuing agency;
(iii) renewal on a periodic basis; or
(iv) AS 46.40; or
(3) a court order or judgment.
(c) The provisions of (b) of this section do not apply to actions in which the air emission or water or solid waste discharge that is the subject of the action produces a result that was unknown or not reasonably foreseeable at the time of the authorization.
(d) The provisions of (b) of this section remain in effect only as long as both of the following are satisfied:
(1) AS 46.03.900 defines 'pollution' as including the contamination or altering of waters, land, or subsurface land of the state in a manner that creates a nuisance; and
(2) AS 46.14.990 defines 'emission' as the release of one or more air pollutants to the atmosphere.
(e) Notwithstanding other provisions of law, except AS 09.50.170 - 09.50.240 and AS 19.25.080 - 19.25.180, a person may not bring a civil action to enjoin or abate a private nuisance or to recover damages for a private nuisance unless the action is authorized by this section.
(f) A person who is shielded under (b) of this section from a nuisance action shall indemnify, defend, and hold the state harmless from a claim or court action for inverse condemnation, including damages, costs, and attorney fees, for which the state may become liable because of the air emission or wastewater or solid waste discharge for which the person is shielded by (b) of this section. The state shall immediately tender the defense of the inverse condemnation claim or court action to the person. The provisions of (b) of this section do not apply to shield the person, if the person fails to accept or refuses the tender of the defense. A person who prevails in the defense of the claim or court action for inverse condemnation described under this subsection shall be awarded full reasonable attorney fees and costs.
(a) For property to which the provisions of AS 34.03 (Uniform Residential Landlord and Tenant Act) apply, unlawful holding by force includes each of the following:
(1) when, for failure or refusal to pay rent due on the lease or agreement under which the tenant or person holds, and after service, under AS 09.45.100 (b), of the written notice required by AS 34.03.220(b) by the landlord for recovery of possession of the premises if the rent is not paid, the tenant or person in possession fails or refuses to vacate or pay the rent within seven days;
(A) after a violation of a condition or covenant set out in AS 34.03.120(a), other than a breach of AS 34.03.120 (a)(5) due to the deliberate infliction of substantial damage to the premises, or after a breach or violation of a condition or covenant in a lease or rental agreement and following service of written notice to quit, the tenant fails or refuses to remedy the breach or to deliver up the possession of the premises within the number of days provided for termination under AS 34.03.220 (a)(2);
(B) after a violation of AS 34.03.120 (a)(5) by deliberate infliction of substantial damage to the premises, following service of written notice to quit, the tenant fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises by the date set out in the written notice to quit under AS 34.03.220 (a)(1);
(C) after a violation of AS 34.03.220 (e) following discontinuance of a public utility service, following service of written notice to quit, the tenant fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises by the date set out in the written notice to quit under AS 34.03.220(e);
(D) the landlord requires the tenant to vacate the premises for a reason set out in AS 34.03.310 (c)(2) or (c)(4) - (7), following service of written notice to quit, the tenant fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises within the longer of 30 days or the period of notice for the landlord's recovery of possession of the premises set out in the rental agreement;
(E) in a mobile home park, there is to be a change in the use of land for which termination of tenancy is authorized by AS 34.03.225(a)(4), following service of written notice to quit, the mobile home dweller or tenant fails or refuses to vacate within the number of days provided for termination under AS 34.03.225 (a)(4);
(F) after termination of a periodic tenancy as prescribed by AS 34.03.290(a) or (b), following service of written notice to quit, the tenant remains in possession without the landlord's consent after expiration of the term of the rental agreement or after the date of its expiration;
(G) after the tenant has violated AS 34.03.120 (b) or the tenant has used the dwelling unit or allowed the dwelling unit to be used for an illegal purpose in violation of AS 34.03.310 (c)(3) other than a breach of AS 34.03.120 (b), following service of written notice to quit, the tenant fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises within five days; or
(H) following service of written notice to quit, a person in possession continues in possession of the premises without a valid rental agreement, as that term is defined in AS 34.03.360 , and without the consent of the landlord; or
(3) when, without a notice to quit, a tenant or person in possession continues in possession of the premises after the tenancy has been terminated by issuance of an order of abatement under AS 09.50.210 (a).
(b) For property to which the provisions of AS 34.03 (Uniform Residential Landlord and Tenant Act) do not apply, unlawful holding by force includes each of the following:
(1) when, for failure or refusal to pay rent due on the lease or agreement under which the tenant or person in possession holds, after service, under AS 09.45.100 (c), of demand made in writing by the landlord for the possession of the premises if the rent is not paid, the tenant or person in possession fails or refuses to vacate or pay the rent due within seven days;
(2) when, following service of a written notice to quit,
(A) after the tenant or person in possession has breached or violated a condition or covenant of the lease or rental agreement other than breach of a covenant or condition set out in (B) of this paragraph, the tenant or person in possession of a premises fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises within 10 days;
(B) after the tenant or person in possession has deliberately inflicted substantial damage to the premises, the tenant or person in possession of a premises fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises on the date required by the landlord; the date specified may not be less than 24 hours after demand for possession of the premises by the landlord;
(C) after the tenant or person in possession has violated AS 34.05.100(a) or has used the premises for or allowed the premises to be used for an illegal purpose, the tenant or person in possession fails or refuses to deliver up the possession of the premises within five days;
(D) for premises the lease or occupation of which is primarily for the purpose of farming or agriculture, after the tenant or person in possession has violated AS 34.05.025 , other than a violation that is a breach under (B) or (C) of this paragraph, the tenant fails or refuses to deliver up possession of the premises within 30 days;
(E) a tenancy based upon an estate at will terminates, and the tenant or person in possession continues in possession of the premises; or
(F) a person in possession continues in possession of the premises
(i) at the expiration of the time limited in the lease or agreement under which that person holds; or
(ii) without a written lease or agreement and without the consent of the landlord; or
(3) when, without a notice to quit, a tenant or person in possession continues in the possession of the premises after the tenancy has been terminated by issuance of an order of abatement under AS 09.50.210 (a).
(c) When a landlord who is required to provide written notice to a tenant or person in possession under (a) or (b) of this section, provides notice by mail, notwithstanding any other provision of law, three days must be added to the period set out in (a) or (b) of this section to determine the date on and after which the tenant or person in possession unlawfully holds by force.