Nothing contained in this chapter creates, in a condemnation proceeding brought under the power of eminent domain, an element of damages not in existence on January 2, 1971.
The purpose of this chapter is to establish a uniform policy for the fair and equitable treatment of persons displaced as a result of federally assisted programs in order that the displaced persons will not suffer disproportionate injuries as a result of programs designed for the benefit of the public as a whole.
A payment received by a displaced person under this chapter is not income for the purposes of the state or federal income tax, personal or corporate. The payments are not income or resources to a recipient of public assistance and the payments may not be deducted from the amount of aid to which the recipient would otherwise be entitled.
State agencies shall establish and provide the means for implementing a program providing fair and reasonable relocation and other payment for persons displaced as a result of federally assisted activities undertaken by state agencies, to carry out relocation assistance programs for persons displaced, and to provide payments to persons as a result of acquisition of real property for activities of state agencies.
If a federal aided program or project cannot proceed to actual construction because comparable replacement sale or rental housing is not available, and the state agency determines that housing cannot otherwise be made available, the agency may take, or may request the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation to take, action necessary or appropriate to provide the housing either by use of funds authorized for the project or by use of money available to the corporation.
In order to prevent unnecessary expenses and duplication of functions, and to promote uniform and effective administration of relocation assistance programs for displaced persons under this chapter, state agencies may enter into contracts with any individual, firm, association, or corporation for services in connection with relocation assistance programs, or may carry out its functions under this chapter through any federal or state governmental agency or instrumentality having an established organization for conducting relocation assistance programs.
State agencies are authorized to adopt regulations to implement this chapter. These regulations must include provisions relating to
(1) a moving expense allowance for displaced persons who move from a dwelling, determined according to a schedule;
(2) procedures for an aggrieved person to have a determination of eligibility or amount of payment reviewed by the state agency;
(3) eligibility of a displaced person for relocation assistance payment, the procedure for displaced persons to claim the payments, amount of the payments; and
(4) other regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this chapter.
The state agency, as soon as practicable after the date of payment of the purchase price or the date of deposit in court of funds to satisfy the award of compensation in a condemnation proceeding to acquire real property, whichever is the earlier, shall reimburse the owner, to the extent the department considers fair and reasonable, for expenses necessarily incurred for
(1) recording fees, transfer taxes, and similar expenses incidental to conveying the real property to the state agency;
(2) penalty costs for prepayment of a preexisting recorded mortgage entered into in good faith encumbering the real property, if the mortgage was a valid lien on the property for not less than 180 days before the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the property; and
(3) the pro rata portion of real property taxes paid that are allocable to a period subsequent to the date of vesting title in the state, or the effective date of possession of the real property by the state agency, whichever is the earlier.
In addition to amounts otherwise authorized by this chapter, the state agency shall make a payment to or for a displaced person displaced from a dwelling, who is not eligible to receive a payment under AS 34.60.050, if the dwelling was actually and lawfully occupied by the displaced person for not less than 90 days before the initiation of negotiations for acquisition of the dwelling. The payment must be either
(1) the amount necessary to enable the displaced person to lease or rent for a period not to exceed three years and six months, a decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling of standards adequate to accommodate the displaced person in areas not generally less desirable in regard to public utilities and public and commercial facilities, and reasonably accessible to the person's place of employment, but not to exceed $5,250; or
(2) the amount necessary to enable the displaced person to make a down payment, including incidental expenses described in AS 34.60.050(a)(3), on the purchase of a decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling of standards adequate to accommodate the displaced person in areas not generally less desirable in regard to public utilities and public and commercial facilities, but not to exceed $5,250.
(a) The state court having jurisdiction of a proceeding instituted by the state agency to acquire real property by condemnation shall award the owner of any right to, or title to, or interest in, the real property a sum that will in the opinion of the court reimburse the owner for reasonable costs, disbursements, and expenses, including reasonable attorney, appraisal, and engineering fees, actually incurred because of the condemnation proceedings, if
(1) the final judgment is that the state agency cannot acquire the real property by condemnation; or
(2) the proceeding is abandoned by the state agency.
(b) An award made under (a) of this section shall be paid by the state agency for whose benefit the condemnation proceedings were instituted.
(c) The court rendering a judgment for the plaintiff in a proceeding brought against a state agency, awarding compensation for the taking of property by the state agency, or the attorney for the state agency effecting a settlement of any such proceeding, shall determine and award or allow to the plaintiff, as a part of the judgment or settlement, a sum which will in the opinion of the court or the attorney for the state agency reimburse the plaintiff for reasonable costs, disbursements and expenses, including reasonable attorney, appraisal and engineering fees, actually incurred because of the proceeding.
(d) If an inconsistency occurs between the provisions of this section and the Alaska Rules of Civil Procedure, the provisions of the Rules of Civil Procedure govern.
In addition to the other programs authorized by this chapter, the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation may make loans in order to encourage and facilitate the construction or rehabilitation of housing to meet the needs of displaced persons. These loans are a part of the federally assisted project cost and may be made to nonprofit, limited dividend, or cooperative organizations, or to public bodies. The loans may be made only for necessary and reasonable expenses, before construction, for planning and obtaining federally insured mortgage financing for the rehabilitation or construction of housing for displaced persons. The loans may not exceed 80 percent of the reasonable costs expected to be incurred in planning, and in obtaining financing for housing for displaced persons. Reasonable costs include but are not limited to costs for preliminary surveys and analysis of market needs, preliminary architectural fees, site acquisition, application and mortgage commitment fees, and construction loan fees and discounts. Loans to an organization established for profit shall bear interest at a market rate established by the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation. All other loans shall be without interest. The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation shall require repayment of loans made under this section under terms and conditions that it may prescribe. Repayment shall be made upon completion of the project or sooner, and except in the case of a loan to an organization established for profit, the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation may cancel any part or all of a loan if the corporation determines that a permanent loan to finance the rehabilitation or construction of the housing cannot be obtained in an amount adequate for repayment of the loan.
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if a state agency acquires any interest in real property, the state agency must acquire at least an equal interest in all buildings, structures, or other improvements located upon the real property which the state agency requires to be removed from the real property or which the state agency determines will be adversely affected by the use to which the real property will be put.
(b) For the purpose of determining just compensation to be paid for a building, structure, or other improvement required to be acquired under (a) of this section, the building, structure, or other improvement is considered to be a part of the real property to be acquired notwithstanding the right or obligation of a tenant, as against the owner of any other interest in the real property, to remove the building, structure, or improvement at the expiration of the tenant's term, and the fair market value which the building, structure, or improvement contributes to the fair market value of the real property to be acquired, or the fair market value of the building, structure, or improvement for removal from the real property, whichever is the greater, shall be paid to the tenant.
(c) Payment for the buildings, structures, or improvements under this section may not result in duplication of payments otherwise authorized by law. A payment for buildings, structures, or improvements may not be made unless the owner of the land involved disclaims all interest in the improvements of the tenant. In consideration for any such payment, the tenant shall assign, transfer, and release to the state agency all right, title, and interest in and to the improvements. Nothing in this subsection and in (b) of this section deprives the tenant of any rights to reject payment and to obtain payment for the property interests in accordance with other laws of the state.
(a) In addition to payments otherwise authorized by this chapter, the state agency shall make an additional payment not to exceed $22,500, to a displaced person who is displaced from a dwelling actually owned and occupied by the person for not less than 180 days before the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the property. This additional payment must include the following elements:
(1) the amount, if any, that, when added to the acquisition cost of the dwelling acquired by the state agency, equals the reasonable cost of a comparable replacement dwelling that is a decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling adequate to accommodate the displaced person, is reasonably accessible to public services and places of employment, and is available on the private market; all determinations required to carry out this paragraph shall be made in accordance with standards established by the state agency making the additional payment;
(2) the amount, if any, that will compensate the displaced person for any increased interest costs that the displaced person is required to pay for financing the acquisition of the comparable replacement dwelling; this amount may be paid only if the dwelling acquired by the state agency was encumbered by a bona fide mortgage that was a valid lien on the dwelling for not less than 180 days before the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the dwelling; and
(3) reasonable expenses incurred by the displaced person for evidence of title, recording fees, and other closing costs incident to the purchase of the replacement dwelling, but not including prepaid expenses.
(b) The additional payment authorized by (a) of this section may be made only to a displaced person who purchases and occupies a replacement dwelling that is decent, safe, and sanitary not later than the end of the one year period beginning on the date on which the person receives from the state agency final payment of all costs of the acquired dwelling, or the date on which the person moves from the acquired dwelling, whichever is the later date.
In this chapter,
(1) 'business' means any lawful activity, excepting a farm operation, conducted primarily
(A) for the purchase, sale, lease, and rental of personal and real property, and manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, or other personal property;
(B) for the sale of services to the public;
(C) by a nonprofit organization; or
(D) for assisting, solely for the purpose of AS 34.60.040 (a), in the purchase, sale, resale, manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, personal property, or services by the erection and maintenance of an outdoor advertising display, whether or not the display is located on the premises on which any of the above activities are conducted;
(2) 'displaced person' means any person who moves from real property, or moves personal property from real property, as a result of the acquisition of the real property, in whole or in part, or as a result of the written order of the state agency to vacate real property, for a program or project undertaken by the state agency, and solely for the purpose of AS 34.60.040 (a) and 34.60.090, as a result of the acquisition of, or as a result of the written order of a state agency to vacate other real property on which the person conducts a business or farm operation for the program or project;
(3) 'farm operation' means any activity conducted solely or primarily for the production of one or more agricultural products or commodities, including timber, for sale or home use, and customarily producing these products or commodities in sufficient quantity to be capable of contributing materially to the operator's support;
(4) 'mortgage' means those classes of liens commonly given to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real property, under the law of the state in which the real property is located, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured by the property;
(5) 'person' means an individual, partnership, corporation, or association;
(6) 'state agency' means a department, agency, instrumentality, corporate authority of the state, or a political subdivision of the state, or a department, agency, instrumentality, or authority of two or more political subdivisions of the state participating in federally assisted programs.
(a) When the acquisition of real property for a program or project undertaken by a state agency for a federally assisted program or project undertaken by the state agency will result in the displacement of a person on or after January 2, 1971, the state agency shall provide a relocation assistance advisory program for displaced persons which offers the services described in (c) of this section. If the state agency determines that a person occupying property immediately adjacent to the real property acquired is caused substantial economic injury because of the acquisition, it may offer the occupant relocation advisory services under the program.
(b) State agencies administering programs which may be of assistance to displaced persons covered by this chapter shall cooperate to the maximum extent feasible with the state agency causing the displacement to assure that the displaced persons receive the maximum assistance available to them.
(c) Each relocation assistance advisory program required by (a) of this section must include measures, facilities, or services necessary or appropriate in order to
(1) determine the need, if any, of displaced persons, for relocation assistance;
(2) provide current and continuing information on availability, prices, and rentals, of comparable decent, safe, and sanitary sales and rental housing, and of comparable commercial properties and locations for displaced businesses;
(3) assure that, within a reasonable time before displacement, there will be available in areas not generally less desirable in regard to public utilities and public and commercial facilities and at rents or prices within the financial means of the families and individuals displaced decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings, as defined by the state agency, equal in number to the number of and available to the displaced persons who require the dwellings and reasonably accessible to their places of employment except that the state agency may prescribe by regulation situations in which these assurances may be waived;
(4) assist a person displaced from the person's business or farm operation in obtaining and becoming established in a suitable replacement location;
(5) supply information concerning federal and state housing programs, disaster loan programs, and other federal or state programs offering assistance to displaced persons; and
(6) provide other advisory services to displaced persons in order to minimize hardships in adjusting to relocation.
(d) The state agency shall coordinate relocation activities with project work, and other planned or proposed governmental actions in the community or nearby areas that may affect the carrying out of relocation assistance programs.
(a) When the acquisition of real property for a federally assisted program or project undertaken by a state agency will result in the displacement of a person, the state agency responsible for the program or project shall make payment to the displaced person, upon proper application as approved by the state agency, for
(1) actual reasonable expenses in moving a person, the person's family, business, farm operation, or other personal property;
(2) actual direct losses of tangible personal property as a result of moving or discontinuing a business or farm operation, but not to exceed an amount equal to the reasonable expenses that would have been required to relocate the property as determined by the state agency; and
(3) actual reasonable expenses in searching for a replacement business or farm.
(b) A displaced person eligible for payments under (a) of this section who is displaced from a dwelling and who elects to accept the payments authorized by this subsection in place of payments authorized by (a) of this section may receive a moving expense allowance, determined according to a schedule established by the state agency.
(c) A displaced person eligible for payments under (a) of this section who is displaced from a place of business or from a farm operation and who elects to accept the payment authorized by this subsection in place of the payment authorized by (a) of this section, may receive a fixed payment in an amount equal to the average annual net earnings of the business or farm operation, except that this payment shall not be less than $1,000 or more than $20,000. For purposes of this subsection, 'average annual net earnings' means one-half of the net earnings of the business or farm operation, before federal and state income taxes, during the two taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year in which the business or farm operation moves from the real property acquired for the project, or during any other period the state agency determines to be more equitable for establishing the earnings, and includes any compensation paid by the business or farm operation to the owner, spouse, or dependents during the applicable period. In the case of a business, a payment may not be made under this subsection unless the state agency is satisfied that the business
(1) cannot be relocated without a substantial loss of its existing patronage;
(2) is not a part of a commercial enterprise having at least one other establishment not being acquired by the state agency or by the United States, which is engaged in the same or similar business; and
(3) is not an enterprise whose sole business on the real property acquired is the rental of the real property to others.
(d) In addition to the moving expenses allowed under this section, a displaced farm or business may receive a payment, not to exceed $10,000, for the actual reasonable expenses necessary to reestablish the operation at a new site.
A state agency or other entity acquiring real property for any project or program in which federal or federal-aid funds are used shall to the greatest extent practicable comply with the following policies:
(1) Every reasonable effort shall be made to expeditiously acquire real property by negotiation.
(2) Real property shall be appraised before the initiation of negotiations, and the owner or a designated representative shall be given an opportunity to accompany the appraiser during the inspection of the property.
(3) Before the initiation of negotiations for real property, an amount shall be established that is reasonably believed to be just compensation for the real property and that amount shall be offered for the property. In no event may the amount be less than the approved appraisal of the fair market value of the property. A decrease or increase in the fair market value of real property before the date of valuation caused by the public improvement for which the property is acquired or by the likelihood that the property would be acquired for the improvement, other than that due to physical deterioration within the reasonable control of the owner, will be disregarded in determining the compensation for the property. The owner of the real property to be acquired shall be provided with a written statement of, and a summary of the basis for, the amount established as just compensation.
(4) An owner may not be required to surrender possession of real property before the state agency concerned pays the agreed purchase price or deposits with the court in accordance with applicable law, for the benefit of the owner, an amount not less than the approved appraisal of the fair market value of the property, or the amount of the award of compensation in the condemnation proceeding for the property.
(5) The construction or development of a public improvement shall be so scheduled that, to the greatest extent practicable, a person lawfully occupying real property is not required to move from a dwelling, assuming a replacement dwelling will be available, or to move the person's business or farm operation, without at least 90 days' written notice of the date by which the move is required.
(6) If an owner or tenant is permitted to occupy the real property acquired on a rental basis for a short term or for a period subject to termination by the state agency on short notice, the amount of rent required may not exceed the fair rental value of the property to a short-term occupier.
(7) In no event may the time of condemnation be advanced or negotiations or condemnation and the deposit of funds in court for the use of the owner be deferred, nor any other coercive action be taken in order to compel an agreement on the price to be paid for the property.
(8) If an interest in real property is to be acquired by exercise of the power of eminent domain, formal condemnation proceedings shall be instituted. The acquiring state agency may not intentionally make it necessary for an owner to institute legal proceedings to prove the fact of the taking of the real property.
(9) If the acquisition of only part of the property would leave its owner with an uneconomic remnant, an offer to acquire the entire property shall be made.